Difference between revisions of "Tea Party Movement"

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The Tea Party Movement held its first scheduled nationwide protest on April 15, 2009, a day that became known as the [[Tax Day Tea Party]].<ref name="WSJ">[http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123975867505519363.html Tax Day Becomes Protest Day], ''[[Wall Street Journal]]'', April 15, 2009.</ref>  In the spirit of the founding fathers [[Boston Tea Party]], the rallies have used themes from the [[American Revolution]] and also adopted the "American Tea Party Anthem," a song first performed during a March 21, 2009 Orlando, Florida Tea Party that drew over 4,000 people.<ref>Michelle Malkin. [http://michellemalkin.com/2009/02/21/tea-party-usa-the-movement-grows/ Tea Party U.S.A.: The movement grows], February 21, 2009.</ref><ref>[http://newsblaze.com/story/20090323074552zzzz.nb/topstory.html "Tea Party" Song Becomes YouTube Hit]. ''Newsblaze'', March 23, 2009.</ref><ref>Andrea Shea King. [http://bighollywood.breitbart.com/asking/2009/04/14/american-tea-party-anthem-singer-lloyd-marcus-this-whole-thing-is-rush-limbaughs-fault/ American Tea Party Anthem Singer Lloyd Marcus: "This whole thing is Rush Limbaugh’s fault."], ''Big Hollywood'', April 14, 2009.</ref>
 
The Tea Party Movement held its first scheduled nationwide protest on April 15, 2009, a day that became known as the [[Tax Day Tea Party]].<ref name="WSJ">[http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123975867505519363.html Tax Day Becomes Protest Day], ''[[Wall Street Journal]]'', April 15, 2009.</ref>  In the spirit of the founding fathers [[Boston Tea Party]], the rallies have used themes from the [[American Revolution]] and also adopted the "American Tea Party Anthem," a song first performed during a March 21, 2009 Orlando, Florida Tea Party that drew over 4,000 people.<ref>Michelle Malkin. [http://michellemalkin.com/2009/02/21/tea-party-usa-the-movement-grows/ Tea Party U.S.A.: The movement grows], February 21, 2009.</ref><ref>[http://newsblaze.com/story/20090323074552zzzz.nb/topstory.html "Tea Party" Song Becomes YouTube Hit]. ''Newsblaze'', March 23, 2009.</ref><ref>Andrea Shea King. [http://bighollywood.breitbart.com/asking/2009/04/14/american-tea-party-anthem-singer-lloyd-marcus-this-whole-thing-is-rush-limbaughs-fault/ American Tea Party Anthem Singer Lloyd Marcus: "This whole thing is Rush Limbaugh’s fault."], ''Big Hollywood'', April 14, 2009.</ref>
 
   
 
   
== Beginnings ==
+
{{Dablink|This article is about the timeline of human evolution. For a timeline of general evolution see [[Timeline of evolution]].}}
On January 27, radio talk-show host [[Rush Limbaugh]] criticized the [[American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009]], commenting, "This 'porkulus' bill is designed to repair the Democratic Party's power losses from the 1990s forward, and to cement the party's majority power for decades."<ref>Rush Limbaugh. [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123318906638926749.html Rush Limbaugh: My Bipartisan Stimulus], WSJ.com, January 29, 2009.</ref>
+
{{Dablink|See also [[Human evolution]] for more details on this topic.}}
  
On February 10, a Cape Coral woman named Mary Rakovich led a small protest outside President Barack Obama's townhall meeting in Fort Myers, [[Florida]].<ref>[http://www.news-press.com/article/20090211/OBAMA/90210068 Those outside Harborside in Fort Myers had plenty to see, say], ''The News-Press'', February 11, 2009.</ref> Then in late March of 2009, faced with the prospect of heavy fines from the city for not having the proper permitting or insurance, Mary Rakovich moved forward with future protests but with the backing of national organization ''FreedomWorks''. Rakovich said ''FreedomWorks'' offered to provide the insurance per the city's rules.<ref>[http://www.cape-coral-daily-breeze.com/page/content.detail/id/504707.html?nav=5011 Tea party finds new life, broadens cause], cape-coral-daily-breeze.com, March, 31, 2009.</ref>
+
[[Image:Age-of-Man-wiki.jpg|thumb|portait|Evolutionary tree]]
 +
The '''timeline of human evolution''' outlines the major events in the development of [[human]] [[species]], and the [[evolution]] of humans' [[ancestor]]s. It includes a brief explanation of some [[animal]]s, [[species]] or [[genus|genera]], which are possible ancestors of ''[[Homo sapiens sapiens]]''. It does not address the [[origin of life]], which is addressed by [[abiogenesis]], but presents a possible line of descendants that led to humans. This timeline is based on studies from [[paleontology]], [[developmental biology]], [[Morphology (biology)|morphology]] and from [[anatomical]] and [[Genetics|genetic]] data.  The study of human evolution is a major component of [[anthropology]].
  
The first anti-spending protest, organized by Liberty Belle, occurred in [[Seattle]], Washington on February 16, 2009.<ref>Derek Erwin. [http://derekerwin.blogspot.com/2009/04/dozen-ring-liberty-belles-sound-800.html A 'Dozen' Ring Liberty Belle's Sound, 800 Cities Ring-Back], ''A 1-In-100 Blogger'', accessed April 18, 2009.</ref><ref>Michelle Malkin, Glenn Reynolds. [http://www.pjtv.com/video/Pajamas_TV/Tea_Party_Protests%3A_Mesa%2C_Seattle%2C_Denver_%28Michelle_Malkin_and_Glenn_Reynolds%29/1406/ Tea Party Protests: Mesa, Seattle, Denver], PJTV, February 16, 2009.</ref> Another protest was held the following day, held in [[Denver]] on February 17,<ref>[http://www.thedenverchannel.com/politics/18732002/detail.html President Signs Massive Stimulus In Denver], accessed April 2, 2009.</ref> and a protest in Mesa, [[Arizona]] on February 18 brought 500 protesters.<ref>Gary Grado, Sonu Munshi, Hayley Ringle. [http://www.eastvalleytribune.com/story/135640/ More than 500 protest Obama's arrival], accessed April 2, 2009.</ref>
+
==Homo sapiens taxonomy==
 +
The [[cladistic]] line of descent ([[taxonomic rank]]) of ''[[homo sapiens sapiens]]'' (modern humans) is as follows:<br />
 +
<blockquote>
 +
[[Domain (biology)|domain]]: [[eukaryote]]s (2.100.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[Kingdom (biology)|kingdom]]: [[Animals|animalia]] (590.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[phylum]]: [[Chordate|chordata]] (530.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[subphylum]]: [[Vertebrate|vertebrata]] (505.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[Class (biology)|class]]: [[mammal|mammalia]] (220.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[subclass]]: [[Theria|theriiformes]]<br />
 +
[[infraclass]]: [[eutheria]] (125.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[magnorder]]: [[boreoeutheria]]<br />
 +
[[superorder]]: [[euarchontoglires]] ([[supraprimates]]) (100.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[Order (biology)|order]]: [[primate]]s (75.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[suborder]]: [[haplorrhini]] ([[tarsiers]], [[monkeys]], [[apes]], "dry-nosed" primates) (40.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[infraorder]]: [[Simian|simiiformes]] (simians, "higher" primates)<br />
 +
[[parvorder]]: [[catarrhini]] ("narrow nosed" primates) (30.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[superfamily]]: [[Ape|hominoidea]] (25.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[Family (biology)|family]]: [[hominidae]] ([[great apes]]) (15.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[subfamily]]: [[homininae]] (4.500.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[Tribe (biology)|tribe]]: [[hominini]]<br />
 +
[[subtribe]]: [[hominina]] (3.000.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[genus]]: [[Homo (genus)|homo]] (2.500.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[species]]: [[homo sapiens]] (195.000 years ago)<br />
 +
[[sub-species]]: [[Anatomically modern humans|homo sapiens sapiens]] (12.000 years ago){{fact|date=February 2010}}<br />
 +
</blockquote>
  
===Shout Heard 'Round the World===
+
==Timeline==
The Tea Party Movement gained support when on February 19, on live [[Television|TV]], [[CNBC]] reporter [[Rick Santelli]] argued about the bailouts and shouted, "The government is promoting bad behavior."<ref>[http://freedomeden.blogspot.com/2009/02/rick-santelli-tea-party.html Transcript of Rick Santelli's speech], February 19, 2009.</ref><ref>[http://www.cnbc.com/id/29283701 Rick Santelli's Shout Heard 'Round the World], CNBC.com, February 19, 2009.</ref> Standing in the middle of the Chicago Stock Exchange, Santelli declared that America needed "a new kind of tea party," so that citizens can express their discontent with "the government's support of fiscal irresponsibility."<ref>Jennifer Rubin. [http://pajamasmedia.com/blog/mr-president-turn-back-while-theres-still-time/ Mr. President: Turn Back While There’s Still Time], ''Pajamas Media'', February 20, 2009.</ref><ref>Matt Drudge. [http://www.streetinsider.com/Insiders+Blog/Rick+Santelli+-+The+Rant+Heard+Round+the+World/4419854.html Rick Santelli - The Rant Heard 'Round the World'], streetinsider.com, February 19, 2009.</ref><ref name=myfoxchicago>Andy Roesgen. [http://www.myfoxchicago.com/dpp/news/TeaParty Protestors Gather for Self-Styled Tea Party], myfoxchicago.com, February 27, 2009.</ref> With the help of ''DontGo'', ''Top Conservatives on Twitter'' (TCOT), ''[[Smart Girl Politics]]'' (SGP), ''The American Spectator'', ''Americans for Tax Reform'', ''[[FreedomWorks]]'', and ''The Heartland Institute'', the Chicago Tea Parties were scheduled to happen nationwide on February 27, 2009.<ref>[http://www.dontgomovement.com/blog/2009/02/23/the-chicago-tea-party-is-on/ The Chicago Tea Party is on!], February 23, 2009.</ref>
+
=== First living beings ===
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Date
 +
! Event
 +
|- valign="top"
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| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 4000&nbsp;[[Megaannum|Ma]]<br>(million<br>years ago)
 +
|The earliest life appears.
  
