Difference between revisions of "Terrorism"

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==Terrorist==
 
==Terrorist==
  Jew (Hebrew: יְהוּדִי, Yehudi (sl.); יְהוּדִים, Yehudim (pl.); Ladino: ג׳ודיו, Djudio (sl.); ג׳ודיוס, Djudios (pl.); Yiddish: ייִד, Yid (sl.); ייִדן, Yidn (pl.))[8] is a member of the Jewish people, an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites or Hebrews of the ancient Middle East. The ethnicity and the religion of Judaism, the traditional faith of the Jewish nation, are strongly interrelated, and converts to Judaism are both included and have been absorbed within the Jewish people throughout the millennia.
+
One who uses [[terroristic tactics]] to coerce behavior in another person or group is generally considered to fall under the definition of the term "terrorist". One who uses such terroristic tactics ([[suicide bombing]], [[sniper]], [[assassination]], [[random bombing]], etc.) can often be described as such. Aeroflight in the UK [http://www.aeroflight.co.uk/definitions.htm], defines it as:  ''"One who utilizes the systematic use of violence and/or intimidation to achieve political objectives, while disguised as a civilian non-combatant. The use of a civilian disguise while on operations exempts the perpetrator from protection under the Geneva Conventions, and consequently if captured they are liable for prosecution as common criminals."''
  
By traditional accounts, Jewish history began with the Biblical patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, during the second millennium BCE. The Jews enjoyed two periods of political autonomy in their national homeland, the Land of Israel, during ancient history. The first era, which encompassed the periods of the Judges, the United Monarchy, and the Divided Monarchy (the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah), ended with the destruction of the First Temple in 586 BCE. The second era was the period of the Hasmonean Kindgom (140–37 BCE). Since the destruction of the First Temple, the diaspora has been the home of most of the world's Jews.[9] Except in the modern State of Israel, established in 1948, the Jews have been a minority in every country in which they have lived and they frequently experienced persecution, resulting in a population that fluctuated both in numbers and distribution over the centuries.
+
==Terrorism==
 +
Terrorism is the use of terror (fear), violence, and intimidation to achieve an end. Terrorism also refers to any fear and subjugation produced by this. The term is also used to describe violence or other harmful acts committed (or threatened) against civilians by groups or persons for political or ideological goals. Terrorism is the unlawful use or threatened use, of force, ''intimidation'', and/or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons.
  
According to the Jewish Agency, as of 2007 there were 13.2 million Jews worldwide; 5.3 million in Israel, 5.3 million in the United States, and the remainder distributed in communities of varying sizes around the world; this represents 0.2% of the current estimated world population.[10][11] These numbers include all those who consider themselves Jews whether or not affiliated, and, with the exception of Israel's Jewish population, do not include those who do not consider themselves Jews or who are not Jewish by halakha. The total world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure. In addition to halakhic considerations, there are secular, political, and ancestral identification factors in defining who is a Jew that increase the figure considerably.[11]
+
===Leftist (Radical) Terrorism===
  
 +
Leftist Terrorism, often referred to as radical terrorism, is terrorism that embraces the fringe left side of the political spectrum (Countries that are hostile to dissident terrorist movements often also see violence from the far left as well). Radical terrorists are future orientated. That is, radicals believe that they are currently being oppressed by some current government, ideology or regime, and therefore they should overthrow that oppressor and install a better government. Radical terrorists often operate with the belief that it is possible to create a utopia for the people. Radicals generally follow the beliefs of Karl Marx and Lenin, with emphasis on the idea of Lenin's vanguard party. Leftist terrorists often choose symbolic targets that emphasize what they see as a an oppressor to the working class. Leftist terrorist tend to target buildings and governmental structures that represent capitalism, or assassinate government leaders and capitalists. Leftist terrorists are self characterized as the young, self-educated elites of society, who are destined to both weaken the oppressive government and at the same time expose the weakness of the government to the exploited workforce. Radicals also tend be more exclusive with what issues they champion. Often, very narrow radicals will focus on one issue, resulting in animal rights, feminist, and eco-terrorists. Radical groups often operated in highly organized and clandestine groups, easily recognizable and orderly. However, leftist groups often had internal divisions in the larger groups that often broke off to create new group.<ref>Gus Martin. Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues.</ref>
  
