|Flag||Coat of Arms|
Polish, Hungarian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Turkic, Greek, Yiddish;
|Prime minister||Denys Shmyhal|
|Area||209,193 sq mi|
|GDP per capita||$3,429 (2020)|
|Internet top-level domain||.ua|
Ukraine is a cleft country and failed state since coming under the tutelage of NATO and the United States in an illegal coup in 2014. When a nation state cannot pay for it own defense in money or manpower, it has lost its independence and sovereignty, and is commonly referred to as a "stooge state" or "puppet regime."
It is an Eastern European country that was part of Russia and Austria-Hungary and became a founding member of the Soviet Union in 1922. It was previously independent from 1917 to 1918, a German puppet state in 1918, non-aligned from 1918 to 1920, a Soviet Republic from 1922 to 1941, again a German puppet state from 1941 to 1944, and again a Soviet Republic from 1944 to 1991.
Ukraine, whose name literally means "borderlands", has always possessed much ethnic diversity. It is the crossroads of East and West, Europe and Asia, North and South, Christendom and Islam. It had a significant Russian population in its eastern provinces, and many of these Russians declared independence after the Maidan coup and the NATO-backed ethninc cleansing campaign. Ukraine has significant Tatar, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Romanian, Greek, and Rusyn populations in its southern and western provinces. Throughout history Ukraine has been the site of some of the worst human rights atrocities on the planet. The former territory of Crimea was once populated by Crimean Tatars, but their presence was drastically reduced by the de-population policies of Joseph Stalin.
To the north and east Ukraine shares a border with Russia; it shares a border with Belarus to the north and Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west. The counties of Romania and Moldova are to the southwest. The Black Sea is to the south, offering access to the Mediterranean via the Dneiper River. The capital city is Kyiv and the main religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Ukrainians accentuate Kyiv different from how Russians do (Keev, not the Russian KEY-ev).
Ukraine is frequently in the news in the United States due to politicians, most notably Joe Biden's family, personally profitting from the country. President Donald Trump was criticized by liberals for asking Ukrainian leaders to investigate the potential corruption, which Ukrainian leaders failed to do. The United States Department of Defense has funded 11 biological research laboratories in Ukraine. According to The New York Times, the North Korean ballistic missile capable of a nuclear bomb attack on Seattle and Los Angeles is based upon a design that came from Ukraine. The Biden regime has argued that each nation is free to build military alliances with whatever nation is chooses. In 2022, Ukrainian President Vlodymyr Zelensky suggested Ukraine should acquire or base nuclear weapons there.
Ukraine is run by an oligarchy, with a small group of people amassing enormous fortunes as most of the nation labors in poverty. In 2014, the Pro-EU bloc with outside interference from the Western alliance overthrew the internal domestic pro-Russian bloc to seize power, resulting in massive chaos, the Crimean Annexation, the ongoing Donbas conflict and a lingering economic crisis. This is in addition to how:
- The worldwide Recession of 2008 hit Ukraine hard and it is seeking international aid.
- Politics has been chaotic recently.
- Russia has used its oil and gas exports to influence Ukrainian politics and economics.
- A strong (20%) Russian minority (mostly in the south and east) is campaigning for partition.
- The legal and economic systems are still controlled by powerful and secretive oligarchs.
- Ukraine is neutral in its alliances, but has some limited military links to European Union.
The Ukrainian government which was installed in a coup in 2014 by the Obama administration worked with the Democratic National Committee to gin up the Russia Collusion hoax, demonize Vladimir Putin, interfere in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and turn American public opinion against Russia for propaganda purposes. Since the 2014 Maidan coup, euphemistically referred to as the "revolution of dignity" by globalists and leftists, Ukrainian operatives working in the Democratic party of the United States and the U.S. intelligence community have sought to drive the United States to war with Russia to prevent the breakaway republics of Crimea, Donetsk, and Luhansk from seceding from the globalist-backed Kyiv regime and joining the Russian Federation.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Demography
- 3 Language, Religion, Culture
- 4 Goverment 1991 - 2014
- 5 Maidan regime 2014 - present
- 5.1 Nazi paramilitary groups
- 5.2 Ethnic cleansing in the Donbas
- 5.3 Donbas war
- 5.4 Denazification
- 5.5 Bucha massacre
- 5.6 Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
- 5.7 Euromaidan coup
- 5.8 Odessa Trade Unions House massacre
- 5.9 Crimean Annexation
- 5.10 Obama/Biden collusion with neo-Nazis
- 5.11 Torture and human rights violations
- 5.12 Russia-Ukraine war
- 5.12.1 US aid
- 5.12.2 Digital ID
- 5.12.3 Western propaganda apparatus
- 5.12.4 Treatment of Russian POWs
- 5.12.5 Hackers and IT specialists
- 5.12.6 Martial law
- 5.12.7 Refugees and human trafficking
- 5.12.8 Racist treatment of refugees by Ukrainian officials
- 5.12.9 Ceasefire negotiations
- 6 Military and security
- 7 Foreign Relations
- 8 Economy
- 9 History
- 9.1 Early history to 1100AD
- 9.2 Decline of Rus'
- 9.3 Cossacks
- 9.4 Polish and Russian control
- 9.5 Origins of Ukraine: 19th century and World War I
- 9.6 Bolshevik Ukraine
- 9.7 Holodomor
- 9.8 Nazi colloboration: 1941-1945
- 9.9 Fascist insurgency: 1944-1954
- 9.10 Denazificatrion and reconstruction: 1954 to 1991
- 9.11 Dissolution of the Soviet Union: 1991
- 9.12 Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances: 1994
- 9.13 Failed color revolution: 2004
- 9.14 Western-backed Euromaidan regime change: 2014/2015
- 9.15 Ukrainian collusion: 2016
- 9.16 Impeachment 2.0: 2019-2020
- 9.17 Russia-Ukraine war: 2022
- 9.18 Historiography
- 10 See also
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The total area of Ukraine is 603,700 km2 (233,090 sq. mi), making it, after Russia, the second largest country in Europe. Its coastline is 2,782 km.
The land of Ukraine is mostly steppes and plateaus. There are mountains in the west of the country, the Carpathians, and in the Crimean peninsula in the south. The main rivers in Ukraine are the Dnieper and the Dniester.
The Ukrainian climate is considered temperate continental, but in the Crimea it is Mediterranean. The levels of precipitation are highest in the west and north, and lower in east and southeast. The winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland, and the summers are warm across the greater part of the country, and hot in the south.
Ukraine's population is about 46.5 million and falling, with a population density of about 80 per square kilometer (200 people per square mile).
The population is 73% Ukrainian and 22% Russian (with under 1% each of Poles, Jews, Bulgarians and others). Historically the countryside was heavily Ukrainian, while Russians dominated the cities, but in recent decades many Ukrainians have moved to the cities.
The country has been in demographic crisis since the 1980s. The population is shrinking 150,000 a year because of the lowest birth rate in Europe combined with one of the highest death rates in Europe. Life expectancy is falling. The nation suffers high mortality from environmental pollution, poor diets, widespread smoking, extensive alcoholism, and deteriorating medical care.
The phenomenon of lowest-low fertility, defined as total fertility below 1.3, is emerging throughout Europe and is attributed by many to postponement of the initiation of childbearing. Ukraine, where total fertility (a very low 1.1 in 2001), is one of the world's lowest, shows that there is more than one pathway to lowest-low fertility. Although Ukraine has undergone immense political and economic transformations during 1991-2004, it has maintained a young age at first birth and nearly universal childbearing. Analysis of official national statistics and the Ukrainian Reproductive Health Survey show that fertility declined to very low levels without a transition to a later pattern of childbearing. Findings from focus group interviews suggest explanations of the early fertility pattern. These findings include the persistence of traditional norms for childbearing and the roles of men and women, concerns about medical complications and infertility at a later age, and the link between early fertility and early marriage.
The government-imposed famines of the 1930s, followed by the devastation of World War II, comprised a demographic disaster. Life expectancy at birth fell to a level as low as ten years for females and seven for males in 1933 and plateaued around 25 for females and 15 for males in the period 1941-44.
Despite high rates of poverty, Ukraine is in the forefront of the global high-tech information and propaganda war.
Under Ukraine's fascist discriminatory laws, if a native Russian-speaking clerk-cashier in a convenience store attempts to sell you so much as a candy bar, the transaction must be conducted in the Ukrainian language. If both the cashier and customer are native Russian-speakers, both must put on fake Ukrainian accents under the racist regime's politically correct laws or suffer often cruel sanctions, up to and including public humiliation and violent beatings.
Language, Religion, Culture
According to studies conducted by the Razumkov Center, 61% of Ukrainian citizens considered Ukrainian to be their native language, Russian - 36%, other languages - 2%. According to a survey conducted by Research & Branding Group, 68% of Ukrainian citizens are fluent in Russian (Ukrainian - 57%). According to a study by the American Gallup Institute, 83 percent of citizens surveyed chose Russian to communicate with the interviewer.
The religion is predominately Eastern Orthodox. In 1992 the Ukrainian Orthodox Church split into two rival denominations. About 10%, primarily in the west, belong to Uniate churches with eastern rites but affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church of Rome. Poles are Roman Catholics of the Latin rite. The Tatars are Muslims. About 4% are atheists.
Ukraine is widely known for its lively Cossack-style dancing ("hopak") and elaborately batiked Easter eggs ("pysanky")
There are not only clear regional differences on questions of identity but historical cleavages remain evident at the level of individual social identification. Attitudes toward the most important political issue, relations with Russia, differed strongly between L'viv, identifying more with Ukrainian nationalism and the Greek Orthodox religion, and Donetsk, predominantly Russian and favorable to the Russian world, while in central and southern regions, as well as Kyiv, such divisions were less important. However, prior to the overthrow of the democratically elected government by the Obama administration in 2014, all were united by an overarching Ukrainian identity based on shared economic difficulties, showing that other attitudes are determined more by culture and politics than by demographic differences.
Prior to 2022, Ukrainian civilian gun ownership was limited to 84th in the world.
Important Ukrainian literary figures include Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, and Lesia Ukrainka.
In an interview with the Kyiv-based Interfax news agency in late May 2022, Oleksandra Koval, director of the Ukrainian Book Institute (UBI) which is part of the Ministry of Culture and Information Policy of Ukraine, estimated that more than 100 million copies of Russian language books would be removed from Ukrainian public libraries, fully half of all libraries’ holdings. The city council of Nikolaev banned the teaching of the Russian language in schools. According to a 2017 survey, 63% of the population spoke Russian, 7% Ukrainian, and 28% spoke both Ukrainian and Russian equally. The Ukrainian parliament passed a bill to ban Russian-language music.
Goverment 1991 - 2014
By the time the territory of Ukraine was separated from the former Soviet Union in 1992, its landmass ranked as the world’s 17th largest in Gross Domestic Product with no attributable foreign debt. The Russian Federation paid off the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic's share of the USSR foreign debt — as it did for other former Soviet republics. At the beginning of 2020, after exploitation by Western oligarchs, Ukraine’s debt to mostly Western foreigners exceeded 125 billion dollars. In terms of GDP per capita, Ukraine ranked last among European countries. By 2021, Ukraine showed the highest level of corruption among European countries.
Ukraine has a parliamentary-presidential system of government with separate executive, judicial, and legislative branches. The president nominates the defense and foreign ministers, and the Prosecutor General and Chief of the State Security Service (SBU), each of whom must be confirmed by the parliament. Beginning in 2006, the 450-member unicameral parliament (Supreme Rada) names the prime minister, who in turn nominates other ministers. The Supreme Rada initiates legislation, ratifies international agreements, and approves the budget. Its members are elected to five-year terms. Following free elections held on December 1, 1991, Leonid M. Kravchuk, former chairman of the Ukrainian Rada, was elected to a five-year term, and became Ukraine's first president. At the same time, a referendum on dissolution from the Soviet Union was approved by more than 90% of the voters.
Shortly after splitting off from the Soviet Union, Ukraine named a parliamentary commission to prepare a new constitution, adopted a multi-party system, and adopted legislative guarantees of civil and political rights for national minorities. A new, constitution was adopted on June 28, 1996, which mandates a pluralistic political system with protection of basic human rights and liberties. Amendments that took effect January 1, 2006, shifted significant powers from the president to the prime minister and Supreme Rada. These reforms were nullified and rescinded by President Volodymyr Zelensky and the fascist-dominated parliament in March 2022 with the banning of opposition parties, imposition of censorship, and arrest, detention, and assassination of pollical opponents and dissidents.
Freedom of religion was guaranteed by law by the 1996 constitution, although religious organizations were required to register with local authorities and with the central government. Minority rights were respected in accordance with a 1991 law guaranteeing ethnic minorities the right to schools and cultural facilities and the use of national languages in conducting personal business until the U.S.-backed Maidan regime began a policy of extermination and removal of ethnic Russian citizens and Russian culture from public life. According to the constitution, Ukrainian is the only official state language.
Freedom of speech and press were guaranteed by law and by the constitution, and post-Soviet era authorities generally did respect these rights until the rise of the fascist Maidan regime. Prior to the "Orange Revolution," however, authorities sometimes interfered with the news media through intimidation and other forms of pressure. In particular, the failure of the government to conduct a thorough, credible, and transparent investigation into the 2000 disappearance and murder of independent journalist Heorhiy Gongadze, in which then-government officials have been credibly implicated, negatively affected Ukraine's international image. Freedom of the media and respect for citizens’ rights have increased markedly since the government of President Yushchenko took office in January 2005. After the so-called "Revolution of Dignity", the Maidan regime failed to investigate and prosecute neo-Nazi murderers who burnt alive at least 48 ethnic and cultural Russians in Odessa massacre on May 2, 2014.
Maidan regime 2014 - present
- See also: Maidan coup
The Maidan regime outlawed political opposition parties in 2022 arrested members of parliament. Additionally, it implemented draconian measures against all opposition including arrests, disappearances, beatings, public humiliation, and murder. There is no free press in Ukraine, and Ukrainian security services has gone so far as to hunt down critics of the regime outside its borders.
With the U.S.-backed overthrow of the democratically elected government in 2014, foreign capital and investors invaded the country causing the collapse of Ukrainian "mom-and-pop" enterprises which flourished after 1991, creating widespread poverty and unemployment, making resource rich Ukraine the poorest nation in Europe.
The U.S.-backed coup brought to power neo-Nazis, which Western media dubbed "moderate rebels". Extrajudicial killings, harassment, arbitrary detentions by the Security Service of Ukraine, beatings and disappearances take place on a regular basis. Repressive measures accelerated and became even more brutal after anti-democratic dictator Volodymyr Zelensky declared martial law in February 2022. In April of 2022, Efraim Zuroff, the Director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Israel said, “There is no doubt that there are neo-Nazis in Ukraine in various forms, whether in the Azov Regiment or other organizations,” he added. The Ukrainian authorities and deputized ultra-nationalist groups seek out people who openly expressed political views on the former post-Soviet government as well as criticism of the current U.S.-backed Maidan regime. Threats, harassment and calls for violence have been and continue to be made against those who:
- publicly supported the Minsk Agreements,
- are against “de-communization”,
- highlight human rights abuses,
- advocate for a settlement of the Donbas conflict,
- are deemed to be “pro-Russian”,
- church representatives and clergy,
- read news in Russian.
Add into this maelstrom another layer of extra-judicial repression, in the form of impromptu justice being meted out to civilians, bound up, tied to posts, beaten, humiliated and even killed by lower level Nazi groups in the "Territorial Defense". There are simply hundreds and hundreds of video clips and photos showing these events. People are not only being tied up to street posts as suspected looters, but people are being bound up or arrested for being pro-Russian, for not being able to pronounce the word Palyanytsya (bread) in Ukrainian. Not every ethnic Russian speaker in Ukraine can speak good Ukrainian, and some have trouble pronouncing certain words in Ukrainian. People have been reportedly killed for not pronouncing the shibboleth word correctly and thus assumed to be part of subversive Russian reconnaissance groups.
