Difference between pages "Thirteen Colonies" and "Jonathan Edwards"

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The '''thirteen colonies''' were the original colonies of the [[United States]]. They were: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. On July 4, 1776, they became states and formed a new nation, the '''United States of America.'''
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''For the former Senator from North Carolina, see [[John Edwards]]''
  
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'''Jonathan Edwards''' (1703 – 1758) was a [[Minister]] of a [[Congregationalism|Congregationalist]] church in [[Northampton]], [[Massachusetts]] during the [[Great Awakening]]. He is best known as the author of the classic "fire and brimstone" sermon ''Sinners in the hands of an angry God''. However, his most important contribution to the awakening was his book, ''A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising work of [[God]]'' ([[London]], 1737), which provided guidance to other [[clergy]] as to how to conduct a [[revival]].
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== '''New England Colonies''' ==
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|-
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! Colony !! Year Founded !! Founded By !! Chief Crops or Trade !! Government !! Religion
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| [[Massachusetts]] || 1620 || [[Pilgrims]], led by  [[William Bradford]] || Shipbuilding, fish, lumber || Governor appointed by king || established [[Puritan]] Church (after 1700 called Congregationalist);
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| [[Rhode Island]] || 1636 || [[Roger Williams]], for religious reasons left [[Massachusetts]] || Lumber, fish. || Elected by colonists. || Complete religious freedom for all- [[Anglican]] ([[Episcopalian]]), [[Baptist]], Quakers and other Protestants
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|-
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| [[Connecticut]] || 1636 || [[Thomas Hooker]], who led a group from [[Massachusetts]] who wanted less government || Shipbuilding, lumber, fish  || Elected by colonists || Congregationalist Church was established
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| [[New Hampshire]] || 1623 || Colonists who left [[Massachusetts]] for political and religious reasons || Molasses, fish || Governor appointed by king || Congregationalist
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|}
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He began his advanced education when he went to [[Yale University]] at age 13 and graduated as valedictorian at 17.  He was serving as the president of [[Princeton University]] when he received the [[smallpox]] [[inoculation]], having been assured it would be safe. However, it was very dangerous and killed him.
  
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His inspiring preaching helped start the Great Awakening, which became a huge religious revival that helped unite the [[colony|colonies]] prior to the [[American Revolution]]. Like most eighteenth century Congregationalists (who were derived from the the seventeenth century "Puritan" church), Edwards was a [[Calvinist]]; however, traditional Calvinist maintain that only the elect, who had been chosen before the creation of the world, could achieve salvation.<ref>http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/four.html</ref> By the time of the Great Awakening, most Calvinist clergy had altered their views that one could alter their eternal fate (which was the point of most of Edward's sermons.)
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== '''Middle Colonies''' ==
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! Colony !! Year Founded !! Founded By !! Chief Crops or Trade !! Government !! Religion
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| [[New York]] || 1626 || [[Dutch]]; [[English]] in 1664 || Shipbuilding and trade || Governor appointed by king || [[Dutch Reformed]], and other Protestants
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| [[New Jersey]] || 1664 || [[Swedish]] and [[Dutch]]; In 1664 [[Sir George Carteret]] and [[Lord John Berkeley]] were given the land by the English Duke of York || Oats, wheat, rye || Governor appointed by king || [[Dutch Reformed]], [[Quaker]], others
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| [[Pennsylvania]] || 1681 || [[William Penn]] as a safe place for [[Quakers]] || Trade and Shipbuilding || Proprietor selected the governor || [[Quaker]] Lutheran, and other Protestant
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| [[Delaware]] || 1682 || [[William Penn]] || Tobacco || Proprietor selected the governor || Protestant
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|}
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[[Aaron Burr]] was a grandson of Jonathan Edwards.
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== '''Southern Colonies''' ==
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! Colony !! Year Founded !! Founded By !! Chief Crops or Trade !! Government !! Religion
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| [[Virginia]] || 1607 || [[John Smith]], settlers from [[Virginia Company of London]] || Tobacco || Governor appointed by king || [[Anglican]] Church was established
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| [[Maryland]] || 1634 || [[Lord Baltimore]] as a safe place for [[Catholicism|Catholics]] || Tobacco || Proprietor selected by governor || Protestant and Catholic
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| [[North Carolina]] || 1654 || [[Virginia]] settlers || Tar from pine trees, tobacco, pitch, and rice || Governor appointed by king || Protestant
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| [[South Carolina]] || 1663 || [[English]] and other [[Europeans]] || Tar from pine trees, tobacco, pitch, and rice || Governor appointed by king || Protestant
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| [[Georgia]] || 1732 || [[James Oglethorpe]], brought [[English]] debtors to protect [[Georgia]] from the [[Spanish]] || Indigo, tobacco || Governor appointed by king || Protestant
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|}
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[[category:Colonial America]]
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==Quotes==
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<blockquote>"Of all of the kinds of knowledge that we can ever obtain, the knowledge of God, and the knowledge of ourselves, are the most important." -- Jonathan Edwards </blockquote>
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Edwards, Jonathan}}
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see [[First Great Awakening]]
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[[Category:Ministers]]
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==References==
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<references/>
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Frank Lambert, ''Inventing the “Great Awakening”'' (Princeton University Press, 1999)
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[[Category:Puritans]]
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[[Category:Revivals]]
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[[Category:Colonial America]]

Revision as of 14:45, 28 January 2009

For the former Senator from North Carolina, see John Edwards

Jonathan Edwards (1703 – 1758) was a Minister of a Congregationalist church in Northampton, Massachusetts during the Great Awakening. He is best known as the author of the classic "fire and brimstone" sermon Sinners in the hands of an angry God. However, his most important contribution to the awakening was his book, A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising work of God (London, 1737), which provided guidance to other clergy as to how to conduct a revival.

He began his advanced education when he went to Yale University at age 13 and graduated as valedictorian at 17. He was serving as the president of Princeton University when he received the smallpox inoculation, having been assured it would be safe. However, it was very dangerous and killed him.

His inspiring preaching helped start the Great Awakening, which became a huge religious revival that helped unite the colonies prior to the American Revolution. Like most eighteenth century Congregationalists (who were derived from the the seventeenth century "Puritan" church), Edwards was a Calvinist; however, traditional Calvinist maintain that only the elect, who had been chosen before the creation of the world, could achieve salvation.[1] By the time of the Great Awakening, most Calvinist clergy had altered their views that one could alter their eternal fate (which was the point of most of Edward's sermons.)

Aaron Burr was a grandson of Jonathan Edwards.

Quotes

"Of all of the kinds of knowledge that we can ever obtain, the knowledge of God, and the knowledge of ourselves, are the most important." -- Jonathan Edwards


see First Great Awakening

References

  1. http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/four.html

Frank Lambert, Inventing the “Great Awakening” (Princeton University Press, 1999)