===February 27th Tea Parties===
+
{{See|Origin of life}}
Americans across the country gathered in 50 cities to protest the newly-passed Stimulus Bill of 2009.<ref>[http://www.tcotreport.com/Talking_Points.htm Talking Points and Theme for the Nationwide Chicago Tea Party], ''[[The TCOT Report]]'', February 24, 2009.</ref> Over 30,000 people made it to this event.<ref>Teri Christoph. [http://smartgirlpolitics.ning.com/video/video/show?id=2488056%3AVideo%3A24070& SGP.TeaParty], ''[[Smart Girl Politics]]'', February 27, 2009.</ref> Many at the event were upset over the economic stimulus packages and bailouts for [[Wall Street]] pushed through by both [[George W. Bush|President Bush]] and President Obama's administrations.<ref>[http://www.raleigh3.com/default.asp?sdetail=1849&sc=2724 Raleigh Holds 'Tea Party' To Protest Government], ''Raleigh Telegram'', March 25, 2009.</ref><ref name=myfoxchicago/>
+
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 3900 Ma
 +
|[[Cell (biology)|Cell]]s resembling [[prokaryote]]s appear.  
  
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
+
{{See|Cell (biology)#Origins of cells}}
|- style="background:#ccc; text-align:center;"
+
|- valign="TOP"
! Location !! Sponsors<ref>[http://www.pjtv.com/?cmd=page&page-id=68 Schedule of American Tea party Protests (with Sponsors)], February 27, 2009.</ref> !! Details
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| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 2500 Ma
 +
| First organisms to utilize [[oxygen]].
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 2100 Ma
 +
|More complex cells appear: the [[eukaryote]]s.
 +
 
 +
{{See|Eukaryote#Origin and evolution}}
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 1200 Ma
 +
| [[Evolution of sexual reproduction|Sexual reproduction]] evolves, leading to faster evolution.<ref>"'Experiments with sex have been very hard to conduct,' Goddard said. 'In an experiment, one needs to hold all else constant, apart from the aspect of interest. This means that no higher organisms can be used, since they have to have sex to reproduce and therefore provide no asexual control.'<br />Goddard and colleagues instead turned to a single-celled organism, yeast, to test the idea that sex allows populations to adapt to new conditions more rapidly than asexual populations.<cite></cite>" [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/03/0330_050330_sexevolution.html Sex Speeds Up Evolution, Study Finds] (URL accessed on January 9, 2005)</ref>
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 900 Ma
 +
| [[Image:Cronoflagelado2.jpg|thumb|100px|[[Choanoflagellate]]]]
 +
The [[choanoflagellate]]s may look similar to the [[ancestors]] of the entire [[animal]] [[kingdom (biology)|kingdom]], and in particular they may be the direct ancestors of [[Sponge]]s.<ref>"Proterospongia is a rare freshwater protist, a colonial member of the Choanoflagellata." "Proterospongia itself is not the ancestor of sponges. However, it serves as a useful model for what the ancestor of sponges and other metazoans may have been like."  http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/proterospongia.html Berkeley University</ref>
 +
[[Proterospongia]] (members of the Choanoflagellata) are the best living examples of what the ancestor of all [[animal]]s may have looked like.
 +
 
 +
They live in [[colony (biology)|colonies]], and show a primitive level of [[cell (biology)|cellular]] specialization for different tasks.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 600 Ma
 +
|It is thought that the earliest multicellular animal was a [[sea sponge|sponge]]-like creature.
 +
[[Sponge]]s are among the simplest of animals, with partially differentiated [[Biological tissue|tissue]]s.
 +
 
 +
Sponges (Porifera) are the phylogenetically oldest [[animal]] [[phylum]] extant today.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 580 Ma
 +
|The movement of all animals may have started with [[cnidarians]]. Almost all cnidarians possess [[nerves]] and [[muscle]]s and, because they are the simplest [[animal]]s to possess it, their direct [[ancestor]]s were very likely the first animals to use nerves and muscles together. Cnidarians are also the first animals with an actual [[body]] of definite form and shape. They have [[symmetry (biology)#Radial symmetry|radial symmetry]].  The first [[Eye|eyes]] evolved at this time.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 550 Ma
 +
| [[Image:FlatwormZICA.png|thumb|200px|[[Flatworm]]]] Flatworms are the earliest animals to have a [[brain]], and the simplest animals alive to have [[symmetry (biology)#Bilateral symmetry|bilateral symmetry]]. They are also the simplest animals with organs that form from three [[germ layer]]s.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 540 Ma
 +
|[[Acorn worm]]s are considered more highly specialised and advanced than other similarly shaped [[worm]]-like creatures. They have a [[circulatory system]] with a [[heart]] that also functions as a [[kidney]]. Acorn worms have a [[gill]]-like structure used for [[breath]]ing, a structure similar to that of [[Prehistoric fish|primitive fish]]. Acorn worms are thus sometimes said to be a link between [[vertebrate]]s and [[invertebrate]]s{{Citation needed|date=September 2009}}.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
=== [[Chordates]] ===
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
| Atlanta, Georgia || TCOT, SGP, Don'tGo || A reported 300 to 400 protesters gathered outside the Georgia Capitol in protest of a $787 billion recovery bill.<ref name="georgia">[http://features.csmonitor.com/politics/2009/02/27/budget-debate-launches-new-tea-party/ Budget debate launches new tea party], February 27, 2009.</ref><ref>[http://pajamasmedia.com/instapundit/71521/ Tea Party from Atlanta], pajamasmedia.com, February 17, 2009.</ref>
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! Date
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! Event
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|- valign="TOP"
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| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 530 Ma
 +
|[[Image:Pikaia3ZICA.png|thumb|200px|[[Pikaia]]]] One of the earliest known ancestor of the [[chordate]]s is [[Pikaia]].<ref>"It is possible that Pikaia, until now the cynosure of Cambrianchordates, is peripheral to the line-age leading to the vertebrates." http://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j18_1/j18_1_10-11.pdf</ref> It is the first known [[animal]] with a [[notochord]]. Pikaia is believed to be the ancestor of all chordates and [[vertebrate]]s.<ref> "Obviously vertebrates must have had ancestors living in the Cambrian, but they were assumed to be invertebrate forerunners of the true vertebrates — protochordates. Pikaia has been heavily promoted as the oldest fossil protochordate." [[Richard Dawkins]] [[2004]] [[The Ancestor's Tale]] Page 289, ISBN 0618005838</ref>
 +
 
 +
The [[Lancelet]], still living today, retains some characteristics of the primitive [[chordate]]s. It resembles [[Pikaia]]
 +
 
 +
Other earliest known chordate-like fossils is from a [[conodonts]] an "eel-shaped animal of 4-20&nbsp;cm (1½-8&nbsp;in) long" with a pair of huge eyes at the head end and a complex basket of teeth.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 505 Ma
 +
|[[Image:Agnata.png|thumb|200px|[[Agnatha]]]]
 +
 
 +
The first [[vertebrate]]s appear: the [[ostracoderm]]s, jawless fish related to present-day [[lamprey]]s and [[hagfish]]es. ''[[Haikouichthys]]'' and ''[[Myllokunmingia]]'' are examples of these jawless fish, or [[Agnatha]]. (See also [[prehistoric fish]]). They were jawless and their internal skeletons were cartilaginous. They lacked the paired (pectoral and pelvic) [[fins]] of more advanced [[fish]]. They were the Precursors to the [[Osteichthyes]] (bony fish). <ref>These first vertebrates lacked jaws, like the living hagfish and lampreys. Jawed vertebrates appeared 100 million years later, in the Silurian. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/vertintro.html Berkeley University</ref>
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 480 Ma
 +
|[[Image:PlacodermiZICA.png|thumb|200px|A [[Placoderm]]]]
 +
The [[Placodermi]] were [[prehistoric fish]]es. Placoderms were the first of the jawed fishes, their jaws evolving from the first of their gill arches <ref>"<cite>Bones of first gill arch became upper and lower jaws.</cite>" [http://www.uhh.hawaii.edu/~ronald/392/Homol-Gill-Jaw.JPG (Image)] (URL accessed on November 16, 2006)</ref>. Their head and thorax were covered by articulated armoured plates and the rest of the body was scaled or naked.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 400 Ma
 +
|First ''[[Coelacanth]]'' appears; this order of animals had been thought to have no extant members until living specimens were discovered in 1938. It is often referred to as a [[living fossil]].
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 375 Ma
 +
| ''[[Tiktaalik]]'' is a genus of [[Sarcopterygii|sarcopterygian]] (lobe-finned) fishes from the late Devonian with many tetrapod-like features.  It shows a clear link between [[Panderichthys]] and [[Acanthostega]].
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
=== [[Tetrapod|Tetrapodes]] ===
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Chicago, Illinois]] || Don'tGo<ref>[http://www.dontgomovement.com/blog/2009/02/19/chicago-tea-party/ Don'tGo Movement: Pledge to Have a Representation at Chicago Tea Party], February 19, 2009.</ref> || Approximately 300 people braved the 25 degree cold and wind in Chicago.<ref name="illinios">[http://www.foundingbloggers.com/wordpress/2009/02/breaking-chicago-tea-party-pictures/ BREAKING - Chicago Tea Party (Pictures) UPDATED Now With Video!], February 27, 2009.</ref><ref>[http://www.dontgomovement.com/blog/2009/02/27/the-birth-of-a-new-revolution/ The Birth of a New Revolution], February 27, 2009.</ref><ref name=myfoxchicago/>
+
! Date
 +
! Event
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 365 Ma
 +
|[[Image:PanderichthysZICA.png|thumb|200px|[[Panderichthys]]]]
 +
Some fresh water lobe-finned [[fish]] ([[Sarcopterygii]]) develop legs and give rise to the [[Tetrapoda]].
 +
 
 +
The first tetrapods [[evolution|evolved]] in shallow and [[swamp]]y [[freshwater]] [[habitat (ecology)|habitats]].  
 +
 