==Terrorism==
+
====Famous Radical Groups====
Judaism is a monotheistic religion based on principles and ethics embodied in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), as further explored and explained in the Talmud and other texts. Judaism is among the oldest religious traditions still being practiced today. Jewish history and the principles and ethics of Judaism have influenced other religions, such as Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith.
+
  
In modern Judaism, central authority is not vested in any single person or body, but in sacred texts, traditions, and learned Rabbis who interpret those texts and laws. According to Jewish tradition, Judaism begins with the Covenant between God and Abraham (ca. 2000 BCE), the patriarch and progenitor of the Jewish people. Throughout the ages, Judaism has adhered to a number of religious principles, the most important of which is the belief in a single, omniscient, omnipotent, benevolent, transcendent God, who created the universe and continues to govern it. According to Jewish tradition, the God who created the world established a covenant with the Israelites and their descendants, and revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah. Judaism has traditionally valued Torah study and the observance of the commandments recorded in the Torah and as expounded in the Talmud.
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*[[Al-Qaeda]]
 +
*[[Animal Liberation Front]]
 +
*[[Earth Liberation Front]]
 +
*[[Irish Republican Army]]
 +
*[[John Brown Anti-Klan Committee]]
 +
*[[May 19th Communist Organization]]
 +
*[[Muslim Brotherhood]]
 +
*[[Prairie Fire Organizing Committee]]
 +
*[[Red Army Faction]]
 +
*[[Revolutionary Organization 17 November]]
 +
*[[Symbionese Liberation Army]]
 +
*[[Weather Underground Organization]]
 +
*[[Youth International Party]]
  
 +
===Right (Reactionary) Terrorism===
  
===Leftist (Radical) Terrorism===
+
Historically, reactionary terrorism has been less organized and less symbolic than leftist terrorists. Reactionary terrorists, like radical terrorists, see the current government as corrupt, but unlike radical leftists, reactionaries do not see the current government as needing revolutionary change. Rather, reactionaries view the government as a perversion of some older, better, government or social order. Reactionary terrorist violence is an attempt to regain the lost government and return to "order" and status quo. Reactionary violence is often justified by a use of mysticism about the old order. Scapegoating is a common tactic among reactionary terrorists to create an enemy for which to blame for the current order. Historical scapegoats among reactionary terrorists have included Jews, foreigners, homosexuals, atheists, leftists, blacks, illegal immigrants, and other racial minorities. Reactionary groups often defined by racial supremacy and a sense of order. Goals of reactionary terrorist include the delegation of minorities back to secondary status with respect to the national majority and a creation of a strong government to sustain order and prevent chaos through a police state. It should be noted however that due to conspiracy theories prevalence in the American fringe right, American reactionaries do not seek the creation of a strong government. Reactionaries often act as individuals or small groups and are not as discriminate with their targets as are leftist groups. This is partially due to the lack of unity between reactionaries and the scope of reactionary targets, often encompassing entire races.<ref>Gus Martin. Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues.</ref>
 +
 
 +
====Famous Reactionary Groups====
 +
 
 +
*[[Ku Klux Klan]]
 +
*[[Skinheads]]
 +
*[[New Order]]
 +
*The [[Contras]] in Nicaragua
 +
 
 +
== Domestic terrorists ==
 +
In describing domestic terrorism before the House Resources Committee on February 12, 2002, James F. Jarboe, Domestic Terrorism Section Chief of the FBI's Counterterrorism Division, stated:
 +
:''"Domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use, of violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States (or its territories) without foreign direction, committed against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.  During the past decade we have witnessed dramatic changes in the nature of the terrorist threat. In the 1990s, right-wing extremism overtook left-wing terrorism as the most dangerous domestic terrorist threat to the country. During the past several years, special interest extremism, as characterized by the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and the Earth Liberation Front (ELF), has emerged as a serious terrorist threat. Generally, extremist groups engage in much activity that is protected by constitutional guarantees of free speech and assembly. Law enforcement becomes involved when the volatile talk of these groups transgresses into unlawful action. The FBI estimates that the ALF/ELF have committed more than 600 criminal acts in the United States since 1996, resulting in damages in excess of 43 million dollars."'' [http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress02/jarboe021202.htm]
 +
 
