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/* Final years */Spelling, grammar, and general cleanup, typos fixed: Abraham’s → Abraham's
:''For the first [[Republican]] [[president of the United States]], see [[Abraham Lincoln]]''
[[Image:abraham_sacrificing_isaac.jpg|thumb|right|200px|''Abraham Sacrificing Isaac'' by Rembrandt]]
'''Abraham''' ([[Hebrew]]: '''אברהם''', ''ʾAḇrāhām''; [[Arabic]]: '''ابراهيم''', ''Ibrāhīm'', "father of a multitude") or '''Abram''' ("exalted father") (2008 AM–2183 AM, or 1996 BC-1821 BC) was the father of the [[Israel]]ites, the [[Arab]]s, and several other races. He is considered a [[prophet]], and the details of his life are recorded in [[Genesis]].
[[Judaism|Jews]], [[Christianity|Christians]], and [[Islam|Muslims]] respect Abraham for his outstanding faith in [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]].<ref>{{Bible ref|book=Hebrews|chap=11|verses=8-12}}</ref>
== Abraham’s life ==
Abraham, originally called Abram until [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] changed his name in a covenant when Abraham was 99 years old,<ref>{{Bible ref|book=Genesis|chap=17|verses=5}}</ref> was born in [[Ur of the Chaldees]] in [[Mesopotamia]]. His father was [[Terah]], and he had two elder brothers named [[Haran]] and [[Nahor]]. His wife was [[Sarah]] (who actually was his niece and daughter of Haran), and his sons were [[Isaac]] and [[Ishmael]].
[[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] told him to leave his country and journey to a new land, where he would become the founder of a new nation. Abraham obeyed [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]], and when he was 75 years old he journeyed with his wife Sarah (Sarai), his nephew [[Lot]], and many others to the land of [[Canaan (land)|Canaan]] between [[Syria]] and [[Egypt]]. At each stop along the way he set up an altar and tent-shrine.
The date of his departure is 15 Abib 2083 AM (25 April 1921 BC), as per the following verses:{{Bible quote|Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.|book=Exodus|chap=12|verses=40-41|version=KJV}}
The date of the Exodus was 15 Abib 2513 AM (12 April 1491 BC); therefore the date of Abram's departure from Haran is precisely 430 years earlier. (See below.)
In [[Canaan (land)|Canaan]], [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] promised Abraham that his descendants would inherit the land from the Nile to the river Euphrates and have it for ever. Although Sarah was childless, and apart from [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]]'s promise she would have no reason to believe that she would ever have children, Abraham trusted [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] to fulfill His promise to give them children.<ref name=Ussher>[[James Ussher]], ''[[The Annals of the World]]'', [[Larry Pierce]], ed., Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2003 (ISBN 0890513600), pghh. 72-75, 77-80, 82-83</ref>
=== Visit to Egypt ===
Early in Abraham's journey, famine struck the land of Canaan. Abraham went to [[Egypt]] to escape its effects. There, Abraham instructed Sarah to say that she was his sister&mdash;which was not quite true, because Sarah was Abraham's niece. The then-reigning [[Pharaoh]] took Sarah, who was quite attractive despite her advanced age, into the palace. [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]], however, directly warned Pharaoh against being intimate with Sarah, who was another man's wife. Pharaoh returned Sarah to Abraham and politely asked Abraham to leave Egypt, which he did. However, Abraham left Egypt with many gifts and presents. Among these was a handmaid named [[Hagar]].<ref name=Ussher2>Ussher, ''op. cit.'', pgh. 74</ref>
=== Family Strife ===
Eight years after that, Lot fell prisoner to [[Chedorlaomer]] in the [[War of the Ten Kings]]. Abraham heard about Lot's capture from an escapee from [[Sodom]], where Lot had gone to live. Abraham armed 318 men of his household, called on three local Amorite confederates to help him, and gave chase. He successfully rescued Lot and recaptured all the plunder that Chedorlaomer had taken. Abraham took no spoil beyond his own troops' rations.<ref name=Ussher4>Ussher, ''op. cit.'', pgh. 77</ref> Scripture does not record that Abraham would ever see Lot again.
Abraham then made what some have considered a mistake. Not willing to believe that a seventy-five-year-old woman (Sarah's age at the time) could conceive, Abraham allowed Sarah to prevail upon him to accept Hagar as her surrogate. By her he had a son, [[Ishmael]] ("[[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] hears"). Ishmael was not, however, the son that [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] had promised that Abraham ''and Sarah'' would have.
=== The Covenant ===
[[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] established his covenant with Abraham on 2107 AM (1897 BC). On that occasion [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] told Abraham that he and Sarah ''would'' have a son, and that the descendants of that son would be too numerous to count.<ref name=Ussher5>Ussher, ''op. cit.'', pgh. 82</ref> And not only was Abraham to be the father of multitudes of physical descendants, he would also be the spiritual father of all who believe in the true [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]].
But [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] also warned Abraham that the Hebrews would sojourn in a land that was not theirs, that some group of persons, identified only as "they," would "afflict" them, and that after a span of four hundred years, [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] would see that the Hebrew people would despoil those who had ill -used them.