 +
Primitive tetrapods developed from a [[lobe-finned fish]] (an "osteolepid [[sarcopterygii|Sarcopterygian]]"), with a two-lobed [[brain]] in a flattened skull, a wide mouth and a short snout, whose upward-facing eyes show that it was a bottom-dweller, and which had already developed adaptations of fins with fleshy bases and [[bone]]s. The "living fossil" [[coelacanth]] is a related [[lobe-finned fish]] without these shallow-water adaptations. These fishes used their fins as [[paddle]]s in shallow-water habitats choked with plants and [[detritus]]. The universal tetrapod characteristics of front [[Limb (anatomy)|limb]]s that bend backward at the [[Elbow-joint|elbow]] and hind limbs that bend forward at the [[knee]] can plausibly be traced to early tetrapods living in shallow water.<ref>"Lungfish are believed to be the closest living relatives of the tetrapods, and share a number of important characteristics with them. Among these characters are tooth enamel, separation of pulmonary blood flow from body blood flow, arrangement of the skull bones, and the presence of four similarly sized limbs with the same position and structure as the four tetrapod legs." http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/sarco/dipnoi.html Berkeley University</ref>
 +
 
 +
[[Panderichthys]] is a 90-130&nbsp;cm (35-50&nbsp;in) long [[fish]] from the Late [[Devonian period]]. It has a large [[tetrapod]]-like [[head]]. Panderichthys exhibits features transitional between lobe-finned fishes and early tetrapods.
 +
 
 +
[[Lungfish]]es retain some characteristics of the early [[Tetrapoda]]s. One example is the [[Queensland Lungfish]].
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 315 Ma
 +
|[[Image:Acanthostega2 ZICA.png|thumb|200px|[[Acanthostega]]]]
 +
[[Image:PleaisaidesZICA.png|thumb|200px|[[Ichthyostega]]]]
 +
[[Acanthostega]] is an extinct [[amphibian]], among the first animals to have recognizable [[Limb (anatomy)|limb]]s. It is a candidate for being one of the first [[vertebrate]]s to be capable of coming onto land. It lacked [[wrist]]s, and was generally poorly adapted for life on land. The limbs could not support the animal's weight. [[Acanthostega]] had both [[lungs]] and [[gills]], also indicating it was a link between lobe-finned fish and terrestrial vertebrates.
 +
 
 +
[[Ichthyostega]] is an early [[tetrapod]]. Being one of the first animals with legs, arms, and finger bones, Ichthyostega is seen as a [[Hybrid (biology)|hybrid]] between a [[fish]] and an [[amphibia]]n. [[Ichthyostega]]' had legs but its [[Limb (anatomy)|limb]]s probably weren't used for [[walking]], they may have spent very brief periods out of water and would have used their legs to paw their way through the [[mud]].<ref> "the ancestor that amphibians share with reptiles and ourselves? " " These possibly transitional fossils have been much studied, among
 +
them Acanthostega, which seems to have been wholly aquatic, and Ichthyostega" [[Richard Dawkins]] [[2004]] [[The Ancestor's Tale]] page 250, ISBN 0618005838</ref>
 +
 
 +
[[Amphibian|Amphibia]] were the first four-legged animals to develop [[lungs]].
 +
 
 +
[[Amphibian]]s living today still retain many characteristics of the early [[tetrapods]].
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 300 Ma
 +
|[[Image:HylonomusZICA.png|thumb|200px|[[Hylonomus]]]]
 +
From amphibians came the first reptiles: [[Hylonomus]] is the earliest known [[reptile]]. It was 20&nbsp;cm (8&nbsp;in) long (including the tail) and probably would have looked rather similar to modern [[lizard]]s. It had small sharp teeth and probably ate [[millipede]]s and early [[insect]]s. It is a precursor of later [[Amniote]]s and [[mammal-like reptiles]].
 +
 
 +
Evolution of the amniotic egg gives rise to the Amniota, [[reptile]]s that can reproduce on land and lay eggs on dry land. They did not need to return to water for reproduction. This adaptation gave them the capability to colonize the uplands for the first time.
 +
 
 +
Reptiles have advanced nervous system, compared to [[amphibians]]. They have twelve pairs of cranial nerves.
 +
|}
 +
=== Mammals ===
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
| Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas || Americans for Prosperity,<ref>[http://www.redcounty.com/texas/2009/02/the-tea-parties-were-successfu/ The Tea Parties were successful - here's the proof], February 23, 2009.</ref> TCOT, SGP, Don'tGo, Dallas County Young Republicans || A "Texas-sized Tea Party" of 300 or more Texans met in Fort Worth, protesting big government and taxes.<ref name="fortworth">[http://txtcot.ning.com/video/tea-party-09-made-the-world Tea Party '09 made the world news], February 27, 2009.</ref> One sponsor, TCOT, collected over 800 signatures during the event.<ref>[http://txtcot.ning.com/profiles/blogs/tea-party-09 Tea Party '09], February 28, 2009.</ref>
+
! Date
 +
! Event
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 256 Ma
 +
| [[Image:Phtinosuchus1ZICA.png|thumb|200px|[[Phthinosuchus]], an early [[Therapsid]]]] Shortly after the appearance of the first [[reptile]]s, two branches split off. One branch is the [[Diapsid]]s, from which come the modern [[reptile]]s. The other branch is [[Synapsid|Synapsida]], which had [[temporal fenestra]], a pair of holes in their skulls behind the eyes, which were used to increase the space for jaw muscles.
 +
 
 +
The earliest '''mammal-like reptiles''' are the [[pelycosaur]]s. The pelycosaurs were the first animals to have temporal fenestra. Pelycosaurs are not [[Therapsid]]s but soon they gave rise to them. The Therapsida were the direct ancestor of [[mammals]].
 +
 
 +
The therapsids have temporal fenestrae larger and more mammal-like than pelycosaurs, their teeth show more serial differentiation; and later forms had evolved a [[secondary palate]]. A secondary palate enables the animal to eat and breathe at the same time and is a sign of a more active, perhaps warm-blooded, way of life. <ref>"In many respects, the pelycosaurs are intermediate between the reptiles and mammals" http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/synapsids/pelycosaurs.html Berkeley University</ref>
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 220 Ma
 +
|One sub-group of therapsids, the [[cynodont]]s evolved more mammal-like characteristics.
 +
The jaws of cynodonts resemble modern mammal jaws. It is very likely this group of animals contains a species which is the direct ancestor of all modern mammals.<ref> "Tlvinaxodon, like any fossil, should be thought of as a cousin of our ancestor, not the ancestor itself. It was a member of a group of mammal-like reptiles called the cynodonts. The cynodonts were so mammal-like, it is tempting to  call them mammals. But who cares what we call them? They are almost perfect intermediates." [[Richard Dawkins]] [[2004]] [[The Ancestor's Tale]] page 211, ISBN 0618005838</ref>
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 220 Ma
 +
|[[Image:RepenomamusuZICA.png|right|thumb|200px|''[[Repenomamus]]'']]
 +
From [[Eucynodontia]] ([[cynodonts]]) came the first [[mammal]]s. Most early mammals were small and shrew-like animals that fed on insects. Although there is no evidence in the fossil record, it is likely that these animals had a constant body temperature, milk glands for their young. The [[neocortex]] region of the [[brain]] first evolved in mammals and thus is unique to them.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 125 Ma
 +
|[[Image:Eomaia23423.jpg|right|thumb|200px|''[[Eomaia|Eomaia scansoria]]'']]
 +
''[[Eomaia|Eomaia scansoria]]'', a eutherian mammal, leads to the formation of modern placental mammals. It looks like modern dormouse, climbing small shrubs in [[Liaoning]], [[China]].
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 100 Ma
 +
| Common [[genetics|genetic]] [[ancestor]] of [[Mouse|mice]] and humans (base of the clade [[Euarchontoglires]]).
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Primates ===
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
| Denver, Colorado || TCOT, SGP, Don'tGo || At the East Capitol Steps, 100 "[[Atlas Shrugged]]" fans braved cold temperatures for a "Nationwide Chicago Tea Party" to protest the Obama Administration's bailout plan.<ref name="dcolorado1">[http://coloradoindependent.com/23026/ayn-rand-stars-at-denver-stimulus-tea-party-protest Ayn Rand stars at Denver stimulus ‘tea party’ protest], ''Colorado Independent'', February 28, 2009.</ref><ref name="dcolorado2">[http://colorado.newsplatoon.com/2009/02/24/denver-tea-party/ Denver Tea Party], [[colorado]], February 24, 2009.</ref>
+
! Date
 +
! Event
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 65–85 Ma
 +
|[[Image:PlesiadapisZICA.png|right|thumb|200px|''[[Carpolestes simpsoni]]'']]
 +
[[Image:PlesiadapisNewZICA.png|right|thumb|200px|A ''[[Plesiadapis]]'' without [[fur]].]]
 +
A group of small, nocturnal and arboreal, insect-eating mammals called the [[Euarchonta]] begins a speciation that will lead to the [[primate]], [[treeshrew]] and [[flying lemur]] [[order (biology)|orders]]. The [[Primatomorpha]] is a subdivision of Euarchonta that includes the primates and the proto-primate [[Plesiadapiformes]]. One of the early proto-primates is ''[[Plesiadapis]]''. ''Plesiadapis'' still had claws and the eyes located on each side of the head.  Because of this they were faster on the ground than on the top of the trees, but they began to spend long times on lower branches of trees, feeding on [[fruit]]s and [[leaf|leaves]]. The [[Plesiadapiformes]] very likely contain the species which is the ancestor of all primates.<ref> "Fossils that might help us reconstruct what Concestor 8 was like include the large group called plesiadapi-forms. They lived about the right time, and they have many of the qualities you would expect of the grand ancestor of all the primates" [[Richard Dawkins]] [[2004]] [[The Ancestor's Tale]] page 136, ISBN 0618005838</ref>
 +
 