 +
The following organizations have been accused by the FBI of being involved with domestic terrorism:
 +
*[[Animal Liberation Front]]
 +
*[[Black Liberation Army]]
 +
*[[Earth Liberation Front]]
 +
*[[Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional]] (FALN)
 +
*[[Ku Klux Klan]]
 +
*[[Symbionese Liberation Army]]
 +
*[[Army of God]]
 +
*[[Weather Underground]]
 +
 
 +
== International ==
 +
 
 +
*[[Al-Qaeda]]
 +
 
 +
*[[PIRA]]
 +
 
 +
*[[Hamas]]
 +
 
 +
==Terrorism and the Media==
 +
 
 +
The prime goal of any terrorist is mass media exposure. Terrorism cannot recruit new initiates like regular armies, rather when they run out of discontented radicals within their state, they must rely on the media to spread their message. Therefore, media outlets and the press must be careful when choosing a story, as often running a story about a terrorist attack just creates more support for a terrorist cause.
 +
 
 +
However, terrorist must be careful, as if an attack goes too far, it is possible to cause political backlash against the group, as what happened in the 9/11 attacks on the United States.
 +
 
 +
== Groups Considered by the United States to be Terrorist Organizations ==
  
While Judaism has seldom, if ever, been monolithic in practice, it has always been fiercely monotheistic in theology - although the Tanakh records significant periods of apostasy among many Israelites from Judaism's beliefs.
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*[[Abu Sayyaf]]
 +
*[[Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade]]
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*[[Al-Qaeda]]
 +
*[[Ansar Al-Islam]]
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*[[ETA]]
 +
*[[Hamas]]
 +
*[[Hizbollah]]
 +
*[[Jemaa Islamiya]]
 +
*[[Palestinian Islamic Jihad]]
 +
*[[PKK]]
 +
*[[Real ETA]]
 +
*[[Tamil Tigers]]
  
Historically, Judaism has considered belief in the divine revelation[4] and acceptance of the Written and Oral Torah as its fundamental core belief, but Judaism does not have a centralized authority dictating religious dogma. This gave rise to many different formulations as to the specific theological beliefs inherent in the Torah and Talmud. While some rabbis have at times agreed upon a firm formulation, others have disagreed, many criticizing any such attempt as minimizing acceptance of the entire Torah.[5] Notably, in the Talmud some principles of faith (e.g., the Divine origin of the Torah) are considered important enough that rejection of them can put one in the category of "apikoros" (heretic).[6]
+
==Groups directly or indirectly supporting terrorists==
 +
The following organizations within the United States have either directly supported terrorist organizations world-wide through the use of money contributions or media influence, or have prevented enforcement of the laws on the books via court petitions and lawsuits:
 +
*[[Electronic Frontier Foundation]]
 +
*[[Council on American-Islamic Relations]] (CAIR)
 +
*[[American Civil Liberties Union]]
 +
*[[Noraid]]
  
Over the centuries, a number of formulations of Jewish principles of faith have appeared, and though they differ with respect to certain details, they demonstrate a commonality of core ideology. Of these formulations, the one most widely considered authoritative is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith.
+
== Groups receiving CIA support ==
 +
The American CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) has the stated objective of ''"Conducting covert action at the direction of the President to preempt threats or achieve US policy objectives."''[https://www.cia.gov/cia/information/mission.html]. Over the course of it's well-documented history, this has involved the establishment, funding and organization of various organizations some have regarded as terrorist, including:
  
These principles were controversial when first proposed, evoking criticism by Hasdai Crescas and Joseph Albo. Maimonides thirteen principles were ignored by much of the Jewish community for the next few centuries.[7] Over time two poetic restatements of these principles ("Ani Ma'amin" and "Yigdal") became canonized in the Jewish prayer book, and eventually became widely held.
+
*The [[Contras]]
 +
*[[Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haïti]] (FRAPH)<ref>Reed Lindsay,[http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,,1163909,00.html ''Cold War returns to US backyard''], The Observer, March 7, 2004</ref>.
  