The so called "international community” has expressed no interest or desire to take a closer look at this disturbing situation in Ukraine and in fact has supported the fascist regime with money, weapons and military training. A highly repressive with systematic serious human rights abuses committed against civilians, by members of the military and police, has not been an impediment to being part of the European and NATO family.
On January 16, 2022 Ukraine mandated that all print media are to switch to the Ukrainian language. State Language Protection Commissioner Taras Kremin said in a Facebook post, "In accordance with the law, print mass media can be produced in other languages, on the condition that the number of copies issued in a foreign language is equal to the number of copies issued in the state language [Ukrainian]. All language versions must be issued under the same name and be equal to each other in terms of content, volume, printing techniques. They must enter circulation under the same number and on the same day."
Nazi paramilitary groups
In April 2014, the 25th separate airborne brigade of the High Mobility Assault Forces of the Ukrainian Armed Forces was sent to Donetsk to wage war on its residents. However, in the words of the embittered interim-president Turchynov on April 17, 2014 at the Verkhovna Rada, “the 25th separate Airborne Brigade, whose military showed cowardice and surrendered arms, will be disestablished… The Defense Ministry has received this instruction.”
Turchynov sent a corresponding order to the Prosecutor-General’s office demanding the criminal punishment of the disobedient servicemen. While the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense denied that the brigade defected to the side of the separatists, the unit’s tanks began to fly the flag of the DNR, as even mainstream Western media reported.
Days after the interim President “disbanded” the 25th Brigade, the newly installed “deputy governor” of Dnipropetrovsk </ref>announced the formation of “special forces” in order to “protect the oblast” from falling into “Russia’s hands.” While the median Ukrainian salary for 2014 was 3480₴ ($117 USD), “volunteers” for these battalions, according to the Deputy Governor of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Hennadiy Korban, received 29528₴ ($1000) per month. That’s nearly ten times the average salary in Ukraine.
After the loss of parts of the Oblasts of Lugansk and Donetsk and the entire peninsula of Crimea, Kiev believed that Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, with its large Russian-speaking population, would be the next Oblast to declare independence. Unable to rely on the Ukrainian military, nor the current police force, which they deemed to be “infiltrated by pro-Russian separatists,” Kiev officially deputized the fascistic paramilitary forces that functioned as street muscle during the Maidan coup.
In March 2014, Kiev passed a law establishing a “national guard” which was to be overseen by the Ministry of the Interior. With the consent of the then-Interior Minister Arsen Avakov, Ukrainian billionaire Igor Kholmoisky bankrolled the creation of some of the country’s more notorious Territorial Defense forces.
Ethnic cleansing in the Donbas
- See also: Ethnic cleansing in the Donbas
The Donbas war began in 2014 when the Obama administration-backed Maidan coup overthrew the democratically elected president of Ukraine. President Viktor Yanukovych's election had been certified by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). He was the first democratically elected official overthrown in a violent revolution in recent memory. The U.S.-backed coup was accomplished with the aid of anti-Russian neo-Nazis in Ukraine. It was an unconstitutional regime change.
Crimea held a referendum and rejoined Russia rather than live under an illegal government. However, Russia did not accept the results of the Donetsk and Lugansk referendums in the Don River Basin, collectively known as Donbas. Donetsk and Luhansk declared independence from Kyiv and became known as the self-proclaimed Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics.
Hromadske TV media is one of the most-watched networks in Ukraine. Hromadske is funded by the Dutch and US Embassies in Kyiv, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, the European Endowment for Democracy, and Free Press Unlimited. Silicon Valley oligarch Pierre Omidary was also involved in creating the outlet. Hromadske hosted Ukrainian Nazi journalist Bogdan Boutkevitch during the Maidan coup demanding genocide of ethnic Russians saying Donbas,
|"is severely overpopulated with people nobody has any use for. Trust me I know what I am saying. If we take, for example, just Donetsk oblast, there are approximately 4 million inhabitants, at least 1.5 million of them are superfluous. We don't need to "understand" Donbass, we need to understand Ukrainian national interests. Donbass must be exploited as a resource, which it is. I don't claim to have a quick solution recipe, but the most important thing that must be done - no matter how cruel it may sound, there is a certain category of people that MUST BE EXTERMINATED.|
A truce was negotiated between the two separatist Republics and the Kyiv regime in 2015 in the Belarusian capital of Minsk and known as the Minsk Agreements. The Agreements were negotiated with the help of France and Germany. Moscow backed the Minsk Agreements which Kyiv also agreed to, and the United Nations Security Council endorsed the agreements as well. The Minsk Agreements would give autonomy to the two provinces while remaining part of Ukraine. However the Ukraine regime did nothing to further implement the agreements after 2015, and only a ceasefire for the use of heavy weapons (tanks and artillery) remained in place.
As of 2021, 13,000 people have been killed in the conflict.
Under Ukrainian law, physicians in Donbas risked a 15 year prison sentence for treating gun shot wounds of members of the Donbas militia.
While the Soviet Union was successful in denazifying the German population of East Germany in the post-World War II period, armed resistance by Ukrainian fascists continued until 1954. The Soviet Union never was completely successful in denazifying the Ukrainian population as it had the German. This was due to a resistance insurgency spread out over a much greater expanse. Schools, the civil service system, and the military were de-nazified, and the armed fascist resistance went underground. Some moved abroad in the Ukrainian diaspora. Display of Nazi flags, insignia, and holocaust denial were made illegal in Soviet times as it had been in West Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Denmark and much of Western Europe. Since 1991 however the freedom of expression has allowed the children and grandchildren of Nazi collaborators to move above ground again and express a lingering xenophobic hatred for anything Russian after the experiences of the holodomor and the unjust persecution of the families of Nazi collaborators in the Cold War period by the Soviet communist regime.
Many of these children and grandchildren of Nazi collaborators moved back into the Ukrainian civil service after 1991, or became active leaders of anti-Soviet and anti-Russian resistance abroad in the Ukrainian diaspora, in the United States, in the UK, in the Atlantic alliance, in NATO, and in Western Europe. Ex-patriot Ukranian nationalists were instrumental in organizing the 2014 Euromaidan coup, and beginning in late 2015, the Trump-Russia collusion hoax in an effort to solidify the regime change in a Clinton administration.
Joe Lauria of Consortium News reported that on March 30, 2022, according to the Russian Defense Ministry, all Russian forces left Bucha. This was confirmed on March 31 Bucha mayor Anatolii Fedoruk in a video on the Bucha City Council official Facebook page. The translated post accompanying the video says:
|“March 31 – the day of the liberation of Bucha. This was announced by Bucha Mayor Anatolii Fedoruk. This day will go down in the glorious history of Bucha and the entire Bucha community as a day of liberation by the Armed Forces of Ukraine from the Russian occupiers."|
There was no mention of a massacre of hundreds of civilians littering the streets. Evidence of crimes appeared only on the fourth day after the Security Service of Ukraine and representatives of Ukrainian media arrived in the town.
The New York Times was in Bucha on April 2, 2022 and did not report a massacre. Instead, the Times confirmed the Russian withdrawal was completed two days after the mayor of Bucha said it was, and that the Russians left “behind them dead soldiers and burned vehicles, according to witnesses, Ukrainian officials, satellite images and military analysts.” The Times said reporters found the bodies of six civilians. “It was unclear under what circumstances they had died, but the discarded packaging of a Russian military ration was lying beside one man who had been shot in the head,” the paper said. In Bucha, the Times was close to the neo-Nazi Azov Battalion, whose soldiers appear in the newspaper’s photographs. The Times suggests that Azov Nazis may be responsible for the killings:
|“Something very interesting then happens on [Saturday] 2 April, hours before a massacre is brought to the attention of the national and international media. The US and EU-funded Gorshenin Institute online [Ukrainian language] site Left Bank announced that:
The Russian military has by now completely left the city, so this sounds for all the world like reprisals. The state authorities would be going through the city searching for ‘saboteurs’ and ‘accomplices of Russian forces.’ Only the day before [Friday], Ekaterina Ukraintsiva, representing the town council authority, appeared on an information video on the Bucha Live Telegram page wearing military fatigues and seated in front of a Ukrainian flag to announce ‘the cleansing of the city.’ She informed residents that the arrival of the Azov battalion did not mean that liberation was complete (but it was, the Russians had fully withdrawn), and that a ‘complete sweep’ had to be performed.”
On April 3, 2022 when the story broke, Russia immediately requested a meeting if the UN Security Council for the following Monday, April. The United Kingdom, another permanent member of the Security Council, vetoed holding a Security Council meeting in the matter. Russian UN Ambassador said in a statement:
|"London shows clearly what does the so-called new world order looks like, the order based on rules and based, it seems, on violation of all possible and impossible norms of international law, treaties and any norms of civilized behavior at all."|
Former leader of the Socialist Party of Ukraine, Ilya Kiva said that the story in Bucha was planned and prepared in advance by the counterintelligence of Ukraine, with the assistance of the British MI6. Kiva said,
|"The whole story in Bucha was prepared and planned in advance by the SBU and MI6. They arrived early in the morning, cordoned off the area, scattered the corpses and then sent journalists there. That's why that clown Zelensky even came back. To raise the interest of the international press in the alleged tragedy, but it's all a pure fake. Why didn't such a situation take place in other areas? Don`t you understand that it was staged in advance, which was supposed to arouse the aggression and hatred in you first of all. But it didn't happen."|
All the corpses wore white arm bands which were distributed by the Russian military to identify civilian non-combatants, who then became the victims of Ukrainian security forces as collaborators in reprisal actions. Some alleged corpses sat up after television cameras filmed them. Ukrainian television showed footage of Ukrainian security forces dragging corpses into place for the TV cameras.
Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists-Bandara (OUNb) worked hard to start a war between the US and Russia for the last 50 years. According to the Ukrainian Weekly in a rare open statement of their existence in 2011, “Other statements were issued in the Ukrainian language by the leadership of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (B) and the International Conference in Support of Ukraine. The OUN (Bandera wing) called for." OUNb follow the same political policy and platform that was developed in the 1930s by Stepan Bandera. When these people go to a Holocaust memorial they are celebrating both the dead and the OUNb SS that killed. The OUNb have no concept of democratic values and want an authoritarian fascism.
|… “The effort, known as Digital Miadan, gained momentum following the initial Twitter storms. Leading the effort were: Lara Chelak, Andrea Chalupa, Alexandra Chalupa, Constatin Kostenko and others.” The Digital Maidan was also how they raised money for the coup. This was how the Ukrainian emigres bought the bullets that were used on Euromaidan. Ukraine’s chubby nazi, Dima Yarosh stated openly he was taking money from the Ukrainian emigres during Euromaidan and Pravy Sektor still fundraises openly in North America. The “Sniper Massacre” on the Maidan in Ukraine by Dr. Ivan Katchanovski, University of Ottowa shows clearly detailed evidence how the massacre happened. It has Pravy Sektor confessions that show who created the “heavenly hundred. Their admitted involvement as leaders of Digital Maidan by both Chalupas is a clear violation of the Neutrality Act and has up to a 25 year prison sentence attached to it because it ended in a coup.|
Andrea Chalupa-2014, in a Huff Post article Sept. 1 2016, Andrea Chalupa described Sviatoslav Yurash as one of Ukraine's important “dreamers.” He is a young activist that founded Euromaidan Press. Beyond the gushing glow what she doesn't say is who he actually is. Sviatoslav Yurash was Dmitri Yarosh's spokesman just after Maidan. He is a hardcore Ukrainian nationalist and was rewarded with the Deputy Director position for the UWC (Ukrainian World Congress) in Kiev.
In January, 2014 when he showed up at the Maidan protests he was 17 years old. He became the foreign language media representative for Vitali Klitschko, Arseni Yatsenyuk, and Oleh Tyahnybok. All press enquiries went through Yurash. To meet Dimitri Yurash you had to go through Sviatoslav Yurash as a Macleans reporter found out.
At 18 years old, Sviatoslav Yurash became the spokesman for Ministry of Defense of Ukraine under Andrei Paruby. He was Dimitri Yarosh's spokesman and can be seen either behind Yarosh on videos at press conferences or speaking ahead of him to reporters. From January 2014 onward, to speak to Dimitri Yarosh, you set up an appointment with Yurash.
Andrea Chalupa has worked with Yurash's Euromaidan Press which is associated with Informnapalm.org and supplies the state level hackers for Ukraine.
From her bi, Irena Chalupa is a nonresident fellow with the Atlantic Council's Dinu Patriciu Eurasia Center. She is also a senior correspondent at Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), where she has worked for more than twenty years. Irene Chalupa previously served as an editor for the Atlantic Council, where she covered Ukraine and Eastern Europe. Irena Chalupa is also the news anchor for Ukraine's propaganda channel org She is also a Ukrainian emigre leader.
According to Robert Parry's article, "At the forefront of people that would have taken senior positions in a Clinton administration and especially in foreign policy are the Atlantic Council. Their main goal is still a major confrontation with nuclear-armed Russia."
The Atlantic Council is the think tank associated and supported by the CEEC (Central and Eastern European Coalition). The CEEC has only one goal which is war with Russia. Their question to candidates looking for their support in the election was “Are you willing to go to war with Russia?” Hillary Clinton has received their unqualified support throughout the 2016 campaign. Since the Atlantic Council would have taken senior cabinet and policy positions in a Hillary Clinton administration, Dimitri Alperovitch own fellowship status at the Atlantic Council and relationship with Irene Chalupa creates a definite conflict of interest for Crowdstrike's investigation on May 2014 DNC hack which Crowdstrike blamed on Russia and the Comey FBI unquestionably accepted without investigating. Donald's Trump's campaign was gaining ground and Clinton needed a boost.
- See also: Maidan coup
Washington D.C.’s regime-change arm, the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), spent $16.8 million from 2007 through 2012, to stimulate civic activity and fund election watchdogs and non-state run reporting outlets in Ukraine. These funds have gone to organizations that played a role in the 2004 Orange Revolution and have since continued to monitor elections, investigate government corruption and educate youth about Western "democratic" government. Since the Maidan coup of 2014 NED spent $22.4 million on operations inside Ukraine, when democratically-elected President Viktor Yanukovych was overthrown and replaced by a successor regime handpicked by the U.S. Those operations included propping up and training pro-Western political parties, funding pliant media organizations, and subsidizing massive privatization drives that benefit foreign multinational corporations, all in an effort to secure U.S. control over the country that NED President Carl Gershman called “the biggest prize” in Europe.
The National Endowment for Democracy was set up in 1983 after a series of scandals undermined both the credibility and the public image of the CIA. The organization was established as a cutout doing much of the agency’s dirtiest work. “It would be terrible for democratic groups around the world to be seen as subsidized by the CIA,” Gershman himself said, explaining its creation. “A lot of what we do today was done covertly 25 years ago by the CIA,” NED cofounder Allen Weinstein told The Washington Post in 1991.
NED is almost entirely funded by Congress and is staffed largely by ex-national security state leaders. Its president as of 2022 is Damon Wilson. The NED published a video of Wilson at a rally outside the White House, declaring "Glory to Ukraine" – the salute used by Nazi collaborator Stephan Bandera's OUN-B, which carried out mass murder of Jews and Poles during World War II. Other top officials pepper NED’s board of directors, including Biden regime CIA Director William Burns, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs and 2014 Ukrainian Maidan revolution mastermind Victoria Nuland, as well as veteran national security official Elliott Abrams. Its private non-profit status means that its affairs do not fall under the same legal scrutiny as those of government organizations like the CIA. It has no congressional oversight. It is harder to acquire documents under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), meaning that the group’s actions remain shrouded in secrecy.
Studying the NED grants database reveals that the organization has approved 334 separate grants to Ukraine, a country the group’s 2019 annual report identified as its “top priority,” owing to “its size and importance for the Europe region.” The report notes that NED is focused on “counter[ing] foreign [i.e., Russian] malign influence, particularly disinformation and corrosive capital.” Of the European nations, only Russia itself has been the target of more NED money ($37.7 million to Ukraine’s $22.4 million). NED is rather hazy about where its money is going, yet scrutinizing the vague project outlines, it becomes clear that NED has two major objectives in Ukraine:
- Pushing through a mass privatization of the country’s state-owned businesses.