 +
One of the last [[Plesiadapiformes]] is ''[[Carpolestes simpsoni]]''. It had grasping digits but no forward facing eyes.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 47 Ma
 +
|''[[Darwinius masillae]]'', a [[transitional form]] between the [[prosimian]]s ([[lemur]]s and other primitive primates) and the [[simian]]s ([[monkey]]s, [[ape]]s). It looked much like a [[lemur]] but had [[opposable thumb]]s.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 40 Ma
 +
|[[Primate]]s diverge into suborders [[Strepsirrhini]] (wet-nosed primates) and [[Haplorrhini]] (dry nosed primates). Strepsirrhini contains most of the [[prosimian]]s; modern examples include the [[lemur]]s and [[loris]]es. The haplorrhines include the three living groups the prosimian [[tarsier]]s, the simian [[monkey]]s, and [[ape]]s. One of the earliest haplorrhines is ''[[Teilhardina asiatica]]'', a mouse-sized, diurnal creature with small eyes.  The Haplorrhini metabolism lost the ability to make its own [[Vitamin C]].  This means that it and all its descendants had to include fruit in its diet, where Vitamin C could be obtained externally.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 30 Ma
 +
|[[Image:Aegyptopithecus ZICA.png|right|thumb|200px|''[[Aegyptopithecus]]'']]
 +
[[Haplorrhini]] splits into infraorders [[New World monkey|Platyrrhini]] and [[Catarrhini]]. Platyrrhines, New World monkeys, have prehensile tails and males are color blind. They may have migrated to South America on a raft of vegetation across the Atlantic ocean (circa 4,500&nbsp;km, 2,800&nbsp;mi). Catarrhines mostly stayed in [[Africa]] as the two continents drifted apart. One ancestor of catarrhines might be ''[[Aegyptopithecus]]''.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 25 Ma
 +
|[[Image:ProconsulZICA.png|right|thumb|200px|''[[Proconsul (genus)|Proconsul]]'']]
 +
[[Catarrhini]] splits into 2 superfamilies, [[Old World monkey]]s (Cercopithecoidea) and [[ape]]s ([[Hominoidea]]). Our [[Trichromat|trichromatic]] color vision had its genetic origins in this period.
 +
 
 +
''[[Proconsul (primate)|Proconsul]]'' was an early [[genus]] of catarrhine primates. They had a mixture of [[Old World monkey]] and [[ape]] characteristics. ''Proconsul'''s [[monkey]]-like features include thin [[tooth]] enamel, a light build with a narrow chest and short forelimbs, and an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle. Its ape-like features are its lack of a [[tail]], ape-like [[Elbow-joint|elbow]]s, and a slightly larger brain relative to body size.
 +
 
 +
''[[Proconsul africanus]]'' is a possible ancestor of both great and lesser apes, and humans.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===[[Hominidae]]===
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Houston, Texas]] || TBD || Large groups, not entirely made up of Republicans, tried to create a modern day version of the Boston Tea Party.<ref>[http://houstontps.org/?page_id=163 Houston Tea Party Society, In the News, Audio, Video], February 27, 2009.</ref><ref>[http://www.khou.com/video/topstories-index.html?nvid=352345&shu=1 Houston's Tax Day tea party], February 27, 2009.</ref>
+
! Date
 +
! Event
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 15 Ma
 +
|[[Hominidae]] (great apes) speciate from the ancestors of the [[gibbon]] (lesser apes).
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 13 Ma
 +
|[[Homininae]] ancestors speciate from the ancestors of the [[orangutan]]<ref> Raauma, Ryan, Sternera, K., (2005) "Catarrhine primate divergence dates estimated from complete mitochondrial genomes", Journal of Human Evolution 48: 237-257 [http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/anthro/programs/csho/Content/Facultycvandinfo/Disotell/RAUMM&DISS.pdf]
 +
</ref>.
 +
 
 +
''[[Pierolapithecus|Pierolapithecus catalaunicus]]'' is believed to be a [[common ancestor]] of humans and the great apes or at least a species that brings us closer to a common ancestor than any previous [[fossil]] discovery.
 +
 
 +
''Pierolapithecus'' had special adaptations for tree climbing, just as humans and other great apes do: a wide, flat [[ribcage]], a stiff lower [[vertebral column|spine]], flexible wrists, and [[shoulder]] blades that lie along its back.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 10 Ma
 +
|[[Hominini]] speciate from the ancestors of the [[gorilla]]s.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 7 Ma
 +
|[[Image:SahelanthropustchadensisZICA.png|right|thumb|200px|''[[Sahelanthropus tchadensis]]'']]
 +
[[Hominina]] speciate from the ancestors of the [[chimpanzee]]s. The [[latest common ancestor]] lived around the time of ''[[Sahelanthropus tchadensis]]'', ca. 7 Ma[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/species.html#tchadensis]; S. tchadensis is sometimes claimed to be the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, but this is disputed. The earliest known human ancestor post-dating the separation of the human and the chimpanzee lines is ''[[Orrorin tugenensis]]'' (Millennium Man, Kenya; ca. 6 Ma).
 +
Both chimpanzees and humans have a [[larynx]] that repositions during the first two years of life to a spot between the [[pharynx]] and the lungs, indicating that the common ancestors have this feature, a precursor of speech.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 4.4 Ma
 +
|[[Ardipithecus]] is a very early [[Hominini|hominin]] [[genus]] ([[subfamily]] [[Homininae]]). Two species are described in the literature: ''A. ramidus'', which lived about 4.4 million years ago<ref name=%26quot%3BNatGeo-News%26quot%3B%26gt%3B%7B%7Bcite web
 +
| url = http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0712_ethiopianbones.html
 +
| title = Fossils From Ethiopia May Be Earliest Human Ancestor
 +
| first = David | last = Perlman
 +
| publisher = National Geographic News
 +
| date = July 12, 2001 | accessdate = July 2009
 +
| quote = Another co-author is Tim D. White, a paleoanthropologist at UC-Berkeley who in 1994 discovered a pre-human fossil, named Ardipithecus ramidus, that was then the oldest known, at 4.4 million years.
 +
}}</ref> during the early [[Pliocene]], and ''A. kadabba'', dated to approximately 5.6 million years ago<ref name=%26quot%3BAndThePaleobiology%26quot%3B%26gt%3B%7B%7Bcite journal |last=White |first=Tim D. |authorlink= |coauthors=Asfaw, Berhane; Beyene, Yonas; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Lovejoy, C. Owen; Suwa, Gen; WoldeGabriel, Giday|year=2009 |month= |title=''Ardipithecus ramidus'' and the Paleobiology of Early Hominids. |journal=[[Science (journal)|Science]] |volume=326 |issue=5949 |pages=75–86 |doi=10.1126/science.1175802 |url= |quote=|pmid=}}</ref> (late [[Miocene]]). ''A. ramidus'' had a small brain, measuring between 300 and 350 cm<sup>3</sup>.  This is about the same size as modern [[bonobo]] and female [[common chimpanzee]] brain, but much smaller than the brain of australopithecines like Lucy (~400 to 550 cm<sup>3</sup>) and slightly over a fifth the size of the modern ''Homo sapiens'' brain. Ardipithecus was aboreal, meaning it lived largely in the forest where it competed with other forest animals for food, including the contemporary ancestor for the chimpanzees. Ardipithecus was likely [[bipedal]] as evidenced by its bowl shaped pelvis and centered [[foramen magnum]], though its feet were still adapted for grasping rather than walking for long distances.
 +
 