Joseph Albo and the Raavad have criticized Maimonides' list as containing too many items that, while true, were not fundamentals of the faith, and thus placed too many Jews in the category of "heretic", rather than those who were simply in error. Many others criticized any such formulation as minimizing acceptance of the entire Torah (see above). As noted however, neither Maimonides nor his contemporaries viewed these principles as encompassing all of Jewish belief, but rather as the core theological underpinnings of the acceptance of Judaism. Along these lines, the ancient historian Josephus emphasized practices and observances rather than religious beliefs, associating apostasy with a failure to observe Jewish law and maintaining that the requirements for conversion to Judaism included circumcision and adherence to traditional customs.
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== War on terror ==
  
Today most Orthodox authorities hold that Maimonides' 13 principles of faith are obligatory, and that Jews who do not fully accept each one of them are potentially heretical.[citation needed]
+
===Fighting terrorism===
 +
*[http://lightonthings.blogspot.com#fight The Reality Show - The Watch the Fight] links to many sites that deal with the 'war on terror'.
 +
*[[Fox News Channel|Fox News]] has compiled a [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,335500,00.html list of known terror plots] thwarted by the U.S. government since Sept. 11, 2001.
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 +
*[[FBI Most Wanted Terrorist List]]
 
*[[September 11, 2001 attacks]]
 
*[[September 11, 2001 attacks]]
 +
*[[June 2007 UK terror attacks]]
 +
*[[Osama Bin Laden]]
 +
*[[Homicide Bombers]]
 
*[[Pyroterrorism]]
 
*[[Pyroterrorism]]
*[[Money Grubbin']]
+
*[[Sudden Jihad Syndrome]]
*[[Sideburns]]
+
*[[Large Noses]]
+
*[[Government Conspiracy]]
+
*[[The Fall of Rome]]
+
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 18:48, 28 July 2008

File:Terrormunich.jpg
A member of Black September, a terrorist group, during the 1972 Munich Olympics
Terrorism is defined by the US Department of Defense as "the unlawful use of -- or threatened use of -- force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives."

Terrorist

One who uses terroristic tactics to coerce behavior in another person or group is generally considered to fall under the definition of the term "terrorist". One who uses such terroristic tactics (suicide bombing, sniper, assassination, random bombing, etc.) can often be described as such. Aeroflight in the UK [1], defines it as: "One who utilizes the systematic use of violence and/or intimidation to achieve political objectives, while disguised as a civilian non-combatant. The use of a civilian disguise while on operations exempts the perpetrator from protection under the Geneva Conventions, and consequently if captured they are liable for prosecution as common criminals."

Terrorism

Terrorism is the use of terror (fear), violence, and intimidation to achieve an end. Terrorism also refers to any fear and subjugation produced by this. The term is also used to describe violence or other harmful acts committed (or threatened) against civilians by groups or persons for political or ideological goals. Terrorism is the unlawful use or threatened use, of force, intimidation, and/or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons.

Leftist (Radical) Terrorism

Leftist Terrorism, often referred to as radical terrorism, is terrorism that embraces the fringe left side of the political spectrum (Countries that are hostile to dissident terrorist movements often also see violence from the far left as well). Radical terrorists are future orientated. That is, radicals believe that they are currently being oppressed by some current government, ideology or regime, and therefore they should overthrow that oppressor and install a better government. Radical terrorists often operate with the belief that it is possible to create a utopia for the people. Radicals generally follow the beliefs of Karl Marx and Lenin, with emphasis on the idea of Lenin's vanguard party. Leftist terrorists often choose symbolic targets that emphasize what they see as a an oppressor to the working class. Leftist terrorist tend to target buildings and governmental structures that represent capitalism, or assassinate government leaders and capitalists. Leftist terrorists are self characterized as the young, self-educated elites of society, who are destined to both weaken the oppressive government and at the same time expose the weakness of the government to the exploited workforce. Radicals also tend be more exclusive with what issues they champion. Often, very narrow radicals will focus on one issue, resulting in animal rights, feminist, and eco-terrorists. Radical groups often operated in highly organized and clandestine groups, easily recognizable and orderly. However, leftist groups often had internal divisions in the larger groups that often broke off to create new group.[1]