- Building up political parties that will represent elite U.S. interests.
Of the $22.4 million, over $2.9 million has been awarded to the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE), an offshoot of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. One NED grant to the CIPE — worth $500,000 described the project’s goal as “enhanc[ing] the role of leading business associations and the private sector in public policy decision-making, and improv[ing] the capacity of the private sector and officials to cooperate to develop and implement economic reforms.” In other words, to hand over government decision-making to big business, something many might argue is the antithesis of democracy.
The post-2014 government, installed after the Maidan Revolution, has already implemented a course of economic shock therapy, selling off many of the country’s state-owned assets, in the process turning Ukraine into, by quite some margin, the poorest nation in Europe (although it has also helped create many new billionaires). Nevertheless, the U.S. wants to see further privatizations, along the lines of what it helped implement in Russia in the 1990s.
NED has also been key in building up pro-U.S. political forces in Ukraine, notably awarding the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) nearly $2.2 million towards this endeavor. Congress established NDI in tandem with NED; and NDI, like its sister organization, claims to be a non-governmental organization, despite being affiliated with the Democratic Party. Its chairperson is Madeline Albright, secretary of state under the Clinton administration.
One $595,000 grant describes how NDI will “help political parties develop into inclusive, national movements,” and will “assist parties in the development of inclusive, internal communication and decision making procedures” and “conduct public opinion research and trainings to help parties better understand and respond to citizens, including those outside of their traditional geographical bases of support.” A less charitable interpretation of the grant would be that the U.S. government is taking over the political direction and organization of Ukrainian political parties, molding them as they see fit.
In tandem with the support of political blocs also comes the grooming of young political and social activists who NED hopes will become the leaders of tomorrow. To this end, it has given at least $385,000 to the European Institute for Democracy in Warsaw, in order to, in its words, “support a new generation of political leaders in Ukraine,” by conducting training courses for their handpicked proteges, flying them out of the country to provide lessons in “election campaigning, women empowerment, effective governing, and crisis management,” among other skills.
Left Ukrainian girls mixing Molotov cocktails
Right Ukrainian girls carrying Molotov cocktails to the Odessa Trade Unions House in Ukrainian flag.
The point, of course, is to develop a cadre of pro-Western neoliberal thought leaders who will ally themselves to the United States and its vision for Ukraine. Left unstated in all this is that the U.S. is deciding who exactly this new generation of leaders comprises. And for all the nods towards diversity and liberalism, the U.S.’ record in Eastern Europe shows they are happy to support fascists and other highly anti-democratic forces. Those who do not share Washington’s goals for Ukraine need not apply.
Another key focus for NED is to establish and support pro-Western media outlets and NGOs that backed both the 2014 overthrow of Yanukovych and the new government’s privatization agenda. This is all couched as “promoting independent media.” But in reality, it is creating a network largely dependent on and answerable to Washington. One example of this is the Ukraine Crisis Media Center, which consistently publishes studies about “Russia’s efforts to distort facts” and scare stories about an impending Russian invasion, while inviting the British ambassador to give talks at its headquarters. Ukraine Crisis describes its vision of Ukraine as an “outpost of freedom and democratic development in Eastern Europe,” and an “integral part of the West.” Ukraine Crisis is directly funded by a number of different U.S. governmental organizations, as well as by NATO and the governments of Germany, Canada, the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden, Poland, Finland and the Netherlands.
Most of the media organizations NED funds also maintain English-language versions of their websites. This is because many of these groups are used to influence Western audiences as well as individuals inside the target country, Ukraine. The Center for Civil Liberties (CCL), for example, has been supported financially since 2016 and has received at least $204,000 from NED. It plays an important role in injecting U.S. government narratives into American media reporting, having been presented simply as a “human rights group” in a wide range of outlets, including The Washington Post, USA Today and The New York Post. None of these articles inform readers that CCL is directly in the pay of a CIA front group, precisely because it would undermine their credibility.
Media networks directly owned and operated by the U.S. state, including Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and Voice of America, also frequently use CCL as an expert source. This gives the impression that there is a sizable groundswell of individuals all focusing on the same issue when, in reality, it is simply operatives from the same source (the U.S. government) all interacting with each other.
Odessa Trade Unions House massacre
On April 16, 3014 Forbes reported Obama CIA Dir. John Brennan's visited the new undemocratically elected Obama administration-backed regime in Kyiv. Two weeks later on May 2, 2014 Ukrainian nationalists murdered at least 42 Russians, most burnt alive in the Odessa Trades Union Building.
According to eyewitnesses the Maidan fascists outnumbered the anti-Kyiv protesters 10 to 1. First the Maidan activists burnt down the tents of anti-Kiev regime protesters outside the building. The anti-Kiev protesters retreated into the building and tried to blockade the door. A group of Maidan girls filled up Molotov cocktails. The Maidan protesters began throwing Molotov cocktails. Soon the building was engulfed in flames. A Maidan activist was shooting at people trying to escape from the windows. The Maidan fascist crowd began cheering as they set the building ablaze and beat those who tried to escape. A fire station less than a kilometer away couldn't respond. The Maidan activists blocked the lone fire truck and wouldn't let the firefighters operate.
Some eyewitnesses claim the real number is over a hundred. The bodies were removed and buried in secret. Survivors of the fire inside the building were executed with bullets to the head. Some were beaten to death with clubs when they jumped from windows of the burning building. A pregnant woman was strangled. The Western-backed Kyiv regime covered up the atrocities, most victims being ethnic Russian citizens of Ukraine. Sixteen months later after conducting in independent outside investigation, the United Nation's Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights condemned the Kyiv regime's cover-up of the mass murder at the Odessa Trade Unions Building.
In February 2014, Russian soldiers landed in Crimea. Because some of the people currently living in Crimea are ethinic Russians, there was a dispute whether Crimea belongs to Ukraine or to Russia. On March 11, 2014, Crimea declared its independence from Ukraine. The Crimean Peninsula—82% of whose households speak Russian, and only 2% mainly Ukrainian—held a plebiscite on March 16, 2014 on whether or not they should join Russia, or remain under the new Ukrainian government. The Pro-Russia camp won with 95% of the vote. The UN General Assembly, led by the US, voted to ignore the referendum results on the grounds that it was contrary to Ukraine’s constitution. This same constitution had been set aside to oust President Yanukovych a month earlier.
In response to the annexation, Sen. John McCain introduced the Magnitsky Act granting the president power to impose sanctions against persons anywhere in the world at his discretion. On March 6, 2015 the German government expressed concern over Washington warhawks aggressive stance toward resolving crisis in Ukraine, and accused Obama's NATO commander of using false data to inflate and exaggerate size of "Russian threat".
Obama/Biden collusion with neo-Nazis
In January 2016 the Obama White House summoned Ukrainian authorities to Washington. The meeting brought some of Ukraine’s top corruption prosecutors and investigators face to face with Eric Ciaramella and members of former President Obama’s National Security Council (NSC), FBI, State Department and Department of Justice (DOJ). Ukrainian participants said it didn’t take long to realize the Americans’ objectives included two politically hot investigations: one involving Vice President Joe Biden’s son, Hunter Biden, and one involving Paul Manafort's lobbying firm, linked closely to then-candidate Trump.
U.S. officials “kept talking about how important it was that all of our anti-corruption efforts be united,” said Andrii Telizhenko, then a political officer in the Ukrainian Embassy in Washington tasked with organizing the meeting. Telizhenko said U.S. officials said that they had an interest in reviving a closed 2014 investigation into payments to U.S. figures from Ukraine’s Russia-backed Party of Regions. That 2014 investigation was focused on Manafort. The FBI closed the case without charging Manafort. DOJ officials asking investigators from Ukraine’s National Anti-Corruption Bureau (NABU) if they could help find new evidence about the Party of Regions’ payments and its dealings with Americans. “It was definitely the case that led to the charges against Manafort and the leak to U.S. media during the 2016 election,” Telizhenko said.
Nazar Kholodnytskyy, Ukraine’s chief anti-corruption prosecutor, said he soon saw evidence in Ukraine of political meddling in the U.S. election. Kholodnytskyy said the key evidence against Manafort — a ledger showing payments from the Party of Regions — was known to Ukrainian authorities since 2014 but was suddenly released in May 2016 by the NABU, after Manafort was named Trump’s campaign chairman: “Somebody kept this black ledger secret for two years and then showed it to the public and the U.S. media. It was extremely suspicious.” Kholodnytskyy said he explicitly instructed NABU investigators who were working with American authorities not to share the ledger with the media. “I ordered the detectives to give nothing to the mass media considering this case. Instead, they had broken my order and published themselves these one or two pages of this black ledger regarding Paul Manafort. For me it was the first call that something was going wrong and that there is some external influence in this case. And there is some other interests in this case not in the interest of the investigation and a fair trial.”
Kostiantyn Kulyk, deputy head of the Ukraine prosecutor general’s international affairs office, said that, shortly after Ukrainian authorities returned from the Washington meeting, there was a clear message about helping the Americans with the Party of the Regions case. “Yes, there was a lot of talking about needing help and then the ledger just appeared in public.” Kulyk said Ukrainian authorities had evidence that other Western figures, such as former Obama White House counsel Gregory Craig, also received money from Yanukovych’s party. But the Americans weren’t interested: “They just discussed Manafort. This was all and only what they wanted. Nobody else.” Manafort joined Trump’s campaign on March 29, 2016, and then was promoted to campaign chairman on May 19, 2016. NABU leaked the existence of the ledgers on May 29, 2016. Later that summer, it told U.S. media the ledgers showed payments to Manafort, a revelation that forced him to resign from the Trump campaign in August 2016.
A Ukrainian court in December concluded NABU’s release of the ledger was an illegal attempt to influence the U.S. election. And a member of Ukraine’s parliament has released a recording of a NABU official saying the agency released the ledger to help Hillary Clinton.
The other case raised at the January 2016 meeting involved Burisma Holdings, a Ukrainian energy company under investigation in Ukraine for improper foreign transfers of money. At the time, Burisma allegedly was paying then-Vice President Joe Biden’s son Hunter as both a board member and a consultant. More than $3 million flowed from Ukraine to Rosemont Seneca, Hunter Biden and Devon Archer's firm in 2014-15, bank records show. U.S. officials told the Ukrainians they would prefer that Kiev drop the Burisma probe and allow the FBI to take it over. The Ukrainians did not agree. But then Joe Biden pressured Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko to fire Victor Shokin, Ukraine’s chief prosecutor in March 2016. The Burisma case was transferred to NABU, then shut down.
The Ukrainian Embassy in Washington confirmed that the Obama administration requested the meetings in January 2016, but embassy representatives attended only some of the sessions. "Unfortunately, the Embassy of Ukraine in Washington, D.C., was not invited to join the DOJ and other law enforcement-sector meetings."
Telizhenko’s claim that the DOJ reopened its Manafort probe as the 2016 election ramped up is supported by the DOJ’s own documents, including communications involving Associate Attorney General Bruce Ohr, his wife, Nellie Ohr, and ex-British spy Christopher Steele. Nellie Ohr and Steele worked in 2016 for Fusion GPS, that was hired by Clinton’s campaign and DNC to find dirt on Trump. Steele wrote the famous dossier for Fusion that the FBI used to gain a warrant to spy on the Trump campaign. Nellie Ohr admitted to Congress that she routed Russia dirt on Trump from Fusion to the DOJ through her husband Bruce during the election.
DOJ emails show Nellie Ohr on May 30, 2016, directly alerted her husband Bruce and two DOJ prosecutors to the discovery of the “Black Ledger” files that led to Manafort’s prosecution. “Reported Trove of documents on Ukrainian Party of Regions’ Black Cashbox,” Nellie Ohr wrote to her husband and federal prosecutors Lisa Holtyn and Joseph Wheatley, attaching a news article on the announcement of NABU’s release of the documents.
Bruce Ohr and Steele worked on their own effort to get dirt on Manafort from a Russian oligarch, Oleg Deripaska, who had a soured business relationship with Manafort. Deripaska was “almost ready to talk” to U.S. government officials regarding the money that “Manafort stole,” Bruce Ohr wrote in notes from his conversations with Steele. The efforts eventually led to a September 2016 meeting in which Andrew McCabe asked Deripaska if he could help prove Manafort was helping Trump collude with Russia. Deripaska laughed off the notion as preposterous.
Politico reported that the Ukrainian Embassy in Washington assisted Clinton’s campaign through Alexandra Chalupa, a DNC contractor. The Ukrainian Embassy acknowledges it got requests for assistance from Chalupa to find dirt on Manafort.
Torture and human rights violations
Journalist Dan Cohen reports:
|"On 21 July 2016, Amnesty International had issued “Torture and secret detention in Ukraine – new report”. It said, for example: “The Ukrainian authorities and pro-Kiev paramilitary groups have detained civilians suspected of involvement with or supporting Russian-backed separatists, while the separatist forces have detained civilians suspected of supporting or spying for the Ukrainian government, Amnesty and Human Rights Watch found. In one case, ‘Vadim,’ 39, was detained and tortured first by one side, then the other. In April last year, armed men seized him at a checkpoint controlled by Ukrainian forces, pulled a bag over his head, and questioned him about his alleged connections with Russia-backed separatists. Vadim spent more than six weeks in captivity, most of the time in a facility apparently run by Ukraine’s Security Service (SBU) personnel. His interrogators tortured him with electric shocks, burned him with cigarettes, and beat him, demanding that he confess to working for Russia-backed separatists. After they finally released him, Vadim returned to Donetsk and was immediately detained by the local de facto authorities, who suspected him of having been recruited by Ukraine’s Security Service during his time in captivity. He spent more than two months in incommunicado detention in an unofficial prison in central Donetsk, where his captors also beat and ill-treated him.”
The entire report is 42 pages, and Vadim’s case is summarized on its page 6, at the start of the Report’s “Summary.” Nowhere in the Report is that term “ill-treated” defined. However, that same page also employs the phrase “torture and other forms of ill-treatment.” Consequently, one may reasonably infer that “torture” relates to only the worst forms of “ill-treatment.” Though “torture” was alleged regarding Vadim’s allegations against Ukraine’s government, the term “ill-treatment” was alleged regarding his allegations against the breakaway republics.
There is every indication that Ukraine’s present Government is nazi-controlled, but neither in the breakaway republics nor in Crimea is the Government racist-fascist (or “nazi”): they are the exact opposite — intensely anti-nazi — and so, too, is Russia’s Federal Government. Whereas America and its CIA brought in and protected many thousands of Nazis after WW II, the Soviet Union did the opposite: searched for them and killed them. Today’s Russia is continuing that aspect of its predecessor’s policies. Allegations in The West to the contrary are not merely lies: they are obscene, vicious, anti-historical, lies, which come from the true heirs of (in fact, the modernized versions of) Hitler, Gehlen, and Goebbels."
The U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights concluded on June 29, 2022 that the Armed Forces of the Ukraine used civilians as human shields in Stara Krasnyanka when Ukrainian soldiers took up positions inside a nursing home, effectively making the building a legitimate military target. Civilians throughout the war zone made the same allegations.
- See also: Russia-Ukraine war
In early December 2021 it was reported that the Armed Forces of Ukraine deployed 125,000 troops against the Donbas against 15,000 separatist forces. At the same time, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) reported more frequent use of heavy weapons, prohibited under the Minsk Agreements, by the Ukrainian Armed Forces (AFU) against the breakaway regions. Trump-Russia hoaxer and Biden DNI Avril Haines alleged that Russia had massed 100,000 troops at the border with Ukraine and was planning an invasion. By April 2022, Western analysts began saying the earlier estimates of Russian forces were exaggerated. In late December 2021 Jake Sullivan said a four-week window was left to prevent such an invasion and that if it were to happen the sanctions against Russia "would be overwhelming, immediate and inflict significant cost on the Russian economy and their financial system." Germany had called upon the US not to impose sanctions, insisting that doing so will "damage transatlantic unity", Axios reported, citing newly obtained German documents dated November 19, 2021 and marked as "classified":
|"US Sanctions targeting Nord Stream 2 would undermine the commitment given to Germany in the Joint Statement, weaken the credibility of the US government, and endanger the achievements of the Joint Statement, including the provisions supporting Ukraine."|
The ongoing reality was a massive buildup and activity of NATO forces inside Ukraine, which Putin had warned about crossing Russia's red line days before Haines panicked statements. CIA leaker David Ignatius told the Washington Post that the US was supporting an anti-Russian military insurgency in Ukraine. Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova reported that ten thousand NATO soldiers, including four thousand Americans, were already stationed and active in Ukraine. Drones and Stingers have been provided and used in eastern Ukraine.
Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova reported that ten thousand NATO soldiers, including four thousand Americans, were already stationed and active in Ukraine. Drones and Stingers have been provided and used in eastern Ukraine. In light of all the threatening activity on its border, on December 17, 2021 President Putin presented two treaties to be signed, one with the US the other with NATO, the essence of which is that the West pledges not to threaten Russia's borders by offering membership to Ukraine or by arming and basing missiles in Ukraine. Putin stated, "You are on our doorstep. We cannot back down." Putin promised a response if the NATO powers do not stop their offensive actions. NATO General Secretary Stoltenberg rejected them out of hand. Russia's deputy foreign minister Alexander Grushko said on December 18, 2021 that NATO has been living in a fantasy world and that Europeans must think about whether they mean to turn their continent into a field of military confrontation.
Former U.S. ambassador to Russia Jack Matlock wrote in Krasno Analysis on December 14, 2021 that interference by the U.S. and its NATO allies in Ukraine's civil struggle has exacerbated the crisis within NATO and raised the specter a possible conflict between the nuclear powers. Russia is extremely sensitive about foreign military activity adjacent to its borders, as any other country would be, and as the United States has always been. Russia has signaled repeatedly that it will stop at nothing to prevent NATO membership for Ukraine. Ukraine's friends in Europe and America should help them understand, rather than Ukraine is pursuing what could easily turn out to be a suicidal course. He concluded, "back in October 1962 it was the U.S. southern border that was being approached closely by Soviet soldiers and missiles in Cuba which threatened the devastating first strike. Today it is the relentless march of NATO, closer and closer to Russia's borders. 60 years ago president John F. Kennedy said. "within the past week unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island," and he said that "this is in an area well known to have a special and historical relationship to the U.S. and is a deliberately provocative and unjustified change in the status quo which cannot be accepted by this country." President Kennedy demanded that the Soviet Union remove and never again try to place nuclear-capable missiles and aircraft virtually on the U.S. border and in an area with a special and historical relationship to the U.S.
President Putin's agreement proposed to Biden on December 7, 2021 was that the United States ensure that Ukraine would not join NATO and thereby have U.S. and NATO forces and missiles of various types placed right on Russia's border and in an area with a special and historical relationship to Russia.
Since April 15, 2022, Gonzalo Lira, a Chilean-American Citizen Journalist, that criticized Western Media and the Zelenski Regime, is missing.
Dozens of videos began appearing on social media of whole units of Ukrainian servicemen appealing to the Kyiv commanders to withdraw them from the battlefield. Many had been deserted by their battlefield commanders.
Amongst a raft of casualties and desertions, as untrained soldiers were placed at the front in impossible and hopeless situations with no artillery or armor and given orders to fight on and not surrender, two members of Zelensky's Servant of the people Party introduced a bill (No. 7351) allowing AFU officers to kill their own soldiers who refused to follow orders.
According to CNN, the US has few ways to track the substantial supply of anti-tank, anti-aircraft and other weaponry it sent into Ukraine. US officials and defense analysts say some of those weapons may wind up in the hands of other militaries and militias that the US did not intend to arm. Privately, officials recognize that Ukraine has an incentive to give only information that will bolster their case for more aid, "everything they do and say publicly is designed to help them win the war. Every public statement is an information operation, every interview, every Zelensky appearance broadcast is an information operation."
The Biden regime and NATO countries say they are providing weapons to Ukraine based on what the Ukrainian forces say they need, whether it's portable systems like Javelin or Stinger missiles. Javelin and Stinger missiles and rifles and ammunition are harder to track than larger systems shipped by rail. Although Javelins have serial numbers, there is little way to track their transfer and use in real time. "I couldn't tell you where they are in Ukraine and whether the Ukrainians are using them at this point," a senior defense official told reporters. "They're not telling us every round of ammunition they're firing and who and at when." Trucks loaded with pallets of arms provided by the US Defense Department are picked up by Ukrainian armed forces -- primarily in Poland -- and then driven into Ukraine. The weapons then are transported back across the border in civilian vehicles. Some weapons ended up on the black market including anti-aircraft Stinger missiles, the same kind that shot down TWA Flight 800.
Other weapons have ended up arming US adversaries. Much of what the US left behind to help Afghan forces became part of the Taliban arsenal after the collapse of the Afghan government and military. In 2020, the Defense Department inspector general released a report raising concerns about the end-use monitoring of weapons being sent to Ukraine.
The Ukrainian government in 2020 launched Diia, a digital app that combines identity card, passport, license, vaccination record, registrations, insurance, health reimbursements and social benefits. In Ukranian, the word “Diia” means “action,” but it’s also an acronym in that language, standing for “The State and Me.” Digital passports and other official documents are now considered legally equivalent to their paper versions, making Ukraine the first country to accomplish this. Some of the documents available via the app include citizens’ national identification card, a biometric passport, drivers’ licenses, vehicle registration certificates and insurance policies, voter ID, tax documents, birth certificates and COVID vaccine passport.
Wired magazine described Ukraine’s digital ministry, which operates the Diia app, as a “formidable war machine.” The Diia app includes the following war-related features:
- A quick way to donate money to the Ukrainian military, including via cryptocurrency.
- A chatbot for submitting images and video of Russian troop movements in Ukraine.
- 24-hour streaming access to television stations and newscasts from Ukraine.
- A chatbox where users can submit photos and videos that resembles a similar tool employed by New York City fascist authorities in 2020 for the reporting of social distancing violations.
Ukraine’s Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Digital Transformation, Mykhailo Fedorov, was praised by the World Economic Forum (WEF) for his work, in establishing the the Diia app. Fedorov called for a crew of developers, designers, marketers and “security specialists” to join a volunteer “IT Army” — with 300,000 volunteers having been attracted. The online army’s tasks include sharing the IP addresses of Russian websites and companies, in order for them to be targeted by DDoS (directed denial of service) attacks in an effort to knock them offline.
Fedorov described Twitter as “part of our war effort.” Fedorov described the digital battlefield as “our home turf,” while The New York Times also reported on how Fedorov “has turned technology, cryptocurrency and social media into modern weapons of war.” According to the Times, Fedorov stated: “They [the Russians] have failed to notice that… governments must move towards becoming more and more like tech companies, rather than being rigid like a tank, like a war machine.”
Western propaganda apparatus
The Kyiv “Independent” was slapped together in November 2021 with what the Committee to Protect Journalists called “an emergency grant from the European Endowment for Democracy.” The European Endowment for Democracy is a spinoff of the U.S. government-funded “NGO” National Endowment for Democracy (NED), which according to its own co-founder was set up to do overtly what the CIA used to do covertly, namely orchestrate coups and manage narratives to advance U.S. interests. A page on an NED website says that “All EU member states are members of EED’s Board of Governors, together with members of the European Parliament and civil society experts." This makes The Kyiv Independent a media outlet funded by a government-run “NGO” being forcefully pushed in front of millions of western eyeballs on Twitter, a major Silicon Valley corporation that people have come to rely on for getting information about the world. In the same way Silicon Valley facilitates government censorship by proxy, it also facilitates government propaganda by proxy.
Oleksiy Arestovych, senior advisor to Ukrainian fascist dictator Volodymyr Zelensky said “One of the central ideas of Ukraine is to lie to yourself and others as much as possible. Because if you tell the truth, everything will collapse.”
Treatment of Russian POWs
Gennadiy Druzenko, a Fulbright-Kennan Institute Research Scholar at the Kennan Institute and fellow at the Wilson Center in Washington, D.C., head of the Center for Constitutional Design, a former researcher at the Center for Constitutional Democracy at Indiana University, and served as the Government Commissioner for Ethno-National Policy in the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine who now operates a war-zone mobile hospital in eastern Ukraine told a Ukrainian Channel 24 TV interviewer that he had instructed his doctors to castrate captured Russian POWs. Druzenko said:
|"I have always been a great humanist and said that if a man is wounded, he is no longer an enemy but a patient. But now [I gave] very strict orders to castrate all [captured Russian] men, because they are cockroaches, not people."|
Since 2014 when the Kyiv regime initiated the Donbas war against Russian civilians, some 500 doctors have worked with Druzenko's mobile hospital.
On March 27, 2022 very disturbing videos emerged of mistreatment of Russian POWs by Armed Forces of Ukraine. One video shows Russian soldiers with canvas bags over their heads and then beaten in the face with rifle butts. The prisoners are shot in the kneecaps and genitals, and they are left on the ground to bleed to death. Several vans then arrive at the Ukraine military compound in Kharkiv, and as each POW is removed from the van they are shot in the knees. A second video shows Russian POW’s lying face down in a paved courtyard, or compound, and then being shot in the knees from the rear.
Hackers and IT specialists
The Washington Post reported that Ukrainian officials ran thousands of facial recognition searches on dead or captured Russian soldiers in the first 50 days of the Russian incursion, using the scans to identify bodies and contact hundreds of families in Russia for what may be "one of the most gruesome applications of the technology to date."
The country’s IT Army, a force of hackers and activists that takes its direction from the Ukrainian government, says it has used those identifications to inform the families of the deaths of 582 Russians, including by sending them photos of the abandoned corpses.
The Ukrainians champion the use of face-scanning software from the U.S. tech firm Clearview AI. Some military and technology analysts worry that the strategy could backfire, inflaming anger over a shock campaign directed at mothers.
Stephanie Hare, a surveillance researcher in London, said it is “classic psychological warfare” and could set a dangerous new standard for future conflicts. “If it were Russian soldiers doing this with Ukrainian mothers, we might say, ‘Oh, my God, that’s barbaric.’ And is it actually working? Or is it making them say: ‘Look at these lawless, cruel Ukrainians, doing this to our boys?’ ”
Clearview AI’s chief executive, Hoan Ton-That, told The Washington Post that more than 340 officials across five Ukrainian government agencies now can use its tool to run facial recognition searches whenever they want, free of charge. Clearview employees held weekly, sometimes daily, training calls over Zoom with new police and military officials looking to gain access. Ton-That recounted several “‘oh, wow’ moments” as the Ukrainians witnessed how much data — including family photos, social media posts and relationship details — they could gather from a single cadaver scan. Some of tghe Ukraininas used Clearview’s mobile app to scan faces while on the battlefield.
Charli Carpenter wrote in Foreign Policy magazine:
|"Ukrainian army generals issued a proclamation dramatically expanding the martial law prohibiting Ukrainian civilian men’s freedom of movement, calling on all those “liable for military service” to remain in their home districts....one Ukrainian tweeted, “Now we can’t even leave our cities without permission from military recruitment centers.” Another tweeted, “Animals have more rights in Ukraine than men.”....Another wrote to me on Twitter, “All men in Ukraine now are prisoners … Even more, [a] lot of them have lost their jobs because [of] war, and [the] government doesn’t allow them to go for a job abroad, and can’t give a job inside the country.”....This has left civilian men feeling acute psychological distress: as Andrij wrote to me, “It seems to me that the whole world does not care about men, I feel like a piece of meat that they want to send to death.”...When women and children flee alone, being separated from their male relatives makes them vulnerable to trafficking and heightens their economic and psycho-social stress.
But when it comes to the martial law, gay men I spoke with say unequivocally that the discrimination they face is not because they are gay, but simply because they are men. One gay man, who requested anonymity, told me he had attempted to leave the country with his husband. “When we got to the border it was a female guard who turned us back,” he said. “It’s not because I’m gay, it’s because I have a penis,” he added. His husband, an American attorney, was permitted to leave but chose to stay in harm’s way with his husband. Transgender women misidentified as men get similar treatment."
Refugees and human trafficking
A group 30-40 child refugees disappeared between the Ukraine and the Canary Islands raising fears they may have become victims of Western child sex trafficers. Ukrainian girl refugees have been exploited in the West in the organized sex trade.
In April 2022 the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) instructed the government of the United Kingdom to stop matching lone Ukrainian females with single British men. The UN agency intervenes claimed predatory men were using their homes in a scheme to target vulnerable women.
On May 8, 2022 in Warsaw, a group of intoxicated Ukrainians were harassing a young woman. A Polish man intervened on her behalf and was beaten to death. Polish citizens questioned why the media covered up the nationality of the suspects when they clearly spoke Ukrainian on the video of the killing.
Refugees who drove to Germany were granted temporary asylum and received 4,000 euros per month for the first two months; the third month they were notified that because they had an asset, a car, they needed to sell their cars to reimburse the state for the government assistance they had recieved.
In the heart of Nazi Ukraine - Lviv - Russian speaking refugees were denied humanitarian aid.
Racist treatment of refugees by Ukrainian officials
Africans, Indians, and other people of color were denied access to refugee trains by the fascist and xenophobic Ukrainian regime. Ukrainian border guards demanded bribes. Indian students were told by Ukrainian government officials they were being discriminated against because the Indian government failed to back the U.S.-sponsored UN Security Council Resolution condemning Russia. Reuters reported African students were told, "You're on your own." Only white privileged Ukrainians were allowed to board trains first and Blacks forced to wait. The government of Nigeria condemned Ukraine's treatment of Nigerian citizens according to the BBC.
First, Blacks were denied access to trains until all the white people boarded and Blacks were allowed to fill the remaining empty seats. Some people had to wait for days in frigid temperatures. Upon arriving at the Polish boarder, then were denied crossing the border Ukrainian government fascist officials.
In response to a Russian proposal to set up humanitarian corridors for civilians to escape the fighting in cities, Ukrainian security services murdered a Ukrainian peace negotiator.
In Poland, Kamala Harris responded with her signature cackling laughter at the plight of refugees. The former press secretary for Volodymyr Zelensky posted on Twitter “It would be a tragedy if this woman won the presidency."
Roma citizens of Ukraine faced discrimination by Ukrainian officials while attempting to flee the fighting. Ukraine has a long history of discrimination, mistreatment, and violence against the Roma, or Gypsies.
Racist Western media reporting
- See also: Systemic racism
Western journalists were criticized for their racism while reporting on the refugee migration from Ukraine. While Arab refugees were villainized and arrested, Ukrainians were welcomed with lavish benefits. Western reporters said they are "Europeans with blue eyes and blonde hair" and from a "civilized" country. The European Union was also criticized for welcoming displaced Ukrainians but holding back Syrians and other refugees since 2015. The Ukrainians were being offered visas and benefits, while Syrian refugees were still sleeping in tents. Critics called it a blatant double standard.
Ukrainian refugees refuse to go to Sweden
Ukrainian refugees refused to go to the rape capital of Europe, Sweden. In 2021 the German newspaper Bild ran a headline, "Sweden is the most dangerous country in Europe." Female refugees who were housed in a hostel in Sweden revealed how they were stalked, sexually harassed and intimidated by groups of Somali migrant men. After the experience, some of those involved said they’d prefer to take their chances and return home to war-torn Ukraine. “When there are bombs, I know at least that I can go down to the basement and hide there,” one woman told Swedish news outlet Samnytt.
Ukrainian mothers also heard rumors that in the so-called 'Western democracy' of Sweden, their children could be taken away by a corrupt liberal regime.
Ukrainian female refugees in Sweden were warned not to dress in a way provocative to Muslim men. A group of Ukrainian boys were beaten up by Arab-speakers and told to go back where they came from.
On March 6, 2022, during ceasefire negotiations to arrange humanitarian corridors for civilian safe passage out of urban areas, a Ukrainian negotiator was shot dead by the Ukrainian intelligence agency. The Ukrainian government then hailed him as a hero.