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 3.6 Ma
 +
| [[File:Australopithecus_afarensis.JPG|right|thumb|200px|''[[Australopithecus afarensis]]'']] Some ''[[Australopithecus afarensis]]'' left human-like footprints on volcanic ash in Laetoli, Kenya (Northern Tanzania) which provides strong evidence of full-time bipedalism. Australopithecus afarensis  lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago. It is thought that A. afarensis was ancestral to both the genus [[Australopithecus]] and the [[Homo (genus)|genus Homo]]. Compared to the modern and extinct great [[ape]]s, A. afarensis has reduced canines and molars, although they are still relatively larger than in modern humans. A. afarensis also has a relatively small brain size (~380-430cm³) and a prognathic (i.e. projecting anteriorly) face. Australopithecines have been found in Savannah environments and likely increased its diet to include meat from scavenging opportunities.  An analysis of [[Australopithecus africanus]] lower [[Vertebrae|vertebrae]] suggests that females had changes to support bipedalism even while pregnant.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 3.5 Ma
 +
|  [[Kenyanthropus platyops]], a possible ancestor of ''Homo'', emerges from the ''Australopithecus'' genus.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 3 Ma
 +
| The bipedal [[Australopithecus|australopithecines]] (a genus of the ''[[Hominina]]'' subtribe) evolve in the savannas of [[Africa]] being hunted by ''[[Dinofelis]]''. Loss of [[body hair]] takes place in the period 3-2 Ma, in parallel with the development of full [[bipedalism]].
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===[[Homo (genus)|Homo]]===
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Washington, D.C.]] || Americans for Prosperity, Americans for Tax Reform, Young Conservatives Coalition, The Heartland Institute || The American Tea Party made some noise outside the White House.<ref name="dc_examiner">[http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/blogs/beltway-confidential/New-American-Tea-Party-40442172.html DC Tea Party thrown at the White House], ''The Washington Examiner'', February 27, 2009.</ref><ref>[http://www.freedomworks.org/petition/iamwithrick/index.html 2009 Taxpayer Tea party], February 28, 2009.</ref> Several hundred taxpayers showed up at the DC Tea Party protest in Lafayette Park,<ref name="michellemalkin">[[Michelle Malkin]]. [http://michellemalkin.com/2009/02/27/scenes-from-the-tea-party/ Scenes from the D.C. Tea Party], February 27, 2009.</ref><ref name="dcfreedomworks">[http://www.freedomworks.org/blog/bstein80/video-from-the-dc-tea-party Video from the DC Tea Party], ''Freedom Works'', February 28, 2009.</ref> including "Joe the Plumber."<ref name="hotair">[http://hotair.com/archives/2009/02/27/joe-the-plumber-at-dc-tea-party-no-one-on-the-hill-gives-a-rip-about-you/ Joe the Plumber at D.C. Tea Party: No one on the Hill gives a rip about you], ''[[Hot Air]]'', February 27, 2009.</ref>
+
! Date
 +
! Event
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 2.5 Ma
 +
|[[Image:Homo_habilis.JPG|right|thumb|200px|''[[Homo habilis]]'']]
 +
Appearance of ''[[Homo (genus)|Homo]]''.
 +
''[[Homo habilis]]'' is thought to be the ancestor of the lankier and more sophisticated ''[[Homo ergaster]]''.  Lived side by side with ''[[Homo erectus]]'' until at least 1.44 Ma, making it highly unlikely that ''[[Homo erectus]]'' directly evolved out of ''[[Homo habilis]]''. First [[stone tool]]s, beginning of the [[Lower Paleolithic]].
 +
{{See|Homo rudolfensis}}
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 1.8 Ma
 +
|[[Image:Homo erectus.JPG|thumb|200px|A reconstruction of ''[[Homo erectus]]''. ]]
 +
''[[Homo erectus]]'' evolves in [[Africa]].
 +
''Homo erectus'' would bear a striking resemblance to modern humans, but had a brain about 74 percent of the size of modern man. Its forehead is less sloping and the teeth are smaller.  Other hominid designations such as [[Homo georgicus]], [[Homo ergaster]], [[Peking Man|Homo pekinensis]], [[Homo heidelbergensis]] are often put under the umbrella species name of Homo erectus<ref>NOVA: Becoming Human Part 2 http://video.pbs.org/video/1319997127/</ref>. Starting with Homo georgicus found in what is now the Republic of Georgia dated at 1.8 Ma, the pelvis and backbone grew more human-like and gave georgicus the ability [[early human migrations|cover very long distances]] in order to follow herds of other animals.  This is the oldest fossil of a hominid found (so far) outside of Africa.  [[Control of fire by early humans]] is achieved 1.5 Ma by Homo ergaster.  Homo ergaster reaches a height of around 1.9 metres (6.2 ft).  Evolution of [[dark skin]], which is linked to the loss of body hair in human ancestors, is complete by 1.2 Ma.  Homo pekinensis first appears in Asia around 700 Ka but according to the "[[Recent_African_origin_of_modern_humans|recently out of africa]]" theory could not be a human ancestor, but rather, is just a cousin offshoot species from Homo ergaster.  Homo heidelbergensis was a very large hominid that had [[Boxgrove Quarry|a more advanced complement of cutting tools]] and may have hunted big game such as horses.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 516 [[Annum#Multiples of an "annum"|ka]]
 +
| ''[[Homo antecessor]]'' is the common genetic ancestor of humans and Neanderthal.<ref>Green, R. E., Krause, J, Ptak, S. E., Briggs, A. W., Ronan, M. T., Simons, J. F., et al. (2006) Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA. Nature, 16, 330–336. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7117/abs/nature05336.html</ref> At present estimate, humans have approximately 20,000&ndash;25,000 [[gene]]s and share 99% of their [[DNA]] with the now [[extinct]] [[Neanderthal]] <ref>"<cite>Rubin also said analysis so far suggests human and Neanderthal DNA are some 99.5 percent to nearly 99.9 percent identical.</cite>" [http://www.cnn.com/2006/TECH/science/11/15/neanderthal.ap/index.html Neanderthal bone gives DNA clues] (URL accessed on November 16, 2006)</ref> and 95-99% of their [[DNA]] with their closest [[living]] evolutionary relative, the [[chimpanzee]]s<ref>"<cite>The conclusion is the old saw that we share 98.5% of our DNA sequence with chimpanzee is probably in error. For this sample, a better estimate would be that 95% of the base pairs are exactly shared between chimpanzee and human DNA.</cite>" {{cite journal|doi=10.1073/pnas.172510699|title=Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequences is 5%, counting indels|author=Britten, R.J. |journal = PNAS |year=2002|volume=99|pages=13633|pmid=12368483}}</ref><ref>"<cite>...of the three billion letters that make up the human genome, only 15 million--less than 1 percent--have changed in the six million years or so since the human and chimp lineages diverged.</cite>" {{cite|title=What makes us human?|author=Pollard, K.S.|journal = Scientific American|year=2009|volume=300-5|pages=44–49.}}</ref>.  The human variant of the [[FOXP2]] gene (linked to the control of speech) has been found to be identical in Neanderthal<ref name=%26quot%3Bpmid17949978%26quot%3B%26gt%3B%7B%7Bcite journal | author = Krause J, Lalueza-Fox C, Orlando L, Enard W, Green RE, Burbano HA, Hublin JJ, Hänni C, Fortea J, de la Rasilla M, Bertranpetit J, Rosas A, [[Svante Pääbo|Pääbo S]] | title = The derived FOXP2 variant of modern humans was shared with Neandertals | journal = Curr. Biol. | volume = 17 | issue = 21 | pages = 1908–12 | year = 2007 | month = November | pmid = 17949978 | doi = 10.1016/j.cub.2007.10.008 | url = | laysummary = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/19/science/19speech-web.html?ref=world | laysource = [[New York Times]] | laydate= 2007-10-19 }}</ref>.  It can therefore be deduced that Homo antecessor would also have had the human FOXP2 gene.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 355 ka
 +
|
 +
Three 1.5&nbsp;m (5&nbsp;ft) tall ''[[Homo heidelbergensis]]'' [[Petrosomatoglyph#Footprints_in_Italy|left footprints in powdery volcanic ash solidified in Italy]]. ''Homo heidelbergensis'' is the common ancestor of both ''[[Neanderthal|Homo neanderthalensis]]'' and ''[[Homo sapiens]]''. It is morphologically very similar to ''[[Homo erectus]]'' but ''Homo heidelbergensis'' had a larger brain-case, about 93% the size of that of ''Homo sapiens''. The species was tall, 1.8&nbsp;m (6&nbsp;ft) on average, and more muscular than modern humans. Beginning of the [[Middle Paleolithic]].
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 195 ka
 +
|[[Image:Human.svg|thumb|200px|''Homo sapiens sapiens'' ([[Pioneer plaque]])]] 
 +
[[Omo remains|Omo1]], [[Omo remains|Omo2]] (Ethiopia, Omo river) are the earliest fossil evidence for [[archaic Homo sapiens|archaic ''Homo sapiens'']], evolved from ''[[Homo heidelbergensis]]''.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 160 ka
 +
| ''Homo sapiens'' (''[[Homo sapiens idaltu]]'') in Ethiopia, Awash River, Herto village, practice mortuary rituals and butcher hippos.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 150 ka
 +
| [[Mitochondrial Eve]] is a woman that lived in [[East Africa]]. She is the statistically expected most recent female ancestor common to all [[mitochondrial]] lineages in humans alive today.  Note that there is no evidence of any characteristic or genetic drift that significantly differentiated her from the contemporary social group she lived with at the time.  Her ancestors were homo sapiens and her mother had the same mtDNA.
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 70 ka
 +
| Appearance of mitochondrial haplogroup [[Haplogroup L2 (mtDNA)|L2]]. [[Behavioral modernity]].
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 60 ka
 +
| [[Y-chromosomal Adam]] lives in Africa.  He is the [[most recent common ancestor]] from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. Appearance of mitochondrial haplogroups [[Haplogroup M (mtDNA)|M]] and [[Haplogroup N (mtDNA)|N]], which participate in the [[Recent African Origin|migration out of Africa]].
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 50 ka
 +
| [[Early human migration|Migration]] to [[Paleolithic South Asia|South Asia]].  [[Haplogroup CT (Y-DNA)|M168]] mutation (carried by all non-African males). Beginning of the [[Upper Paleolithic]]. mt-haplogroups [[Haplogroup U (mtDNA)|U]], [[Haplogroup K (mtDNA)|K]].
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 40 ka
 +
| Migration to [[Prehistory of Australia|Australia]] and  [[Paleolithic Europe|Europe]] ([[Cro-Magnon]]). 
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | 25 ka
 +
| [[Neanderthal extinction hypotheses|Neanderthals die out]]. Y-Haplogroup [[Haplogroup R2 (Y-DNA)|R2]]; mt-haplogroups [[Haplogroup J (mtDNA)|J]], [[Haplogroup X (mtDNA)|X]].
 +
|- valign="TOP"
 +
| align="RIGHT" nowrap | [[10th millennium BC|12 ka]]
 +
| Beginning of the [[Mesolithic]] / [[Holocene]]. Y-Haplogroup [[Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA)|R1a]]; mt-haplogroups [[Haplogroup V (mtDNA)|V]], [[Haplogroup T (mtDNA)|T]]. Evolution of [[light skin]] in Europeans ([[SLC24A5]]). ''[[Homo floresiensis]]'' dies out, leaving ''Homo sapiens'' as the only living species of the genus ''[[Homo (genus)|Homo]]''.
 
|}
 
|}
  
The Tea Party Movement is a Hoax, started by liberals to corrupt your unborn childern.
+
==See also==
 +
*[[Graphical timeline of our universe]]
 +
*[[History of Earth]]
 +
*[[Natural history]]
 +
*[[History of the world]]
 +
*[[Predictions for human evolution]]
 +
*[[Evolutionary history of life]]
 +
*[[Human evolution]]
 +
*[[Human taxonomy]]
 +
*[[Homo (genus)]]
 +
*[[Most recent common ancestor]]
 +
*[[List of human evolution fossils]]
 +
*[[Prehistoric amphibian]]
 +
*[[Prehistoric fish]]
 +
*[[Prehistoric reptile]]
 +
* ''[[The Ancestor's Tale]]'' by [[Richard Dawkins]] with a timeline comprising 40 rendezvous points
 +
*[[Timeline of evolution]] - an explanation of the evolution of a wide variety of animals living today
 +
*[[Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic groups]]
 +
 
 +
==References==
 +
{{Reflist|2}}
 +
 
 +
==External links==
 +
*[http://www.palaeos.com Palaeos]
 +
*[http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu berkeley Evolution]
 +
* [http://tolweb.org/Life_on_Earth/1 Tree of Life Web Project] - explore complete phylogenetic tree interactively
 +
*[http://sci.waikato.ac.nz/evolution/AnimalEvolution.shtml History of Animal Evolution]
 +
 
 +
{{Human Evolution}}
 +
 
 +
{{evolution}}
 +
 
 +
<!-- Categorization -->
 +
 
 +
{{DEFAULTSORT:Timeline Of Human Evolution}}
 +
[[Category:Biology timelines|Evolution, human]]
 +
[[Category:Evolution]]
 +
[[Category:Human evolution]]
 +
 
 +
[[ca:Línia temporal de l'evolució humana]]
 +
[[fr:Origine évolutive de l'Homme]]
 +
[[pt:Linha do tempo da evolução humana]]
 +
[[ta:படிவளர்ச்சி காலக்கோடு]]
 +
[[zh:人類演化歷程]]
  
 
== Schedule ==
 
== Schedule ==

Revision as of 16:59, February 12, 2010

File:Tea-Party-Express-2-Million-Attend.jpg
9/12 Tea Party March on Washington.