Famous Radical Groups

Right (Reactionary) Terrorism

Historically, reactionary terrorism has been less organized and less symbolic than leftist terrorists. Reactionary terrorists, like radical terrorists, see the current government as corrupt, but unlike radical leftists, reactionaries do not see the current government as needing revolutionary change. Rather, reactionaries view the government as a perversion of some older, better, government or social order. Reactionary terrorist violence is an attempt to regain the lost government and return to "order" and status quo. Reactionary violence is often justified by a use of mysticism about the old order. Scapegoating is a common tactic among reactionary terrorists to create an enemy for which to blame for the current order. Historical scapegoats among reactionary terrorists have included Jews, foreigners, homosexuals, atheists, leftists, blacks, illegal immigrants, and other racial minorities. Reactionary groups often defined by racial supremacy and a sense of order. Goals of reactionary terrorist include the delegation of minorities back to secondary status with respect to the national majority and a creation of a strong government to sustain order and prevent chaos through a police state. It should be noted however that due to conspiracy theories prevalence in the American fringe right, American reactionaries do not seek the creation of a strong government. Reactionaries often act as individuals or small groups and are not as discriminate with their targets as are leftist groups. This is partially due to the lack of unity between reactionaries and the scope of reactionary targets, often encompassing entire races.[2]

Famous Reactionary Groups

Domestic terrorists

In describing domestic terrorism before the House Resources Committee on February 12, 2002, James F. Jarboe, Domestic Terrorism Section Chief of the FBI's Counterterrorism Division, stated:

"Domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use, of violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States (or its territories) without foreign direction, committed against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. During the past decade we have witnessed dramatic changes in the nature of the terrorist threat. In the 1990s, right-wing extremism overtook left-wing terrorism as the most dangerous domestic terrorist threat to the country. During the past several years, special interest extremism, as characterized by the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and the Earth Liberation Front (ELF), has emerged as a serious terrorist threat. Generally, extremist groups engage in much activity that is protected by constitutional guarantees of free speech and assembly. Law enforcement becomes involved when the volatile talk of these groups transgresses into unlawful action. The FBI estimates that the ALF/ELF have committed more than 600 criminal acts in the United States since 1996, resulting in damages in excess of 43 million dollars." [2]

The following organizations have been accused by the FBI of being involved with domestic terrorism:

International

Terrorism and the Media

The prime goal of any terrorist is mass media exposure. Terrorism cannot recruit new initiates like regular armies, rather when they run out of discontented radicals within their state, they must rely on the media to spread their message. Therefore, media outlets and the press must be careful when choosing a story, as often running a story about a terrorist attack just creates more support for a terrorist cause.

However, terrorist must be careful, as if an attack goes too far, it is possible to cause political backlash against the group, as what happened in the 9/11 attacks on the United States.

Groups Considered by the United States to be Terrorist Organizations

Groups directly or indirectly supporting terrorists

The following organizations within the United States have either directly supported terrorist organizations world-wide through the use of money contributions or media influence, or have prevented enforcement of the laws on the books via court petitions and lawsuits:

Groups receiving CIA support

The American CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) has the stated objective of "Conducting covert action at the direction of the President to preempt threats or achieve US policy objectives."[3]. Over the course of it's well-documented history, this has involved the establishment, funding and organization of various organizations some have regarded as terrorist, including:

War on terror

Fighting terrorism

See also

References

  1. Gus Martin. Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues.
  2. Gus Martin. Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues.
  3. Reed Lindsay,Cold War returns to US backyard, The Observer, March 7, 2004

External Links