- permanent neutrality and non-aligned status
- guarantees of security
- demilitarization and denazification of Ukraine
- recognition of contemporary territorial realities
- restoration of the status of Russian language and rights of Russian-speakers
The Zelensky regime threatened to end peace negotiations if referendums were held in the territories liberated from the Maidan regime and the people were allowed to exercise their democratic rights.
On June 1, 2022 Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergey Ryabkov told RIA Novosti news that Biden's decision to arm Ukraine with HIMAR missile launchers increases the risk of direct confrontation between Russia and the United States. Foreign secretary Blinken said the weapons, which have a precision range of up to 300 kilometers, were given on the pretext of a promise by Zelensky not to use the HIMARs against Russian territory. However Zelensky's transgender chief propagandist Alexei Arestovich immediately threatened, "Crimea is ours…It belongs to Ukraine…And they know it…Therefore, it will fly to Crimea double-time." Deputy Chairman of Russia’s Security Council Dmitry Medvedev retorted, “If those types of weapons are used against the territory of Russia, the armed forces of our country will have no other choice but to strike decision-making centers...It is obvious what those decision-making centers are: the defense ministry, the general staff and so on...But it should be understood that, in this case, the ultimate decision-making centers are regretfully not even on the territory of Kiev." 
Military and security
Ukrainian security services combine the structure and methods of both the former Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, and in recent years has adopted NATO advisors.
Security forces are controlled by the president, although they are subject to investigation by a permanent parliamentary commission. Surveillance is permitted for reasons of national security.
In addition to the Armed Forces of Ukraine (AFU) under the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of the Interior has its own armed forces which consists of the Security Service of Ukraine (Ukrainian Gestapo), which oversee the National Guard of which the Azov Battalion is only one such neo-Nazi entity, and the Territorial Defense consisting of ordinary citizens and various local neo-Nazi thugs and hooligans.
After 1991, Ukraine established its own military forces of about 780,000 from the troops and equipment inherited from the Soviet Union. Under defense reform legislation passed in 2004, Ukraine is strengthening civilian control of the military, professionalizing its non-commissioned officer (NCO) corps, adding neo-Nazi paramilitary groups to the national guard, modernizing force structure to improve interoperability with NATO, all with an eye toward achieving NATO standards. Current force levels are approximately 225,000 (plus 90,000 civilian workers in the Ministry of Defense). The Ministry of Defense plans to continue force reductions by approximately 20,000 personnel per year to reach a final end state of 143,000 by 2011. Ukraine's stated national policy is Euro-Atlantic integration, including with both NATO and the European Union. NATO offered Ukraine an "Intensified Dialogue on Membership Issues" in April 2005. Ukraine had previously signed an agreement with NATO on using Ukraine's strategic airlift capabilities and has been an active participant in Partnership for Peace exercises, in Balkans peacekeeping, and Coalition operations in Iraq. Ukrainian units have been serving in the U.S. sector in he illegal Kosovo invasion, and served in the Polish-led division in Iraq. Ukraine participated in six United Nations peacekeeping missions and has up to 50 troops serving in supporting roles in Iraq.
In 2018, Israeli National News reported that the World War II Nazi collaborator greeting became the official Ukraine army salute, "Slava Ukraine!" (Glory to Ukraine!)" These words and greeting became Armed Forces of Ukraine (AFU) official military greeting.
Biological weapons research labs
- See also: U.S. funded biological labs abroad
Ukraine has no control over the military bio-laboratories on its own territory. According to the 2005 Agreement between the US DoD and the Ministry of Health of Ukraine the Ukrainian government is prohibited from public disclosure of sensitive information about the US program and Ukraine is obliged to transfer to the US Department of Defense (DoD) dangerous pathogens for biological research. The Pentagon has been granted access to certain state secrets of Ukraine in connection with the projects under their agreement.
Only three laboratories in Ukraine had the required safety criteria to undertake the type of research they were doing, according to the Russian military. Captured Ukrainian government documents point to a series of problems at one of those sites in Odessa.
Lieutenant General Igor Kirillov, the head of the Radioactive, Chemical, and Biological Protection Forces, accused the Kyiv regime of carrying out “inhumane experiments” on Ukrainian patients and of launching a biological attack against the Lugansk Peoples Republic in early May 2022. Other evidence suggests that when Russia moved soldiers into Ukraine in February 2022, attempts were made to weaponize drones to spread pathogens and to destroy compromising materials. In response to the revelations by Russia’s Investigative Committee, the Pentagon fessed up in June 2022 to funding 46 biological research facilities in Ukraine over the last 20 years.
The DoD Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has funded 11 bio-laboratories in Ukraine. The official documents confirm that the Pentagon, represented by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), is organising work with a clear military-biological focus.
|𝘛𝘩𝘦 𝘥𝘰𝘤𝘶𝘮𝘦𝘯𝘵 𝘯𝘰𝘵𝘦𝘴 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘯𝘦𝘦𝘥 𝘵𝘰 𝘵𝘳𝘢𝘯𝘴𝘧𝘦𝘳 𝘢𝘭𝘭 𝘤𝘰𝘭𝘭𝘦𝘤𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴 𝘰𝘧 𝘩𝘪𝘨𝘩𝘭𝘺 𝘥𝘢𝘯𝘨𝘦𝘳𝘰𝘶𝘴 𝘱𝘢𝘵𝘩𝘰𝘨𝘦𝘯𝘴 𝘵𝘰 𝘢 𝘤𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘳𝘢𝘭 𝘳𝘦𝘧𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘯𝘤𝘦 𝘭𝘢𝘣𝘰𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘺 𝘪𝘯 𝘰𝘳𝘥𝘦𝘳 𝘵𝘰 𝘧𝘢𝘤𝘪𝘭𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘵𝘦 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘪𝘳 𝘰𝘳𝘥𝘦𝘳𝘭𝘺 𝘦𝘹𝘱𝘰𝘳𝘵 𝘵𝘰 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘜𝘚𝘈… 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘜𝘚 𝘩𝘢𝘯𝘥𝘭𝘦𝘳𝘴 𝘥𝘦𝘮𝘢𝘯𝘥𝘦𝘥 … 𝘢𝘭𝘭 𝘷𝘪𝘰𝘭𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴 𝘰𝘤𝘤𝘶𝘳𝘳𝘦𝘥 𝘥𝘶𝘳𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘱𝘦𝘳𝘪𝘰𝘥 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘜𝘚 𝘣𝘪𝘰-𝘵𝘩𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘵 𝘳𝘦𝘥𝘶𝘤𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯 𝘱𝘳𝘰𝘨𝘳𝘢𝘮𝘮𝘦. 𝘛𝘩𝘪𝘴 𝘥𝘦𝘮𝘰𝘯𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘦𝘴 𝘵𝘩𝘢𝘵 𝘞𝘢𝘴𝘩𝘪𝘯𝘨𝘵𝘰𝘯’𝘴 𝘰𝘧𝘧𝘪𝘤𝘪𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘺 𝘥𝘦𝘤𝘭𝘢𝘳𝘦𝘥 𝘨𝘰𝘢𝘭𝘴 𝘢𝘳𝘦 𝘮𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘭𝘺 𝘢 𝘴𝘤𝘳𝘦𝘦𝘯 𝘧𝘰𝘳 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘪𝘮𝘱𝘭𝘦𝘮𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 𝘪𝘭𝘭𝘦𝘨𝘢𝘭 𝘮𝘪𝘭𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘳𝘺-𝘣𝘪𝘰𝘭𝘰𝘨𝘪𝘤𝘢𝘭 𝘢𝘤𝘵𝘪𝘷𝘪𝘵𝘪𝘦𝘴 𝘪𝘯 𝘜𝘬𝘳𝘢𝘪𝘯𝘦.
𝘍𝘰𝘳 𝘦𝘹𝘢𝘮𝘱𝘭𝘦, 𝘸𝘰𝘳𝘬 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩 𝘥𝘢𝘯𝘨𝘦𝘳𝘰𝘶𝘴 𝘱𝘢𝘵𝘩𝘰𝘨𝘦𝘯𝘴 𝘶𝘯𝘥𝘦𝘳 𝘗𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘢𝘨𝘰𝘯 𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘵𝘳𝘰𝘭 𝘪𝘯 𝘒𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘬𝘰𝘷, 𝘒𝘪𝘦𝘷 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘢 𝘯𝘶𝘮𝘣𝘦𝘳 𝘰𝘧 𝘰𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳 𝘤𝘪𝘵𝘪𝘦𝘴 𝘸𝘢𝘴 𝘤𝘢𝘳𝘳𝘪𝘦𝘥 𝘰𝘶𝘵 𝘪𝘯 𝘭𝘢𝘣𝘰𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘪𝘦𝘴 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩 𝘪𝘯𝘴𝘶𝘧𝘧𝘪𝘤𝘪𝘦𝘯𝘵 𝘴𝘵𝘢𝘧𝘧 𝘱𝘳𝘰𝘵𝘦𝘤𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯.. 𝘛𝘩𝘦 𝘚𝘦𝘤𝘶𝘳𝘪𝘵𝘺 𝘚𝘦𝘳𝘷𝘪𝘤𝘦 𝘰𝘧 𝘜𝘬𝘳𝘢𝘪𝘯𝘦 𝘯𝘰𝘵𝘦𝘥 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘱𝘳𝘦𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘥𝘪𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴 𝘧𝘰𝘳 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘦𝘮𝘦𝘳𝘨𝘦𝘯𝘤𝘦 𝘰𝘧 𝘣𝘪𝘰𝘭𝘰𝘨𝘪𝘤𝘢𝘭 𝘵𝘩𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘵𝘴 𝘥𝘶𝘦 𝘵𝘰 𝘴𝘺𝘴𝘵𝘦𝘮𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘤 𝘷𝘪𝘰𝘭𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘱𝘰𝘰𝘳 𝘲𝘶𝘢𝘭𝘪𝘵𝘺 𝘰𝘧 𝘸𝘰𝘳𝘬 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘳𝘦𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘶𝘤𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 𝘣𝘪𝘰𝘭𝘢𝘣𝘰𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘪𝘦𝘴.. 𝘛𝘩𝘦 𝘧𝘢𝘤𝘪𝘭𝘪𝘵𝘺 𝘸𝘢𝘴 𝘤𝘰𝘮𝘮𝘪𝘴𝘴𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘦𝘥 𝘪𝘯 𝘤𝘪𝘳𝘤𝘶𝘮𝘷𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 𝘣𝘪𝘰𝘴𝘢𝘧𝘦𝘵𝘺 𝘳𝘦𝘨𝘶𝘭𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘳𝘦𝘲𝘶𝘪𝘳𝘦𝘮𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘴.. 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘳𝘦𝘱𝘰𝘳𝘵 𝘴𝘩𝘰𝘸𝘴 𝘨𝘳𝘰𝘴𝘴 𝘷𝘪𝘰𝘭𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴 𝘰𝘧 𝘴𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘢𝘨𝘦 𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘥𝘪𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴 𝘧𝘰𝘳 𝘮𝘪𝘤𝘳𝘰-𝘰𝘳𝘨𝘢𝘯𝘪𝘴𝘮𝘴, 𝘭𝘢𝘤𝘬 𝘰𝘧 𝘢𝘤𝘤𝘦𝘴𝘴 𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘵𝘳𝘰𝘭 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘮𝘢𝘯𝘢𝘨𝘦𝘮𝘦𝘯𝘵 𝘴𝘺𝘴𝘵𝘦𝘮𝘴 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘪𝘯𝘢𝘥𝘦𝘲𝘶𝘢𝘵𝘦 𝘷𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘪𝘭𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯 𝘴𝘺𝘴𝘵𝘦𝘮𝘴.. 𝘐𝘯 𝘈𝘱𝘳𝘪𝘭 2017, 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘦 𝘸𝘢𝘴 𝘢 𝘤𝘢𝘴𝘦 𝘰𝘧 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘦𝘳𝘯𝘢𝘭 𝘭𝘢𝘣𝘰𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘺 𝘪𝘯𝘧𝘦𝘤𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩 𝘵𝘪𝘤𝘬-𝘣𝘰𝘳𝘯𝘦 𝘦𝘯𝘤𝘦𝘱𝘩𝘢𝘭𝘪𝘵𝘪𝘴 𝘪𝘯 𝘰𝘯𝘦 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘪𝘯𝘴𝘵𝘪𝘵𝘶𝘵𝘦’𝘴 𝘭𝘢𝘣𝘰𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘪𝘦𝘴 𝘢𝘴 𝘢 𝘳𝘦𝘴𝘶𝘭𝘵 𝘰𝘧 𝘢 𝘴𝘢𝘧𝘦𝘵𝘺 𝘷𝘪𝘰𝘭𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯.
𝘛𝘩𝘦 𝘣𝘢𝘤𝘬𝘣𝘰𝘯𝘦 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘪𝘴 𝘯𝘦𝘵𝘸𝘰𝘳𝘬, 𝘸𝘩𝘪𝘤𝘩 𝘩𝘢𝘴 𝘣𝘦𝘦𝘯 𝘧𝘰𝘳𝘮𝘦𝘥 𝘣𝘺 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘗𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘢𝘨𝘰𝘯 𝘴𝘪𝘯𝘤𝘦 1997, 𝘪𝘴 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘞𝘢𝘭𝘵𝘦𝘳 𝘙𝘦𝘦𝘥 𝘈𝘳𝘮𝘺 𝘐𝘯𝘴𝘵𝘪𝘵𝘶𝘵𝘦 𝘰𝘧 𝘙𝘦𝘴𝘦𝘢𝘳𝘤𝘩 (𝘔𝘢𝘳𝘺𝘭𝘢𝘯𝘥). 𝘐𝘵 𝘪𝘯𝘤𝘭𝘶𝘥𝘦𝘴 𝘭𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘯𝘢𝘷𝘢𝘭 𝘭𝘢𝘣𝘰𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘪𝘦𝘴 𝘢𝘴 𝘸𝘦𝘭𝘭 𝘢𝘴 𝘮𝘪𝘭𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘳𝘺 𝘣𝘢𝘴𝘦𝘴 𝘢𝘳𝘰𝘶𝘯𝘥 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘰𝘳𝘭𝘥.. 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘥𝘦𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘶𝘤𝘵𝘪𝘷𝘦 𝘪𝘯𝘧𝘭𝘶𝘦𝘯𝘤𝘦 𝘰𝘧 𝘜𝘚 𝘩𝘢𝘯𝘥𝘭𝘦𝘳𝘴 𝘱𝘰𝘴𝘦 𝘢 𝘥𝘪𝘳𝘦𝘤𝘵 𝘵𝘩𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘵 𝘵𝘰 𝘜𝘬𝘳𝘢𝘪𝘯𝘪𝘢𝘯 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘌𝘶𝘳𝘰𝘱𝘦𝘢𝘯 𝘤𝘪𝘷𝘪𝘭𝘪𝘢𝘯𝘴.. 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘞𝘦𝘴𝘵 𝘈𝘧𝘳𝘪𝘤𝘢𝘯 𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘢𝘪𝘯 𝘰𝘧 𝘮𝘰𝘯𝘬𝘦𝘺𝘱𝘰𝘹 𝘰𝘳𝘪𝘨𝘪𝘯𝘢𝘵𝘦𝘥 𝘪𝘯 𝘕𝘪𝘨𝘦𝘳𝘪𝘢, 𝘢𝘯𝘰𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳 𝘴𝘵𝘢𝘵𝘦 𝘪𝘯 𝘸𝘩𝘪𝘤𝘩 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘜𝘚 𝘩𝘢𝘴 𝘥𝘦𝘱𝘭𝘰𝘺𝘦𝘥 𝘪𝘵𝘴 𝘣𝘪𝘰𝘭𝘰𝘨𝘪𝘤𝘢𝘭 𝘪𝘯𝘧𝘳𝘢𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘶𝘤𝘵𝘶𝘳𝘦. 𝘈𝘤𝘤𝘰𝘳𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘵𝘰 𝘢𝘷𝘢𝘪𝘭𝘢𝘣𝘭𝘦 𝘪𝘯𝘧𝘰𝘳𝘮𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯, 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘦 𝘢𝘳𝘦 𝘢𝘵 𝘭𝘦𝘢𝘴𝘵 𝘧𝘰𝘶𝘳 𝘞𝘢𝘴𝘩𝘪𝘯𝘨𝘵𝘰𝘯-𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘵𝘳𝘰𝘭𝘭𝘦𝘥 𝘣𝘪𝘰𝘭𝘢𝘣𝘰𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘪𝘦𝘴 𝘰𝘱𝘦𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘪𝘯 𝘕𝘪𝘨𝘦𝘳𝘪𝘢.