The TEA Party Movement (TEA an acronym for Taxed Enough Already) is an ongoing, nationwide effort by grassroots protesters, a collection of individuals and self-organizing groups, all united in accomplishing a single goal: returning fiscal responsibility and limited government to the United States through the exercise of political activism.[1] The main focus of the TEA Party Movement is a rebuke of outrageous mandates, overreaching and out of control spending by an out of touch federal government. [2]

Dick Armey of FreedomWorks is a prime mover.

All of the rallies are in protest of the generational theft of public tax monies, the tremendous extensions of United States Federal debt and authority, the apparent restructuring of the Federal government with the intent to contravene the system of checks and balances for which the Constitution provides, and the attempt, which some movement leaders say has been in progress for several decades, to sacrifice liberty for permanent dependency.[3][4][5]

The Tea Party Movement held its first scheduled nationwide protest on April 15, 2009, a day that became known as the Tax Day Tea Party.[6] In the spirit of the founding fathers Boston Tea Party, the rallies have used themes from the American Revolution and also adopted the "American Tea Party Anthem," a song first performed during a March 21, 2009 Orlando, Florida Tea Party that drew over 4,000 people.[7][8][9]

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Evolutionary tree

The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the development of human species, and the evolution of humans' ancestors. It includes a brief explanation of some animals, species or genera, which are possible ancestors of Homo sapiens sapiens. It does not address the origin of life, which is addressed by abiogenesis, but presents a possible line of descendants that led to humans. This timeline is based on studies from paleontology, developmental biology, morphology and from anatomical and genetic data. The study of human evolution is a major component of anthropology.

Homo sapiens taxonomy

The cladistic line of descent (taxonomic rank) of homo sapiens sapiens (modern humans) is as follows:

domain: eukaryotes (2.100.000.000 years ago)
kingdom: animalia (590.000.000 years ago)
phylum: chordata (530.000.000 years ago)
subphylum: vertebrata (505.000.000 years ago)
class: mammalia (220.000.000 years ago)
subclass: theriiformes
infraclass: eutheria (125.000.000 years ago)
magnorder: boreoeutheria
superorder: euarchontoglires (supraprimates) (100.000.000 years ago)
order: primates (75.000.000 years ago)
suborder: haplorrhini (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, "dry-nosed" primates) (40.000.000 years ago)
infraorder: simiiformes (simians, "higher" primates)
parvorder: catarrhini ("narrow nosed" primates) (30.000.000 years ago)
superfamily: hominoidea (25.000.000 years ago)
family: hominidae (great apes) (15.000.000 years ago)
subfamily: homininae (4.500.000 years ago)
tribe: hominini
subtribe: hominina (3.000.000 years ago)
genus: homo (2.500.000 years ago)
species: homo sapiens (195.000 years ago)
sub-species: homo sapiens sapiens (12.000 years ago)[Citation Needed]

Timeline

First living beings

Date Event
4000 Ma
(million
years ago)
The earliest life appears.

Template:See

3900 Ma Cells resembling prokaryotes appear.

Template:See

2500 Ma First organisms to utilize oxygen.
2100 Ma More complex cells appear: the eukaryotes.

Template:See

1200 Ma Sexual reproduction evolves, leading to faster evolution.[10]
900 Ma

The choanoflagellates may look similar to the ancestors of the entire animal kingdom, and in particular they may be the direct ancestors of Sponges.[11] Proterospongia (members of the Choanoflagellata) are the best living examples of what the ancestor of all animals may have looked like.

They live in colonies, and show a primitive level of cellular specialization for different tasks.

600 Ma It is thought that the earliest multicellular animal was a sponge-like creature.

Sponges are among the simplest of animals, with partially differentiated tissues.

Sponges (Porifera) are the phylogenetically oldest animal phylum extant today.

580 Ma The movement of all animals may have started with cnidarians. Almost all cnidarians possess nerves and muscles and, because they are the simplest animals to possess it, their direct ancestors were very likely the first animals to use nerves and muscles together. Cnidarians are also the first animals with an actual body of definite form and shape. They have radial symmetry. The first eyes evolved at this time.
550 Ma Flatworms are the earliest animals to have a brain, and the simplest animals alive to have bilateral symmetry. They are also the simplest animals with organs that form from three germ layers.
540 Ma Acorn worms are considered more highly specialised and advanced than other similarly shaped worm-like creatures. They have a circulatory system with a heart that also functions as a kidney. Acorn worms have a gill-like structure used for breathing, a structure similar to that of primitive fish. Acorn worms are thus sometimes said to be a link between vertebrates and invertebrates[Citation Needed].

Chordates

Date Event
530 Ma One of the earliest known ancestor of the chordates is Pikaia.[12] It is the first known animal with a notochord. Pikaia is believed to be the ancestor of all chordates and vertebrates.[13]

The Lancelet, still living today, retains some characteristics of the primitive chordates. It resembles Pikaia

Other earliest known chordate-like fossils is from a conodonts an "eel-shaped animal of 4-20 cm (1½-8 in) long" with a pair of huge eyes at the head end and a complex basket of teeth.

505 Ma

The first vertebrates appear: the ostracoderms, jawless fish related to present-day lampreys and hagfishes. Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia are examples of these jawless fish, or Agnatha. (See also prehistoric fish). They were jawless and their internal skeletons were cartilaginous. They lacked the paired (pectoral and pelvic) fins of more advanced fish. They were the Precursors to the Osteichthyes (bony fish). [14]

480 Ma

The Placodermi were prehistoric fishes. Placoderms were the first of the jawed fishes, their jaws evolving from the first of their gill arches [15]. Their head and thorax were covered by articulated armoured plates and the rest of the body was scaled or naked.

400 Ma First Coelacanth appears; this order of animals had been thought to have no extant members until living specimens were discovered in 1938. It is often referred to as a living fossil.
375 Ma Tiktaalik is a genus of sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes from the late Devonian with many tetrapod-like features. It shows a clear link between Panderichthys and Acanthostega.

Tetrapodes

Date Event
365 Ma

Some fresh water lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii) develop legs and give rise to the Tetrapoda.

The first tetrapods evolved in shallow and swampy freshwater habitats.

Primitive tetrapods developed from a lobe-finned fish (an "osteolepid Sarcopterygian"), with a two-lobed brain in a flattened skull, a wide mouth and a short snout, whose upward-facing eyes show that it was a bottom-dweller, and which had already developed adaptations of fins with fleshy bases and bones. The "living fossil" coelacanth is a related lobe-finned fish without these shallow-water adaptations. These fishes used their fins as paddles in shallow-water habitats choked with plants and detritus. The universal tetrapod characteristics of front limbs that bend backward at the elbow and hind limbs that bend forward at the knee can plausibly be traced to early tetrapods living in shallow water.[16]

Panderichthys is a 90-130 cm (35-50 in) long fish from the Late Devonian period. It has a large tetrapod-like head. Panderichthys exhibits features transitional between lobe-finned fishes and early tetrapods.

Lungfishes retain some characteristics of the early Tetrapodas. One example is the Queensland Lungfish.

315 Ma

Acanthostega is an extinct amphibian, among the first animals to have recognizable limbs. It is a candidate for being one of the first vertebrates to be capable of coming onto land. It lacked wrists, and was generally poorly adapted for life on land. The limbs could not support the animal's weight. Acanthostega had both lungs and gills, also indicating it was a link between lobe-finned fish and terrestrial vertebrates.

Ichthyostega is an early tetrapod. Being one of the first animals with legs, arms, and finger bones, Ichthyostega is seen as a hybrid between a fish and an amphibian. Ichthyostega' had legs but its limbs probably weren't used for walking, they may have spent very brief periods out of water and would have used their legs to paw their way through the mud.[17]

Amphibia were the first four-legged animals to develop lungs.

Amphibians living today still retain many characteristics of the early tetrapods.

300 Ma

From amphibians came the first reptiles: Hylonomus is the earliest known reptile. It was 20 cm (8 in) long (including the tail) and probably would have looked rather similar to modern lizards. It had small sharp teeth and probably ate millipedes and early insects. It is a precursor of later Amniotes and mammal-like reptiles.

Evolution of the amniotic egg gives rise to the Amniota, reptiles that can reproduce on land and lay eggs on dry land. They did not need to return to water for reproduction. This adaptation gave them the capability to colonize the uplands for the first time.

Reptiles have advanced nervous system, compared to amphibians. They have twelve pairs of cranial nerves.

Mammals

Date Event
256 Ma Shortly after the appearance of the first reptiles, two branches split off. One branch is the Diapsids, from which come the modern reptiles. The other branch is Synapsida, which had temporal fenestra, a pair of holes in their skulls behind the eyes, which were used to increase the space for jaw muscles.

The earliest mammal-like reptiles are the pelycosaurs. The pelycosaurs were the first animals to have temporal fenestra. Pelycosaurs are not Therapsids but soon they gave rise to them. The Therapsida were the direct ancestor of mammals.

The therapsids have temporal fenestrae larger and more mammal-like than pelycosaurs, their teeth show more serial differentiation; and later forms had evolved a secondary palate. A secondary palate enables the animal to eat and breathe at the same time and is a sign of a more active, perhaps warm-blooded, way of life. [18]

220 Ma One sub-group of therapsids, the cynodonts evolved more mammal-like characteristics.

The jaws of cynodonts resemble modern mammal jaws. It is very likely this group of animals contains a species which is the direct ancestor of all modern mammals.[19]

220 Ma

From Eucynodontia (cynodonts) came the first mammals. Most early mammals were small and shrew-like animals that fed on insects. Although there is no evidence in the fossil record, it is likely that these animals had a constant body temperature, milk glands for their young. The neocortex region of the brain first evolved in mammals and thus is unique to them.