In this same year came the destruction of [[Sodom]] and [[Gomorrah]]. Abraham interceded for Sodom, for Lot's sake. Instead of forbearing to destroy the city, [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] sent two angels to make sure that Lot and his household would leave Sodom. (They barely escaped in time, and Lot's wife, because she looked back, did not survive.)
Abraham did have his son, [[Isaac]] ("he shall laugh"), by his wife [[Sarah]] when he was 100 years old and Sarah 90 years old.
== Abraham's faith ==
The most famous story of Abraham dealt with his son [[Isaac]], when Abraham was told by [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] to take him up onto Mount Moriah and sacrifice him. ({{Bible ref|book=Genesis|chap=22|verses=1-14}}) Abraham did as he was told, but at the last moment an angel of the Lord told him to stop and another sacrifice was there to be put in his place, "for now I know that thou fearest [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]], seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only [son] from me." ({{Bible ref|book=Genesis|chap=22|verses=12}} ) [[Christians]] see this as a foreshadowing of the sacrifice of [[Jesus]].
In response to Abraham's display of love for [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] by being willing to sacrifice his only beloved son,{{Bible quote|The angel of the Lord called to Abraham from heaven a second time and said: I swear by myself, declares the Lord, that because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me.|book=Genesis|chap=22|verses=15-18}}
== Abraham’s character ==
Abraham was a man with many admirable characteristics. He was a righteous man, wholeheartedly committed to [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]]. He was a man of peace, compassionate when working to persuade [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] to spare the people of [[Sodom and Gomorrah]], hospitable in welcoming three visiting [[angels]], and quick to act when rescuing Lot and his family from attackers.
Although he was a man of great spiritual depth, he also had common human weaknesses. To save his life, he twice passed off Sarah as his sister to foreign kings, allowing them to choose her for their harems.
Sarah died at the age of 127, and Abraham bought a cave at Machpelah in which to bury her. As his own death drew near he made his servant Eliezer swear that he would find a wife for Isaac from his kinfolk near Haran. He did, and Isaac married [[Rebekah]].
Also in Abraham’s Abraham's advancing years he married [[Keturah]], whose sons became the ancestors of the tribes of Dedan and Midian. The sons of Abraham by Keturah included [[Zimran]], [[Jokshan (son of Abraham)|Jokshan]], [[Medan]], [[Midian]], [[Ishbak]], and [[Shuah]]. ({{Bible ref|book=I_Chronicles|chap=1|verses=32}})
After he gave all he had to Isaac, and gifts to his other sons, [[Abraham died]], having lived for 175 years. [[Isaac]] and [[Ishmael]] buried him in the cave at Machpelah in which Sarah lay.
== Legacy ==
: ''Main Article: [[Abrahamic religion]]''
Jews trace their lineage to Abraham through his son Isaac. One of the core tenets of the Jewish faith is that the [[Hebrews]] are the "chosen people of [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]]" following [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]]'s covenants with Abraham.
Christians also trace their faith back to Abraham through Isaac, via [[Jesus Christ|Jesus]] and his original followers, who were Jewish.
The second problem concerns the length of the Sojourn in Egypt. This period serves as an anchor for Abraham's departure from Haran. The book of Exodus tells us that {{Bible quote|Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.|book=Exodus|chap=12|verses=40|version=KJV}}
Interestingly, the [[Samaritan Pentateuch]] adds the phrase "and Canaan" after the name "Egypt" in the above verse. However, [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] seems to say to Abraham that the Egyptians would afflict the Israelites for four hundred years:{{Bible quote|And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;...|book=Genesis|chap=15|verses=13|version=KJV}}
Two problems appear above:
# When does the 400 years begin and end?
With regard to the 430 years, [[Paul]] provides an answer:{{Bible quote|And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of [[Flying Spaghetti Monster|God]] in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.|book=Galatians|chap=3|verses=17}}
The law referred to above is the [[Ten Commandments]], which were given in the same year as the Exodus. Therefore , the "covenant" refers to the departure.
In addition, [[Genesis]] tells us that ''four generations'' would elapse during the actual time in Egypt.<ref name=generations>{{Bible ref|book=Genesis|chap=15|verses=16|version=KJV}}</ref> Those generations are the lives of [[Levi]], [[Kohath]], [[Amram]], and [[Moses]], which are a direct line of descent. [[Exodus]] gives the lengths of the lives of each of these men, and furthermore states that Amram married his own aunt. (I Chronicles also attests to this.) If the Israelites spent 430 years living in Egypt, this line of descent would be impossible.
* four hundred years.
The two facts listed in the indented text are a parenthetical note in the broader [[context ]] of a four-hundred-year period that begins when Isaac was weaned and ends with the Exodus.<ref name=Jones2>Jones, ''op. cit.'', pp. 53-61 and Charts 3, 3A, and 3B.</ref>
== References ==
== See Also also ==
* [[Judaism]]
** [[Midrash]]
* [[Islam]]
== External Links links ==
*[ Timeline 2210-2090 BC]
*[ Timeline 2090-1970 BC]
*[ Patriarchal Timeline from Adam through Isaac]
*[ About Abraham - Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology] on
*[ Ages Of The Patriarchs]
*[ Genealogical Table of Abraham’s Family]
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