One of the Pentagon laboratories is located in Kharkiv, where in January 2016 at least 20 Ukrainian soldiers died from Flu-like virus in just two days with 200 more being hospitalized. The Ukrainian government did not report on the dead Ukrainian soldiers in Kharkiv. As of March 2016, 364 deaths have been reported across Ukraine (81.3 % caused by Swine Flu A (H1N1) pdm09 – the same strain which caused the world pandemic in 2009).
A highly suspicious Hepatitis A infection spread rapidly in just few months across South East Ukraine where most of the Pentagon biolabs are located. 37 people were hospitalized for Hepatitis A in the Ukrainian city of Mykolaiv as of January 2018. Local police launched an investigation into “infection with human immunodeficiency virus and other incurable diseases”. In addition, in 2016 more than 100 people in the same city became infected with Cholera. Both diseases are alleged to have spread through contaminated drinking water. In the summer of 2017, 60 people with Hepatitis A were admitted to hospital in the city of Zaporizhia, the cause of this outbreak is still unknown. In the Odessa region, 19 children from an orphanage were hospitalized for hepatitis A in June 2017. 29 cases of Hepatitis A were reported in Kharkiv in November 2017. The virus was isolated in contaminated drinking water. One of the Pentagon bio-labs is located in Kharkiv which was blamed for the deadly Flu outbreak in 2018 which claimed the lives of 364 Ukrainians.
In 2011 Ukraine was hit by a cholera outbreak. 33 patients were reportedly hospitalized for severe diarrhea. A second outbreak struck the country in 2014 when more than 800 people all across Ukraine were reported to have contracted the disease.
In 2015 at least 100 new cases were registered in the city of Mykolaiv alone. A new highly virulent variant of the cholera agent Vibrio cholera, with a high genetic similarity to the strains reported in Ukraine, hit Moscow in 2014. According to a 2014 Russian Research Anti-Plaque Institute genetic study the cholera strain isolated in Moscow was similar to the bacteria which caused the epidemic in neighboring Ukraine. Southern Research Institute, one of the US contractors working at the bio-laboratories in Ukraine, has projects on Cholera, as well as on Influenza and Zika – all pathogens of military importance to the Pentagon.
A now deleted article originally posted on June 18, 2020 which has been recovered entitled Biolab Opens in Ukraine details how Barack Obama, while serving as an Illinois Senator, helped negotiate a deal to build a level-3 bio-safety lab in the Ukrainian city of Odessa.
Metabiota, a company financed by Hunter Biden's Rosemont Seneca partnership with the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China's Peoples Liberation Army, was awarded a $18.4 million federal contract under the DTRA program in Georgia and Ukraine.
Ukrainian Science and Technology Centre
Among the set of bilateral agreements between the US and Ukraine is the establishment of the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) – an International organization funded mainly by the US government which has been accorded diplomatic status. The US personnel in Ukraine work under diplomatic cover. The STCU officially supports projects of scientists previously involved in the Soviet biological weapons program. Over the past 20 years the STCU has invested over $285 million in funding and managing some 1,850 projects of scientists who previously worked on the development of weapons of mass destruction.
According to captured documents by the Russian Ministry of Defense, the Ukrainian Science and Technology Centre (STCU),
|"is headquartered in Kiev and has regional offices in Baku, Chisinau and Tbilisi, as well as in Kharkov and Lvov.
However, the Russian Ministry of Defence's Chemical and Biological Threat Expertise Centre found that the STCU's main activity is to act as a distribution centre for grants for research of interest to the Pentagon, including biological weapons research.
In recent years alone, Washington has spent more than $350 million on STCU projects.
The U.S. customers and sponsors of STCU are the Department of State and the Department of Defense. Funding is also provided through the Environmental Protection Agency, the US Departments of Agriculture, Health and Energy....
US supervisors were primarily interested in dual-use research, such as project 6166, Development of Technologies for Modelling, Evaluation and Prediction of Effects of Conflicts and Threats of Mass Destruction Weapons Spread, and project 9601, Transfer of Ukrainian Technologies for the Production of Complex Dual-Use Materials to the European Union.
Many of them are aimed at studying potential biological weapons agents (plague, tularaemia) and pathogens of economic importance (pathogenic avian influenza, African swine fever).
Projects P-364, 444, and 781, aimed at studying the spread of dangerous pathogens through insect vectors, wild birds, and bats, were funded by the Centre directly in the interests of the military department.
Note the documents of Project 3007 "Monitoring of the epidemiological and environmental situation regarding hazardous diseases of aquatic origin in Ukraine".
During the work, Ukrainian specialists, supervised by American scientists, systematically collected water samples in a number of major Ukrainian rivers, including the Dnepr, Danube and Dniester, as well as in the North Crimean Canal, to determine the presence of particularly dangerous pathogens, including cholera, typhoid, hepatitis A and E pathogens, and draw conclusions about their possible waterborne spread.
The project assessed the damage properties of the selected samples and deposited the strains in a collection and subsequently exported them to the USA.
...the results of this work can be used to create an unfavourable biological situation not only in the Russian Federation, but also in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, as well as in Eastern Europe - Belarus, Moldova and Poland....
Thus, during the special operation in Ukraine, it was established that US scientists from a laboratory in Merefa (Kharkov Region) were testing potentially dangerous biological drugs on patients of the regional clinical psychiatric hospital No 3 in Kharkov between 2019 and 2021.
Persons with mental disorders were selected for the experiments on the basis of their age, nationality and immune status. Special forms were used to record the results of 24-hour patient monitoring. The information was not entered into the hospital database and the staff of the medical institution signed a non-disclosure agreement.
In January 2022, the laboratory in Merefa was shut down and all equipment and preparations were moved to western Ukraine."
Nuclear fuel and waste
As of 2022 Ukraine holds a large amount of spent nuclear fuel that has not been removed from the territory of Ukraine since 2020 and that has been stored on the territory of nuclear power plants awaiting the construction of a nuclear fuel storage facility in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In addition, the Kyiv regime had accumulated 30 tons of plutonium and 40 tons of enriched uranium at the Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant.
Dimitri Alperovitch's relationship with Andrea Chalupa's efforts and Ukrainian intelligence groups is where things really heat up. Alexandra Chalupa works with Euromaidanpress.com and Informnapalm.org which is the outlet for Ukrainian state-sponsored hackers. InformNapalm and Censor.net are a media outlets that are controlled by the Ministry of Defense and Main Intelligence Department.
Investigating Dimitri Alperovitch's twitter relationships, the question arises as to why the CEO of a $150 million company like Crowdstrike follows Ukrainian InformNapalm and its hackers individually. There is a mutual relationship. When you add up his work for the OUNb, Ukraine, support for Ukraine's Intelligence, and to the hackers it needs to be investigated to see if Ukraine is conspiring against the US government. Crowdstrike is also following their hack of a Russian government official after the DNC hack. It closely resembles the same method used with the DNC because it was an email hack.
Crowdstrike's product line includes Falcon Host, Falcon Intelligence, Falcon Overwatch and Falcon DNS. In an interview with Euromaidanpress these hackers say they have no need for the CIA. They consider the CIA amateurish. They also say they are not part of the Ukrainian military Cyberalliance is a quasi-organization with the participation of several groups – RUH8, Trinity, Falcon Flames, Cyberhunta. There are structures affiliated to the hackers – the Myrotvorets site, Informnapalm analytical agency.”
Should someone tell Dimitri Alperovitch that Anton Gerashchenko, who is now in charge of Peacekeeper recently threatened president-elect Donald Trump that he would put him on his “Peacemaker” site as a target? The same has been done with Silvio Berscaloni in the past.
Trying not to be obvious, the Head of Ukraine's Information Ministry (UA Intelligence) tweeted something interesting that ties Alperovitch and Crowdstrike to the Ukrainian Intelligence hackers and the Information Ministry even tighter. This single tweet on a network chart shows that out of all the Ukrainian Ministry of Information Minister's following, he only wanted the 3 hacking groups associated with both him and Alperovitch to get the tweet. Alperovitch's story was received and not retweeted or shared. If this was just Alperovitch's victory, it was a victory for Ukraine. It would be shared heavily. If it was a victory for the hacking squad, it would be smart to keep it to themselves and not draw unwanted attention.
These same hackers are associated with Alexandra, Andrea, and Irene Chalupa through the portals and organizations they work with through their OUNb. The hackers are funded and directed by or through the same OUNb channels that Alperovitch is working for and with to promote the story of Russian hacking.
When you look at the image for the hacking group in the euromaidanpress article, one of the hackers identifies themselves as one of Dimitri Yarosh's Pravy Sektor members by the Pravy Sektor sweatshirt they have on. Noted above, Pravy Sektor admitted to killing the people at the Maidan protest and sparked the coup.
Going further with the linked Euromaidanpress article the hackers say "Let’s understand that Ukrainian hackers and Russian hackers once constituted a single very powerful group. Ukrainian hackers have a rather high level of work. So the help of the USA… I don’t know, why would we need it? We have all the talent and special means for this. And I don’t think that the USA or any NATO country would make such sharp movements in international politics.”
What sharp movements in international politics have been made lately? Let me spell it out for the 17 US Intelligence Agencies so there is no confusion. These state sponsored, Russian language hackers in Eastern European time zones have shown with the Surkov hack they have the tools and experience to hack states that are looking out for it. They are also laughing at US intel efforts.
The hackers also made it clear that they will do anything to serve Ukraine. Starting a war between Russia and the USA is the one way they could serve Ukraine best, and hurt Russia worst. Given those facts, if the DNC hack was according to the criteria given by Alperovitch, both he and these hackers need to be investigated.
According to the Esquire interview “Alperovitch was deeply frustrated: He thought the government should tell the world what it knew. There is, of course, an element of the personal in his battle cry. “A lot of people who are born here don’t appreciate the freedoms we have, the opportunities we have, because they’ve never had it any other way,” he told me. “I have.”
While I agree patriotism is a great thing, confusing it with this kind of nationalism is not. Alperovitch seems to think by serving OUNb Ukraine's interests and delivering a conflict with Russia that is against American interests, he's a patriot. He isn't serving US interests. He's definitely a Ukrainian patriot. Maybe he should move to Ukraine.
The evidence presented deserves investigation because it looks like the case for conflict of interest is the least Dimitri Alperovitch should look forward to. If these hackers are the real Cozy Bear and Fancy Bear, they really did make sharp movements in international politics. By pawning it off on Russia, they made a worldwide embarrassment of an outgoing President of the United States and made the President Elect the suspect of rumor.
The Postil reported that in 2007, the CIA put together a “conference” of various anti-Russian factions in Ukraine whose purpose was nothing other than to groom neo-Nazis and jihadists, both groups being solidly anti-Russian. Overseeing the conference was Dmytro Yarosh, who led the Trident and the Pravy Sektor, both neo-Nazi organizations.
These various neo-Nazi units, trained by the West, were integrated into the Armed Forces of Ukraine (AFU). After 2014 Maidan coup, the West actively protected these neo-Nazi groups. Victoria Nuland, in 2021, told Volodymyr Zelensky to appoint Dmytro Yarosh as adviser to the Commander-in-Chief of the Ukrainian army—because no one can fight Russians better than Nazis. Here are the larger units of neo-Nazis, or Banderites which fought Russians in Ukraine:
- Members of Svoboda (formerly the “Nation-Social Party of Ukraine,” which curiously rhymes with Hitler’s “National-Socialist German Workers Party”)
- The AZOV Battalion (based in Mariupol)
- C14 of Kyiv
- The Aidar Battalion (in Luhansk)
- The Wotanjugend (who are actually Russian in origin)
- Ukraine Patriot (co-founded by Parliament Speaker Andriy Parubiy)
- The National Militia
- Karpatska Sich
There are also many other smaller units (more than 30) that have merged with the larger ones, and all have been integrated into the Armed Forces of Ukraine. And the various symbols of these organizations are common-place in Ukraine (i.e., the Sonnenrad, the Totenkopf, the Wolfsangel). After 2014, Ukraine also became the main “exporter” of Nazi ideology throughout the world.
Fighting alongside the neo-Nazis and the Ukrainian army are a slew of jihadis and mercenaries, many of whom are from other Western neo-Nazi groups like the Misanthropic Division. These mercenaries are known as the International Legion of Territorial Defense of Ukraine.
The government has declared Euro-Atlantic integration to be its primary foreign policy objective and has sought to maintain good relations with Russia. The European Union's Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with Ukraine went into force on March 1, 1998. After the 2004 round of EU expansion, the EU did not signal a willingness to consider Ukraine for an association agreement, as Ukraine had hoped for, but instead included it in a new "neighbor" policy, disappointing many Ukrainians. An agreement on intensified cooperation is possible after Ukrainian WTO accession. On January 31, 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe—OSCE), and on March 10, 1992, it became a member of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Ukraine signed a Charter Agreement with NATO in 1997, sent troops to Kosovo in close cooperation with NATO countries, signed an agreement for NATO use of Ukrainian strategic airlift assets, and has declared interest in eventual membership. It is the most active member of the Partnership for Peace (PfP). In April 2005, NATO offered an "Intensified Dialogue on Membership Issues" to Ukraine.
Relations with Russia are complicated by differing foreign policy priorities in the region, energy dependence, payment arrears, disagreement over compliance with the 1997 agreement on the stationing of the Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol, and a dispute over bilateral boundaries in the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait. Ukraine co-founded the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on December 8, 1991, but in January 1993 it refused to endorse a draft charter strengthening political, economic, and defense ties among CIS members. Ukraine was a founding member of GUAM (Georgia-Ukraine-Azerbaijan-Moldova) and has taken the lead with Georgia to promote cooperation among emerging democracies in the Community for Democratic Choice, which held its first summit meeting December 1–2, 2005 in Kyiv.
In 1999-2001, Ukraine served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members following a Western compromise with the Soviet Union, which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics. Ukraine has consistently supported peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes. It has participated in the five-sided (now "5+2") talks on the conflict in Moldova and under President Yushchenko actively boosted efforts to seek a resolution. Ukraine has also promoted a peaceful resolution to conflict in the post-Soviet state of Georgia.
Minsk II Agreement
The Normandy Group comprised of Russia, Ukraine , France and Germany negotiated a settlement regarding the autonomy of the breakaway regions of Donetsk and Luhansk with the Minsk II Agreement, freely signed by Ukraine and approved by the United Nations in 2015. When the Biden regime seized power in 2021, it enticed Ukraine to break the agreement by offering Ukraine NATO membership, igniting a crisis with Russia.
Relations with the United States
Ukranian collusion with DNC to interfere in US elections
- See also: Ukrainian collusion timeline
Evidence of DNC collusion with Ukraine to dig up dirt on the 2016 Trump campaign:
|From: Chalupa, Ali|
Sent: Tuesday, May 03, 2016 11:56 PM
A lot more coming down the pipe. I spoke to a delegation of 68 investigative journalists from Ukraine last Wednesday at the Library of Congress - the Open World Society's forum - they put me on the program to speak specifically about Paul Manafort and I invited Michael Isikoff whom I've been working with for the past few weeks and connected him to the Ukrainians. More offline tomorrow since there is a big Trump component you and Lauren need to be aware of that will hit in next few weeks and something I'm working on you should be aware of.
