Title IX is a section of the Civil Rights Act which mandates that no one "be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance" on account of sex. 20 U.S.C. § 1681(a).
Title IX is controversial not for what it says, but how it is applied. Under informal regulations adopted by the Democratic Administrations of Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton, a gender proportionality test may be applied to schools that receive any federal money concerning. This test causes these institutions to attempt to have the same proportion of boys and girls on sports teams as are enrolled in the school, regardless of interest in sports. Some seek to apply this proportionality test to math and science programs also.