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Typology refers to the Christian concept of Old Testament scenes and characters as foreshadowing those in the New Testament and was a commonly used device within the broader artform of Christian iconography. It was typically illustrated through the juxtaposition of imagery from the former with that of the latter, for example the depiction of David's fight with Goliath mirrored by Christ's resistance to Satan.

Typology was a popular and enduring form of religious illustration and was ubiquitous across Western art throughout the Middle Ages.