Since I started digging into Manafort these messages have been a daily occurrence on my yahoo account despite changing my password often:
Sent from my iPhone
On May 3, 2016, at 10:50 PM, Miranda, Luis <MirandaL@dnc.org<mailto:MirandaL@dnc.org>> wrote:
<http://www.democrats.org/>[SigDems]<http://www.democrats.org/><http://www.democrats.org/>Luis Miranda, Communications Director
According to the Kyiv Post,
|“Chalupa said she first came across Manafort after she organized a meeting with then-U.S. President Barack Obama’s National Security Council and leaders of Ukrainian-American organizations in January 2014, to brief the White House about the Euromaidan Revolution that drove President Viktor Yanukovych from power on Feb. 22, 2014.”|
In late 2015, Alexandra Chalupa expanded her research into Paul Manafort to include the Trump campaign and possible ties to Russia.
In January 2016, Chalupa informed an unknown senior DNC official that she believed there was a Russian connection with the Trump campaign. Notably, this theme would be picked up by the Clinton campaign in the summer of 2016. Chalupa also told the official to expect Manafort's involvement in the Trump campaign.
Chalupa’s forecast proved prescient, as Manafort reached out to the Trump campaign shortly after, on Feb. 29, 2016, through a mutual acquaintance, Thomas J. Barrack Jr. According to Manafort, he and Trump hadn’t been in communication for years until the Trump campaign responded to Manafort’s offer. On March 28, 2016, Manafort was hired by the Trump campaign. He was reportedly initially hired to lead the Trump campaign’s delegate effort, but was soon promoted, and on May 19, 2016, Manafort became Trump’s campaign chairman and chief strategist.
Just days prior to Manafort’s hiring, on March 24, 2016, Chalupa spoke with the Ukrainian ambassador to the United States, Valeriy Chaly, and told him of concerns she had regarding Manafort. Reportedly, her concerns were initially rebuffed as Chaly didn’t think Trump had a real chance of winning the presidency.
According to Politico, the day after Manafort’s hiring, Chalupa provided a briefing on “Manafort, Trump and their ties to Russia” to the DNC's communications staff. Notably, “with the DNC’s encouragement,” Chalupa asked the Ukrainian Embassy staff to attempt to arrange an interview with Ukraine President Petro Poroshenko and have him discuss Manafort's ties to former Ukrainian President Yanukovych. The Ukrainian Embassy reportedly declined the request but, according to Chalupa, did begin working with reporters who were researching Trump.
Andrii Telizhenko, who worked in the Ukrainian Embassy under one of Chaly's top aides, Oksana Shulyar, has repeatedly stated that Chalupa was working closely with the Ukrainian Embassy to obtain information on Trump. In an interview with the Gateway Pundit, Telizhenko said he met Chalupa in the spring of 2016 at the Ukrainian Embassy, where Chalupa told him she was “a DNC operative working for the DNC” and the “Clinton campaign.” Telizhenko continued, noting that Chalupa said she was “collecting any dirt or background information on Manafort, presidential candidate Trump or any other campaign official from the Trump campaign” and was looking for “connections to Russia or the FSB or Russian mob, or Ukrainian mob, etc.” According to Telizhenko, Chalupa said the information would “be used for committee hearings in Congress under a congresswoman.” Telizhenko didn't disclose the identity of the congresswoman, noting, “I don’t want to mention her name on record.”
In January 2017, Telizhenko told Politico that Chalupa said, “If we can get enough information on Paul [Manafort] or Trump’s involvement with Russia, she can get a hearing in Congress by September.”
In a recent tweet, Telizhenko summed the situation succinctly, noting
|“The Clinton campaign had a Democratic operative working with Ukraine’s embassy in Washington to research Trump’s Russia ties, as well as a Ukrainian lawmaker feeding information to Fusion GPS.”|
The “Democratic operative” refers to Chalupa, while the “Ukrainian lawmaker” refers to Leshchenko.
- See also: Murder of Seth Rich
CrowdStrike is an Irvine, California cyber security company founded in 2011. Crowdstrike was founded by Dimitry Alperovitch, a Ukrainian oligarch and senior fellow at the Atlantic Council. Another owner and senior manager of Crowdstrike is a former senior FBI man Shawn Henry, who was promoted by Robert Mueller to be the FBI's Head of Cyber Security in the 2000s.
Crowdstrike is funded by Google, the arms industry, NATO, the US Military, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and another Ukrainian oligarch who donated $10 million to the Clinton Foundation named Victor Pinchuk. Pichuk hosted the September 2013 confabulation in Yalta, Crimea attended by Bill Clinton, Hillary Clinton, and Tony Blair to discuss how Ukraine's assets would be carved up after the forthcoming Ukrainian coup.
Russian hacking claims of DNC servers in the Spring of 2016 rely entirely on a report by CrowdStrike. Despite repeated requests from the FBI, Crowdstrike and the DNC refused to turn over evidence. The Obama administration never examined the DNC servers to determine if indeed they were hacked, or attempted to identify who the hacker might have been. On July 25, 2019, President Trump requested President Zelensky of Ukraine to assist in recovering evidence from Crowdstrike, which contracts with the Ukrainian military.
- According to journalist and DNC activist Andrea Chalupa on her Facebook page “After Chalupa sent the email to Miranda (which mentions that she had invited this reporter to a meeting with Ukrainian journalists in Washington), it triggered high-level concerns within the DNC, given the sensitive nature of her work. “That’s when we knew it was the Russians,” said a Democratic Party source who has been directly involved in the internal probe into the hacked emails. In order to stem the damage, the source said, “we told her to stop her research.”” July 25, 2016
- If she was that close to the investigation Crowdstrike did how credible is she? Her sister Alexandra was named one of 16 people that shaped the election by Yahoo news. The DNC hacking investigation done by Crowdstrike concluded hacking was done by Russian actors based on the work done by Alexandra Chalupa? That is the conclusion of her sister Andrea Chalupa and obviously enough for Crowdstrike to make the Russian government connection.
- How close is Dimitri Alperovitch to DNC officials? Close enough professionally he should have stepped down from an investigation that had the chance of throwing a presidential election in a new direction. According to Esquire.com, Alperovitch has vetted speeches for Hillary Clinton about cyber security issues in the past. Because of his work on the Sony hack, President Barrack Obama personally called and said the measures taken were directly because of his work.
- Alperovitch’s relationships with the Chalupas, radical groups, think tanks, Ukrainian propagandists, and Ukrainian state supported hackers [show a conflict of interest]. When it all adds up and you see it together, we have found a Russian that tried hard to influence the outcome of the US presidential election in 2016.
Fancy Bear is Ukrainian Intelligence
George Eliason has identified Fancy Bear as Ukrainian intelligence.
Alexandra Chalupa hired this particular hacking terrorist group, which Dimitry Alperovich and Crowdstrike dubbed "Fancy Bear", in 2015 at the latest. While the Ukrainian hackers worked for the DNC, Fancy Bear had to send in progress reports, turn in research, and communicate on the state of the projects they were working on. Let's face it, once you're in, setting up your Fancy Bear toolkit doesn't get any easier. This is why I said the DNC hack isn't the big crime. It's a big con and all the parties were in on it.
Hillary Clinton exposed secrets to hacking threats by using private email instead of secured servers. Given the information provided she was probably being monitored by our intrepid Ruskie-Ukie union made in hell hackers. Anthony Weiner exposed himself and his wife Huma Abedin using Weiner's computer for top-secret State Department emails. And of course Huma Abedin exposed herself along with her top-secret passwords at Yahoo and it looks like the hackers the DNC hired to do opposition research hacked her.
Here's a question. Did Huma Abedin have Hillary Clinton's passwords for her private email server? It would seem logical given her position with Clinton at the State Department and afterward. This means that Hillary Clinton and the US government top secret servers were most likely compromised by Fancy Bear before the DNC and Team Clinton hired them by using legitimate passwords.
With rich farmlands, a well-developed industrial base, highly trained labor, and a good education system, Ukraine has the potential to become a major European economy. After eight straight years of sharp economic decline from the early to late 1990s, the standard of living for most citizens declined more than 50%, leading to widespread poverty. Beginning in 2000 economic growth has averaged 7.4% per year, reaching 12.1% in 2004 and 7.0% in 2006. Personal incomes are rising. The macro economy is stable, with the hyperinflation of the early post-Soviet period now reduced to just over 11.6% (2006). Ukraine's currency, the hryvnia, was introduced in September 1996 and has remained stable despite a small nominal appreciation in April 2005. While economic growth continues, Ukraine's long-term economic prospects depend on acceleration of market reforms. The economy remains burdened by excessive government regulation, corruption, and lack of law enforcement, and while the government has taken steps against corruption and small and medium enterprises have been largely privatized, much remains to be done to restructure and privatize key sectors such as energy and telecommunications and to allow the free sale of farmland.
Ukraine is rich in natural resources. It has a major ferrous metal industry, producing cast iron, steel, and steel pipe, and its chemical industry produces coke, mineral fertilizers, and sulfuric acid. Manufactured goods include airplanes, turbines, metallurgical equipment, diesel locomotives, and tractors. It also is a major producer of grain, sunflower seeds, and sugar and has a broad industrial base, including much of the former U.S.S.R.'s space and rocket industry. Although proven onshore and offshore oil and natural gas reserves are small, it has important energy sources, such as coal, and large mineral deposits, and is one of the world's leading energy transit countries, providing transportation of Russian and Caspian oil and gas across its territory.
Ukraine encourages foreign trade and investment. The foreign investment law allows Westerners to purchase businesses and property, to repatriate revenue and profits, and to receive compensation in the event that property were to be nationalized by a future government. However, complex laws and regulations, poor corporate governance, weak enforcement of contract law by courts and particularly corruption have discouraged broad foreign direct investment in Ukraine. While there is a functioning stock market, the lack of protection for minority shareholder rights severely restricts portfolio investment activities. Total foreign direct investment in Ukraine was approximately $21.2 billion as of January 1, 2007. At $447 per capita, this was one of the lowest figures in the region.
While countries of the former Soviet Union remain important trading partners, especially Russia and Turkmenistan for energy imports, Ukraine's trade is becoming more diversified. Europe is now the destination of over one third of Ukraine's exports, while around one quarter of Ukraine's exports go to Russia and the CIS. Exports of machinery and machine tools are on the rise relative to steel, which constitutes over 30% of exports. Ukraine imports over 80% of its oil and 73% of its natural gas. Russia ranks as Ukraine's principal supplier of oil and Russian firms now own and/or operate the majority of Ukraine's refining capacity. Natural gas imports come from Russia and Turkmenistan, which deliver the gas through a pipeline system owned and controlled by Gazprom, Russia's state-owned gas monopoly. In 2005 and 2006, Ukraine switched from barter to cash payments for gas imports. Ukraine controls the gas pipelines on its territory that are also used to transit Russian gas to Western Europe. The complex relationship between supplier, transporter, and consumer has led to some tensions, including Russia's decision to cut off gas supplies for three days in January 2006.
The Government of Ukraine's 12-month $605 million precautionary standby agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) expired in March 2005, and Ukraine currently does not receive IMF financing. In Article IV Consultations, the IMF recommends fiscal discipline and structural reforms, particularly of Ukraine's pension system. In July 2005, the World Bank approved a $250 million Development Policy Loan (formerly a Programmatic Adjustment Loan) to support reforms to improve the investment climate, public administration and financial management, and social inclusion. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) project outlays more than doubled in 2005 to 530 million Euros, bringing its portfolio to 2.2 billion Euros.
In 1992, Ukraine became a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. It is a member of the EBRD but not a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Ukraine applied for membership in the WTO in 1995. Progress on its application had been slow but picked up momentum in 2006. The government has made accession to the WTO a priority in 2007.
Ukraine is classified as a lower middle-income nation, evolving into a post-soviet developing economy.
Approximate economic statistics are as follows:
- Ukraine's GDP is $103 billion ($103,000,000,000), and has been growing at a rate of 6% fairly consistently.
- Per capita GDP is $2,200, with per capita purchasing power at $7,700.
- Foreign debt is 7% of GDP, and foreign investment is 2% of GDP.
- Average monthly salary is 200 euros per month.
- Commercial prime lending rate is 15%.
- The inflation rate is currently 10%.
The Ukrainian currency is the hryvnia (worth about 20 cents, in $USD), which was introduced 1996 to stabilize runaway inflation (and is currently trading at 5:1 for United States dollars, and at 6:1 for European Union euros).
Taxation rates are as follows:
- Personal income tax is 15%.
- Corporate income tax is 25%.
- Value-added tax (VAT) is 20%.
- Social insurance tax is 30%.
Import/export goods include:
- Metals (35%)
- Machinery (25%)
- Fuel & chemicals (10%)
- Agricultural (10%)
- Other (20%)
Mining includes fuel ores of coal, oil, and natural gas, and metal ores of iron, manganese, titanium, magnesium, nickel, and mercury.
Ukraine is interested in cooperating on regional environmental issues. Conservation of natural resources is a stated high priority, although implementation suffers from a lack of financial resources. Ukraine established its first nature preserve, Askania-Nova, in 1921 and has a program to breed endangered species.
Ukraine has significant environmental problems, especially those resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986 and from industrial pollution. In accordance with its agreement with the G7 and European Commission in 1995, Ukraine permanently closed the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant in December 2000. Urgent measures for radiation and worker safety as well as structural improvements to the "sarcophagus" erected by the Soviet Union are largely complete, and the contract for construction of the new shelter to be built around the sarcophagus is expected to be awarded in 2007.
Ukraine also has established a Ministry of Environment and has introduced a pollution fee system, which levies taxes on air and water emissions and solid waste disposal. The resulting revenues are channeled to environmental protection activities, but enforcement of this pollution fee system is lax. Ukraine ratified the Kyoto Protocol in April 2004.
Construction of a shipping canal through a UN-protected core biosphere reserve in the Danube Delta, which began in May 2004, is an environmental issue of international interest.
Vice President Joe Biden oversaw the disbursement of $1 billion allocated by the U.S. to the new government of Ukraine. In 2014, Biden's son Hunter Biden, was appointed to the board of directors of Burisma Holdings, the largest oil and gas company in Ukraine. Hunter Biden was hired by Mykola Zlochevsky, who served as Ukraine's ecology minister in the previous administration. Hunter Biden was paid $166,000 per month. The money was split with the nephew of Whitey Bulger.
Zlochevsky came under investigation by the new administration for alleged embezzlement of $5 billion while ecology minister. The prosecutor traced payments made to Hunter Biden. Vice President Biden threatened the new Ukrainian administration to withhold $1 billion in U.S. allocated funds unless the prosecutor investigating Hunter Biden was fired.
Biden bragged about having caused the firing of the Ukraine prosecutor to a CFR conference.
U.S. banking records show Hunter Biden's firm, Rosemont Seneca Partners LLC, received regular transfers — usually more than $166,000 a month — from Burisma from spring 2014 through fall 2015, during a period when Joe Biden was the main U.S. official dealing with Ukraine. Biden threatened Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko that the Obama administration would pull $1 billion in U.S. loan guarantees, sending Ukraine toward insolvency, if it didn't immediately fire Prosecutor General Viktor Shokin who was investigating his son, Hunter. Biden recounted,
|"'You’re not getting the billion'. I’m going to be leaving here in, I think it was about six hours. I looked at them and said: ‘I’m leaving in six hours. If the prosecutor is not fired, you’re not getting the money'...Well, [SOB], he got fired. And they put in place someone who was solid at the time."|
Yuriy Lutsenko, who replaced Shokin as the prosecutor looking into Burisma, said the evidence in the Burisma case he'd like to present to William Barr, particularly the vice president's intervention.
Between April 2014 and October 2015, more than $3 million was paid out by Burisma to an account linked to Biden's and Devon Archer's Rosemont Seneca firm, according to the financial records placed in a federal court file in Manhattan in another case against Archer. The bank records show that, on most months when Burisma money flowed, two wire transfers of $83,333.33 each were sent to the Rosemont Seneca–connected account on the same day. The same Rosemont Seneca–linked account typically then paid Hunter Biden one or more payments ranging from $5,000 to $25,000 each. Ukrainian prosecutors reviewed internal company documents and wanted to interview Hunter Biden and Archer about why they had received such payments, but couldn't because of Joe Biden's intervention.
- See also: History of Ukraine
The name "Ukraine" literally means "the territory at the edge" or "borderlands".