125 Ma

Eomaia scansoria, a eutherian mammal, leads to the formation of modern placental mammals. It looks like modern dormouse, climbing small shrubs in Liaoning, China.

100 Ma Common genetic ancestor of mice and humans (base of the clade Euarchontoglires).

Primates

Date Event
65–85 Ma

A group of small, nocturnal and arboreal, insect-eating mammals called the Euarchonta begins a speciation that will lead to the primate, treeshrew and flying lemur orders. The Primatomorpha is a subdivision of Euarchonta that includes the primates and the proto-primate Plesiadapiformes. One of the early proto-primates is Plesiadapis. Plesiadapis still had claws and the eyes located on each side of the head. Because of this they were faster on the ground than on the top of the trees, but they began to spend long times on lower branches of trees, feeding on fruits and leaves. The Plesiadapiformes very likely contain the species which is the ancestor of all primates.[20]

One of the last Plesiadapiformes is Carpolestes simpsoni. It had grasping digits but no forward facing eyes.

47 Ma Darwinius masillae, a transitional form between the prosimians (lemurs and other primitive primates) and the simians (monkeys, apes). It looked much like a lemur but had opposable thumbs.
40 Ma Primates diverge into suborders Strepsirrhini (wet-nosed primates) and Haplorrhini (dry nosed primates). Strepsirrhini contains most of the prosimians; modern examples include the lemurs and lorises. The haplorrhines include the three living groups the prosimian tarsiers, the simian monkeys, and apes. One of the earliest haplorrhines is Teilhardina asiatica, a mouse-sized, diurnal creature with small eyes. The Haplorrhini metabolism lost the ability to make its own Vitamin C. This means that it and all its descendants had to include fruit in its diet, where Vitamin C could be obtained externally.
30 Ma

Haplorrhini splits into infraorders Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. Platyrrhines, New World monkeys, have prehensile tails and males are color blind. They may have migrated to South America on a raft of vegetation across the Atlantic ocean (circa 4,500 km, 2,800 mi). Catarrhines mostly stayed in Africa as the two continents drifted apart. One ancestor of catarrhines might be Aegyptopithecus.

25 Ma

Catarrhini splits into 2 superfamilies, Old World monkeys (Cercopithecoidea) and apes (Hominoidea). Our trichromatic color vision had its genetic origins in this period.

Proconsul was an early genus of catarrhine primates. They had a mixture of Old World monkey and ape characteristics. Proconsul's monkey-like features include thin tooth enamel, a light build with a narrow chest and short forelimbs, and an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle. Its ape-like features are its lack of a tail, ape-like elbows, and a slightly larger brain relative to body size.

Proconsul africanus is a possible ancestor of both great and lesser apes, and humans.

Hominidae

Date Event
15 Ma Hominidae (great apes) speciate from the ancestors of the gibbon (lesser apes).
13 Ma Homininae ancestors speciate from the ancestors of the orangutan[21].

Pierolapithecus catalaunicus is believed to be a common ancestor of humans and the great apes or at least a species that brings us closer to a common ancestor than any previous fossil discovery.

Pierolapithecus had special adaptations for tree climbing, just as humans and other great apes do: a wide, flat ribcage, a stiff lower spine, flexible wrists, and shoulder blades that lie along its back.

10 Ma Hominini speciate from the ancestors of the gorillas.
7 Ma

Hominina speciate from the ancestors of the chimpanzees. The latest common ancestor lived around the time of Sahelanthropus tchadensis, ca. 7 Ma[2]; S. tchadensis is sometimes claimed to be the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, but this is disputed. The earliest known human ancestor post-dating the separation of the human and the chimpanzee lines is Orrorin tugenensis (Millennium Man, Kenya; ca. 6 Ma). Both chimpanzees and humans have a larynx that repositions during the first two years of life to a spot between the pharynx and the lungs, indicating that the common ancestors have this feature, a precursor of speech.

4.4 Ma Ardipithecus is a very early hominin genus (subfamily Homininae). Two species are described in the literature: A. ramidus, which lived about 4.4 million years ago[22] (late Miocene). A. ramidus had a small brain, measuring between 300 and 350 cm3. This is about the same size as modern bonobo and female common chimpanzee brain, but much smaller than the brain of australopithecines like Lucy (~400 to 550 cm3) and slightly over a fifth the size of the modern Homo sapiens brain. Ardipithecus was aboreal, meaning it lived largely in the forest where it competed with other forest animals for food, including the contemporary ancestor for the chimpanzees. Ardipithecus was likely bipedal as evidenced by its bowl shaped pelvis and centered foramen magnum, though its feet were still adapted for grasping rather than walking for long distances.
3.6 Ma Some Australopithecus afarensis left human-like footprints on volcanic ash in Laetoli, Kenya (Northern Tanzania) which provides strong evidence of full-time bipedalism. Australopithecus afarensis lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago. It is thought that A. afarensis was ancestral to both the genus Australopithecus and the genus Homo. Compared to the modern and extinct great apes, A. afarensis has reduced canines and molars, although they are still relatively larger than in modern humans. A. afarensis also has a relatively small brain size (~380-430cm³) and a prognathic (i.e. projecting anteriorly) face. Australopithecines have been found in Savannah environments and likely increased its diet to include meat from scavenging opportunities. An analysis of Australopithecus africanus lower vertebrae suggests that females had changes to support bipedalism even while pregnant.
3.5 Ma Kenyanthropus platyops, a possible ancestor of Homo, emerges from the Australopithecus genus.
3 Ma The bipedal australopithecines (a genus of the Hominina subtribe) evolve in the savannas of Africa being hunted by Dinofelis. Loss of body hair takes place in the period 3-2 Ma, in parallel with the development of full bipedalism.

Homo

Date Event
2.5 Ma

Appearance of Homo. Homo habilis is thought to be the ancestor of the lankier and more sophisticated Homo ergaster. Lived side by side with Homo erectus until at least 1.44 Ma, making it highly unlikely that Homo erectus directly evolved out of Homo habilis. First stone tools, beginning of the Lower Paleolithic. Template:See

1.8 Ma
File:Homo erectus.JPG
A reconstruction of Homo erectus.

Homo erectus evolves in Africa. Homo erectus would bear a striking resemblance to modern humans, but had a brain about 74 percent of the size of modern man. Its forehead is less sloping and the teeth are smaller. Other hominid designations such as Homo georgicus, Homo ergaster, Homo pekinensis, Homo heidelbergensis are often put under the umbrella species name of Homo erectus[23]. Starting with Homo georgicus found in what is now the Republic of Georgia dated at 1.8 Ma, the pelvis and backbone grew more human-like and gave georgicus the ability cover very long distances in order to follow herds of other animals. This is the oldest fossil of a hominid found (so far) outside of Africa. Control of fire by early humans is achieved 1.5 Ma by Homo ergaster. Homo ergaster reaches a height of around 1.9 metres (6.2 ft). Evolution of dark skin, which is linked to the loss of body hair in human ancestors, is complete by 1.2 Ma. Homo pekinensis first appears in Asia around 700 Ka but according to the "recently out of africa" theory could not be a human ancestor, but rather, is just a cousin offshoot species from Homo ergaster. Homo heidelbergensis was a very large hominid that had a more advanced complement of cutting tools and may have hunted big game such as horses.

516 ka Homo antecessor is the common genetic ancestor of humans and Neanderthal.[24] At present estimate, humans have approximately 20,000–25,000 genes and share 99% of their DNA with the now extinct Neanderthal [25] and 95-99% of their DNA with their closest living evolutionary relative, the chimpanzees[26][27]. The human variant of the FOXP2 gene (linked to the control of speech) has been found to be identical in NeanderthalCite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag Leading up to the Tax Day Tea Parties, the events were organized and promoted by volunteers, activists, and Political action committees across the United States.[28] By taking advantage of online viral marketing to get the word out,[29] the speed and scope with which the Tax Day Tea Party protests were organized can be attributed to the use of Twitter #TCOT feeds,[30] on blogs,[31] and the social networking Web site Facebook.[32]

Commemorations

President Obama is seen to have responded to the tea parties with requested budget cuts of $100 million on April 20, 2009.[33] Rush Limbaugh contended, "I'm sure they've got internal polling data that shows these tea parties are successful and these tea parties are a problem. So they're responding to the tea parties here. That's all this is." According to a Rasmussen Reports national telephone survey on April 20, 2009, the poll found that fifty-one percent (51%) of Americans had a favorable view of the tea parties held nationwide, including 32% who said their view of the events were "Very favorable." Thirty-three percent (33%) held an unfavorable opinion of the tea parties. Fifteen percent (15%) were not sure.[34]

Independence Day

Main Article: Independence Day Tea Party

The same organizations decided to repeat their performance on Independence Day (July 4, 2009). Even more people attended; the largest such rally was held on the grounds of the Southfork Ranch (scene of the television series Dallas '), in Plano, Texas, which drew 37,000 attendees. The themes that organizers and participants sounded at these events were much the same as were those at the Tax Day events: advocacy of limited government, decrying of high levels of taxation, and refusal to countenance plans for socialism and especially socialized medicine.

Labor Day

Several organizations also organized Tea Parties on Labor Day, once again sounding the same limited-government, low-tax, and anti-socialistic themes. Those organizations that did not plan such events often referred people to those that did.

September 12 March on Washington

Main Article: September 12 March on Washington
Gadsden snake.jpg
The largest TEA Party event thus far has been the September 12 March on Washington, DC. This was an event organized initially by the FreedomWorks Foundation, but nearly all Tea Party organizations decided to participate in this event, primarily by chartering buses and registering people for transportation to Washington. FreedomWorks estimates that 600,000 to 800,000 persons attended, and they base that estimate on the number of persons who responded when their Master of Ceremonies asked all attendees within earshot to send the text message "Freedom" to a designated five-digit telephone number. However, the London Daily Mail estimates attendance at as many as a million persons, on the basis of eyewitness accounts and aerial-photographic evidence.[35] Estimates of total attendance are difficult to obtain, primarily because the size of the crowd far exceeded the estimates by the event planners, with the result that many attendees were never able to get within earshot of the stage or even the sound system, and the temporary sanitary facilities were hopelessly jammed, with fifty persons standing in line to use each portable "necessary."

Operation: Can You Hear us Now?

TEA party demonstrations have targeted local and national media outs across the country to oppose massive government spending. In a press release, the movement was led by FaxDC in about 100 cities across the U.S. on September 17th. [36] Rush Limbaugh has previously spoke for the need for such media targeted TEA protests.

  • NBC studios in Burbank
  • CNN in Atlanta and
  • Affiliate stations of NBC, ABC and CBS
  • The New York Times
  • Los Angeles Times
  • Other prominent newspapers.

Canyouhearusnow.jpg

TEA Party Movie

TEA PARTY: The Documentary Film was released Thanksgiving Day 2009, is a documentary of five grassroots activists. The story line "from home town rally goers and rally organizers to national activists taking part in the 912 Taxpayer March on Washington." The theme is about principles, a call for a return to constitutionally limited government, personal responsibility, and fiscal restraint at the Federal level. TEA Party the Movie

Pink Slips Campaign

Organized in part by Joseph Farah from WorldNetDaily, they had a goal of sending each and every member of Congress more than 5,000,000 pink slips.
Each pink slip reads YOU ARE BEING PUT ON NOTICE and

  • government health care
  • cap and trade
  • "hate crimes"
  • any more spending

"If you vote for any of these, your real pink slip will be issued in the next election"

As of November 2009, 8 million pink slips have been sent to Congress at a cost of $29 each [37]

Themes

The Tea Party Movement began with a protest against two aspects of current public policy:

  1. Excessive taxation
  2. Special privilege

Rick Santelli specifically cited the mortgage bailout policies of early 2009 as a prize example of the government doing special favors for certain classes of voters, in return for their continued support, and also of the "moral hazard" in which such policies inevitably place anyone who "buys on time," i.e., buys any sort of asset, from a home appliance to a parcel of real estate, using borrowed money.

As the movement has progressed, it has begun to sound broader themes, which one may best summarize as:

  1. Self-responsibility
  2. Self-autonomy
  3. Limited government
  4. A requirement that government live within its own means, just as individuals must live within theirs
  5. Capitalism
  6. Freedom of all varieties of production and trade
  7. Respect for the United States Constitution

Characteristics

Autonomy of local organizers

Most organization of Tea Parties and similar events is local. Typical of the movement is the Morristown Tea Party Organization (Morristown, New Jersey), which has a five-member board of trustees and about fifty dedicated volunteers who handle operations, communication, and logistics without assistance or direction from any regional or other organization. State-wide co-ordinating bodies do exist (for example, New Jersey Tea Parties United), but local organizations are responsible for most of their activities, fund-raising, and legal functioning. In this regard, the Tea Party Movement is similar to the Independent Baptist Fellowship of North America, which never seeks to dictate to individual churches how they must conduct their affairs.

Individual comportment and deportment

Event participants, and especially event planners, are urged to comport themselves in a manner respectful of the rights and feelings of others. Organizational leaders consciously endeavor to distinguish their movement from many liberal protest movements, which often characterize themselves by rude behavior, vandalism, and even physical assaults against their opponents. Any person who persistently suggests that Tea Party Movement participants engage in activities remotely similar to this may usually consider themselves excluded, and in some cases organizers have summoned law-enforcement authorities to deal with provocative behavior by attendees at planning and other meetings.

Symbols

Gadsden flag.png
By far the most prominent symbol at Tea Parties today is the Gadsden Rattlesnake Flag.[38] The Come And Take It Flag has also appeared, most notably at the September 12 March on Washington. Tea Party participants have almost always used home-made and home-decorated signs and other artifacts, in sharp contrast to the uniform, professionally printed signs carried at liberal demonstrations.

Most of the signs bear lampoons of the most highly publicized Obama Administration policies, from "Czars" to socialized medicine; moreover, Barack Obama is not the only target of criticism, the MSM has also been challenged in some rallies, both for their failings in covering the Tea Party Movement and also for what most participants regard as a collective decision by Mainstream Media organs to function as de facto government and/or Democratic Party as organs rather than the objective and disinterested commentators that they pretend to be.

Some of the signs that have been seen and photographed at these events have provoked cries of outrage from Tea Party Movement opponents, alleging bad taste, e.g. a picture of Barack Obama with the square mustache affected by Adolf Hitler and bearing the caption "I've Changed," and a sign bearing the message "Bury ObamaCare with Kennedy." After the liberal Mainstream Media quickly blamed conservatives and even Rush Limbaugh, some research was done to find the true source of the Hitler poster. It was later uncovered that the provocative Hitler signs were from a group of far-left Lyndon LaRouche supporters, as they were infiltrating the Tea Party rallies as a means to spread their extreme visions.[39]

News coverage

Attitude of Tea Party Movement participants toward four MSM outlets

By far the most industrious news organ that has covered the Tea Party Movement has been Fox News Channel, and especially its commentators Neil Cavuto and Glenn Beck.

Coverage by the Mainstream Media of the Tea Party events has been lacking, both in quantity and in quality. The three traditional broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, NBC) have attempted to discredit these events as corporate-sponsored or sponsored by the Republican Party and other conservative or reactionary groups, and have generally censored the movement by refusing to cover major events.[40] Furthermore, several news anchors working for CNN and MSNBC coined the phrase "tea-baggers," a crude term used to slur conservatives, which has an off-color connotation attempting to mock Tea Party Movement leaders and participants.[41]

Tea Party organizers are not controlled or funded by the Republican Party or any established interest group.

Polls

In latge 2009 the NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll showed 41% of Americans have a positive view of the tea party movement, and 24% had a negative view . By contrast, only 35% of Americans have a positive view of the Democrats and only 28% have a positive view of the Republican Party.[42]


References

  1. Morning Bell: The Tea Party Movement, heritage.org, April 15th, 2009.
  2. What the Tea Parties Are About, April 16, 2009.
  3. American Solutions for Winning the Future (PDF), American Solutions, April 15, 2009.
  4. Bret Baier. Taxpayers Strike Back With 'Tea Parties', Fox News, March 16, 2009.
  5. Tax Day Tea Party Resources , April 15, 2009.
  6. Tax Day Becomes Protest Day, Wall Street Journal, April 15, 2009.
  7. Michelle Malkin. Tea Party U.S.A.: The movement grows, February 21, 2009.
  8. "Tea Party" Song Becomes YouTube Hit. Newsblaze, March 23, 2009.
  9. Andrea Shea King. American Tea Party Anthem Singer Lloyd Marcus: "This whole thing is Rush Limbaugh’s fault.", Big Hollywood, April 14, 2009.
  10. "'Experiments with sex have been very hard to conduct,' Goddard said. 'In an experiment, one needs to hold all else constant, apart from the aspect of interest. This means that no higher organisms can be used, since they have to have sex to reproduce and therefore provide no asexual control.'
    Goddard and colleagues instead turned to a single-celled organism, yeast, to test the idea that sex allows populations to adapt to new conditions more rapidly than asexual populations." Sex Speeds Up Evolution, Study Finds (URL accessed on January 9, 2005)
  11. "Proterospongia is a rare freshwater protist, a colonial member of the Choanoflagellata." "Proterospongia itself is not the ancestor of sponges. However, it serves as a useful model for what the ancestor of sponges and other metazoans may have been like." http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/proterospongia.html Berkeley University
  12. "It is possible that Pikaia, until now the cynosure of Cambrianchordates, is peripheral to the line-age leading to the vertebrates." http://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j18_1/j18_1_10-11.pdf
  13. "Obviously vertebrates must have had ancestors living in the Cambrian, but they were assumed to be invertebrate forerunners of the true vertebrates — protochordates. Pikaia has been heavily promoted as the oldest fossil protochordate." Richard Dawkins 2004 The Ancestor's Tale Page 289, ISBN 0618005838
  14. These first vertebrates lacked jaws, like the living hagfish and lampreys. Jawed vertebrates appeared 100 million years later, in the Silurian. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/vertintro.html Berkeley University
  15. "Bones of first gill arch became upper and lower jaws." (Image) (URL accessed on November 16, 2006)
  16. "Lungfish are believed to be the closest living relatives of the tetrapods, and share a number of important characteristics with them. Among these characters are tooth enamel, separation of pulmonary blood flow from body blood flow, arrangement of the skull bones, and the presence of four similarly sized limbs with the same position and structure as the four tetrapod legs." http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/sarco/dipnoi.html Berkeley University
  17. "the ancestor that amphibians share with reptiles and ourselves? " " These possibly transitional fossils have been much studied, among them Acanthostega, which seems to have been wholly aquatic, and Ichthyostega" Richard Dawkins 2004 The Ancestor's Tale page 250, ISBN 0618005838
  18. "In many respects, the pelycosaurs are intermediate between the reptiles and mammals" http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/synapsids/pelycosaurs.html Berkeley University
  19. "Tlvinaxodon, like any fossil, should be thought of as a cousin of our ancestor, not the ancestor itself. It was a member of a group of mammal-like reptiles called the cynodonts. The cynodonts were so mammal-like, it is tempting to call them mammals. But who cares what we call them? They are almost perfect intermediates." Richard Dawkins 2004 The Ancestor's Tale page 211, ISBN 0618005838
  20. "Fossils that might help us reconstruct what Concestor 8 was like include the large group called plesiadapi-forms. They lived about the right time, and they have many of the qualities you would expect of the grand ancestor of all the primates" Richard Dawkins 2004 The Ancestor's Tale page 136, ISBN 0618005838
  21. Raauma, Ryan, Sternera, K., (2005) "Catarrhine primate divergence dates estimated from complete mitochondrial genomes", Journal of Human Evolution 48: 237-257 [1]
  22. during the early Pliocene, and A. kadabba, dated to approximately 5.6 million years ago
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See Also