Early history to 1100AD
Beginning in the first millennium B.C., the territory of what is now Ukraine was populated by Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Goths, and other nomadic peoples. Ancient Greek colonists set up city-states in southern Ukraine. Eastern Slavic tribes settled in Ukraine in the sixth century A.D. Kiev was established in the sixth or seventh century and was taken by the Varangian prince Oleg of Novgorod in 882 A.D.. Well located at the intersection of major trade routes, Kiev soon developed into the center of a mighty state, Rus'. At its height under grand princes Vladimir I (980-1015) and Yaroslav I the Wise (1019-1054), Kievan Rus' was the largest state in Europe in terms of area. Vladimir I adopted Christianity in 988; Yaroslav the Wise codified the laws; he married his daughters advantageously to the kings of France, Hungary, and Norway.
Although Russian historians identify Rus' as the progenitor of modern Russia, it was also the progenitor of Ukraine and Byelarus. Ukrainian scholars are divided whether the Rus' comprised a loosely organized conglomerate of diverse peoples, or whether it was a more homogeneous nation of Ukrainians. Following the Communist collapse in 1992, two schools of historiography regarding Kievan (Kyivan) Rus' have competed, the Ukrainophile and the East Slavic. The Ukrainophile school promotes an identity that is "mutually exclusive" of Russia. It has come to dominate the nation's educational system, security forces, and national symbols and monuments, although it has been dismissed as nationalist by Western historians. The East Slavic school, an eclectic compromise between Ukrainophiles and Russophilism, has a weaker ideological and symbolic base, although it is preferred by Ukraine's centrist former elites.
Decline of Rus'
Feudal fragmentation caused the decline of Kievan Rus' in the 12th century. In 1169 Kiev was sacked by Prince Andrei Bogoliubsky of Vladimir; in 1240 it was virtually destroyed by the Mongols under Batu Khan. The Principality of Galicia-Volhynia continued as the successor state of Kievan Rus' in what was the Ukraine SSR. In the 14th century it was annexed by Poland and Lithuania. In the 13th and 14th centuries the Ukrainian people of Galicia developed a distinct culture from the other East Slavs, but language remained the same.
Peasant refugees from Polish landlord rule escaped to the steppes of Ukraine in the 15th and 16th centuries, where they became frontiersmen called Cossacks. Their main center was Zaporizhska Sich, a wild town on the lower Dnieper River. Outlaws and frontiersmen, fighters and pioneers, the Cossacks seized the Ukrainian imagination. They ranged the steppe in covered wagons, pulling them into tight squares to face a Tatar attack. Urged on by Polish subsidies, they launched lucrative raids on the ports of Poland's enemy Turkey, using sixty-foot‐long double-ruddered galleys. The men boasted splendid moustaches, red boots and wide baggy trousers as they danced, sang and drank horilka in heroic quantities. Some Cossacks aligned with Poland; others led rebellions against the Poles in 1591, 1595, 1625, 1635 and 1637.
The rebellions climaxed in 1648-1654 in a popular uprising, accompanied by widespread pogroms against Jews, led by the Cossack hetman (general) Bohdan Khmelnytsky (1595-1657). Representatives of the Cossack Hetmanate and Czar Alexis signed the Pereiaslav Agreement of 1654, which led to the birth of Ukraine as it first became based in the Dnipropetrovsk and Kirovohrad oblasts, but was later given more territory. Khmelnytsky's victory over Poland led to a Cossack "state," the hetmanate. As the creator of the first quasi-independent Cossack state in the 16th century, Khmelnitsky became immortalized in Ukrainian national sentiment. In the Communist era Moscow bolstered his status. The exploits of Khmelnitsky and the Cossacks became the focus of numerous ceremonial acts, exhibitions and dedications. Since 1991, however, Ukrainian scholars are more divided over the issue of whether he sold out the national interest to Russia.
Polish and Russian control
In 1657-1686 came "The Ruin," a devastating 30-year war between Russia, Poland, Turks and Cossacks for control of Ukraine. For three years Khmelnytsky's armies controlled present-day western and central Ukraine, but deserted by his Tatar allies, he suffered a crushing defeat at Berestechko, and turned to the Russian Czar for help. In 1654, Khmelnytsky signed the Treaty of Pereiaslav, forming a military and political alliance with Russia that acknowledged loyalty to the Czar. The wars escalated in intensity with hundreds of thousands of deaths. Defeat came in 1686 as the "Eternal Peace" between Russia and Poland gave Kiev and the Cossack lands east of the Dnieper over to Russian rule and the Ukrainian lands west of the Dnieper to Poland. In 1709 Cossack Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1687-1709) sided with Sweden against Russia in the Great Northern War (1700-1721). Mazepa, a member of the Cossack nobility, received an excellent education abroad and proved to be a brilliant political and military leader enjoying good relations with the Romanov dynasty. After Peter the Great became czar, Mazepa as hetman gave him more than twenty years of loyal military and diplomatic service and was well rewarded. Eventually Peter recognized that in order to consolidate and modernize Russia's political and economic power it was necessary to do away with the hetmanate and Ukrainian and Cossack aspirations to autonomy. Peter refused to assist Cossack forces in protecting Ukraine from imminent attack by Sweden, thus abrogating treaty obligations between Russia and Ukraine. Mazepa accepted Polish invitations to join the Poles and Swedes against Russia. The move was disastrous for the hetmanate, Ukrainian autonomy, and Mazepa. He died in exile after fleeing from the Battle of Poltava (1709), where the Swedes and their Cossack allies suffered a catastrophic defeat at the hands of Peter's Russian forces
The hetmanate was abolished in 1764; the Zaporizhska Sich abolished in 1775, as centralized Russian control became the norm. With the partitioning of Poland in 1772, 1793, and 1795, the Ukrainian lands west of the Dnieper were divided between Russia and Austria. From 1737 to 1834 expansion into the northern Black Sea littoral and the eastern Danube valley was a cornerstone of Russian foreign policy.
Lithuanians and Poles controlled vast estates in Ukraine, and were a law unto themselves. Judicial rulings from Cracow were routinely flouted. Heavily taxed peasants were practically tied to the land as serfs Occasionally the landowners battled each other using armies of Ukrainian peasants. The Poles and Lithuanians were Roman Catholics and tried with some success to covert the Orthodox lesser nobility. In 1596 they set up the "Greek-Catholic" or Uniate Church, under the authority of the Pope but using Eastern rituals; it dominates western Ukraine to this day. Tensions between the Uniates and the Orthodox were never resolved, and the religious differentiation left the Ukrainian Orthodox peasants leaderless, as they were reluctant to follow the Ukrainian nobles.
The Cossack-led uprising called Koliivshchyna that erupted in the Ukrainian borderlands of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1768 involved ethnicity as one root cause of Ukrainian violence that killed tens of thousands of Poles and Jews. Religious warfare also broke out between Ukrainian groups. Increasing conflict between Uniate and Orthodox parishes along the newly reinforced Polish-Russian border on the Dnepr River in the time of Catherine II set the stage for the uprising. As Uniate religious practices had become more Latinized, Orthodoxy in this region drew even closer into dependence on the Russian Orthodox Church. Confessional tensions also reflected opposing Polish and Russian political allegiances.
Origins of Ukraine: 19th century and World War I
In the 19th century the Ukrainian was a rural area largely ignored by Russia and Austria. With growing urbanization and modernization, and a cultural trend toward nationalism inspired by romanticism, a Ukrainian intelligentsia committed to national rebirth and social justice emerged. The serf-turned-national-poet Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861) and the political theorist Mykhailo Drahomanov (1841-1895) led the growing nationalist movement. Nationalist and socialist parties developed in the late 19th century. Austrian Galicia, which enjoyed substantial political freedom under the relatively lenient rule of the Hapsburgs, became the center of the nationalist movement. The first Ukrainians were Carpathian Russians in Austria-Hungary who denounced Orthodox Christianity for Roman Catholicism in 1893. Before 1917, one could walk on foot from Kiev to Moscow without noticing any linguistic differences. Defeat in World War I and the Russian revolutions of 1917 destroyed the Hapsburg and Russian empires. The Ukrainian elite declared statehood: the Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed at Kiev on Nov. 20, 1917, becoming independent on Jan. 22, 1918. The West Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed at Lviv on Nov. 1, 1918. A rival Ukrainian Soviet Republic was established at Kharkiv on Dec. 24, 1917. On Jan. 22, 1919, the two people's republics united. Lenin gave Ukraine Kharkiv, Donbass, and the coastal oblasts, making it an artificial state in the style of the EU. By then, however, the military situation was desperate, as Polish and Bolshevik armies pressed the Ukrainian nationalists from west and east and the peasant anarchists led by Nestor Makhno took control of large areas. Because communist theory denies the existence of race as the adherents flip flop to favor one group over another, Lenin made the Soviet Union autonomous republics so not one ethnic group will have too much power.
The war in Ukraine continued for another two years; by 1921, however, most of Ukraine had been taken over by the Soviet Union, while Galicia and Volhynia were incorporated into independent Poland.
A powerful underground Ukrainian nationalist movement rose in Poland in the 1920s and 1930s, led by the Ukrainian Military Organization and the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). The movement attracted a militant following among students and harassed the Polish authorities. Legal Ukrainian parties, the Ukrainian Catholic Church, an active press, and a business sector also flourished in Poland. Economic conditions improved in the 1920s, but the region suffered from the Great Depression in the 1930s.
The situation in Soviet Ukraine under Communist control were sharply different. The communists gave a privileged position to manual labor, the largest class in the cities, where Russians dominated. The typical worker was more attached to class identity than to ethnicity. Although there were incidents of ethnic friction among workers (in addition to Ukrainians and Russians there were Poles, Germans, Jews, and others in the Ukrainian workforce), industrial laborers had already adopted Russian culture and language to a significant extent. Workers whose ethnicity was Ukrainian were not attracted to campaigns of Ukrainianization or de-Russification in meaningful numbers, but remained loyal members of the Soviet working class. There was no significant antagonism between workers identifying themselves as Ukrainian or Russian; however, anti-Semitism was widespread.
Moscow encouraged a national renaissance in literature and the arts, under the aegis of the Ukrainization policy pursued by the national Communist leadership of Mykola Skrypnyk (1872-1933).
see Ukrainian Famine
With Stalin's change of course in the late 1920s, however, Moscow's toleration of Ukrainian national identity came to an end. Systematic state terror of the 1930s destroyed Ukraine's writers, artists, and intellectuals; the Communist Party of Ukraine was purged of its "nationalist deviationists"; and the peasantry was crushed by means of collectivization, resulting in the Great Famine or "Holodomor" (Голодомор) of 1932-1933, which claimed some 3-7 million lives as crops failed and remaining food wtocks were forcibly removed by the government. Besides Ukraine, Kazakhstan and the Volga region were also hit by the famine. Stalin had full knowledge of the destructive force of the famine. It was a by-product of his war on the peasantry that began with collectivization and dekulakization and as an attempt to eradicate peasant culture in its entirety. Ellman explains the causes for the excess deaths in rural areas of Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan during 1931-34 by dividing the causes into three groups: objective nonpolicy-related factors, like the drought of 1931 and poor weather in 1932; inadvertent result of policies with other objectives, like rapid industrialization, socialization of livestock, and neglected crop rotation patterns; and deaths caused intentionally by a starvation policy. The Communist leadership perceived famine not as a humanitarian catastrophe but as a means of class struggle and used starvation as a punishment tool to teach peasants to work well in the collective farms.
It was largely the same groups of individuals who were responsible for the mass killing operations during the civil war, collectivization, and the Great Terror. These groups were associated with Efim Georgievich Evdokimov (1891-1939) and operated in Ukraine during the civil war, in the North Caucasus in the 1920s, and in the Secret Operational Division within General State Political Administration (OGPU) in 1929-31. Evdokimov transferred into Communist Party administration in 1934, when he became Party secretary for North Caucasus Krai. But he appears to have continued advising Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Yezhov on security matters, and the latter relied on Evdokimov's former colleagues to carry out the mass killing operations that are known as the Great Terror in 1937-38.
Nazi colloboration: 1941-1945
In 1939, after Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland, Galicia and Volhynia were annexed to Soviet Ukraine. Northern Bukovina, formerly part of Romania, was incorporated into Ukraine in 1940, as was formerly Czechoslovakian Subcarpathian Ruthenia (the Transcarpathian Oblast) in 1945.
By mid-1941, the Ukrainian SSR had the largest population of Jews in Europe. The addition of the eastern provinces of Poland in late 1939 as well as the seizure of sections of Romanian territory in June 1940 led to some 2.7 million Jews living within the borders of the newly enlarged republic. About 85% lived in cities. By 1944, 1.6 million of these Jews had died at the hands of the Germans and their allies and auxiliaries. Unlike the majority of the Holocaust's victims who died in the industrialized mass murder of the death camps, the overwhelming bulk of Ukraine's Jews died in mass shootings during the initial stages of the war.
The German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was welcomed by many Ukrainians at first; the OUN even attempted to establish a government under German auspices. Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenberg (1893-1946) considered Ukraine a strategically important region that should be occupied through capturing the hearts and minds of the Ukrainians. According to Rosenberg, everything should have been done to make the Ukrainians view the Germans as liberators. Though he presented his views on different occasions, Adolf Hitler's anti-Slavic racial views prevailed and overrode strategic considerations, leading to a harsh occupation. Very soon the realization that Nazi policies were brutal toward all the Ukrainians, and not only the Jews and Communists, drove most Ukrainians into opposition to the Nazis. Germany forced many Ukrainians to work within the so-called Reichskommissariat Ukraine (RKU) on tasks such as agriculture, road and railway building, and the construction of fortifications. The German authorities soon faced a serious local labor shortage, especially among skilled workers, as a result of Soviet evacuations before the invasion, the ongoing murder of the Jewish population, and the brutal recruitment, arrest, and deportation of other groups, usually with the cooperation of the local civilian, military, and police authorities. The pool of labor was further reduced as the Germans lost territory in the later stages of the conflict. Nazi administrator Fritz Sauckel's labor recruitment measures strained relations with local officials responsible for selecting the deportees, leading to bribery and corruption. The Kiev area was the main focus for recruitment and deportation, along with the Vinnitsa region of central Ukraine. Over a million locals and prisoners of war were forced into labor in the Ukrainian coal mines in the Donbas region (Donets Basin). The forced laborers endured fines, starvation, imprisonment, beatings, and hanging, but also had better chances for more food, money, and mobility.
In Ukraine, Belarus, and western Russia the first stage of partisan development, from 1941 to the fall of 1942, was uncoordinated and resulted in a great many losses. The second stage, late 1942 to 1944, was better coordinated; partisan groups were better defined, and relatively large-scale operations were carried out, often in cooperation with the Red Army. Organized leadership and cadres were created, various forms of actions (such as diversions, sabotage, and direct attacks) were developed; the Germans responded with vicious punitive activities against the partisans. In all, more than 1.3 million partisans took part in actions in Germany's rear in 6,200 units; more than 300,000 received decorations for their actions. The OUN created a nationalist partisan fighting force, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA); many Ukrainians also joined the Soviet partisans and fought in the Soviet Army against the Germans. After World War II, the OUN and the UPA continued a hopeless guerrilla struggle against Soviet rule until 1953. The devastation caused by the war included major destruction in over 700 cities and towns and 28,000 villages.
Fascist insurgency: 1944-1954
In the June 1944, when Canadian, British and American soldiers were landing on the beaches of Normandy, their Soviet allies rolled into the German-occupied Western Ukraine. The Red Army soldiers and officers quickly noticed a stark contrast in the attitude of locals compared to other recently liberated regions of the Soviet Union. Instead of cheering crowds of peasant women and children who would offer them water and the traditional Slavic greeting of bread and salt, there was an eerie silence in many villages, and few locals would even talk to the new arrivals. Soon, chilling rumors started about murdered Red Army soldiers found hanged or decapitated in the woods. Rumors were soon followed by orders issued to troops stationed in the allegedly safe rear, far behind the frontline, to increase their vigilance, never to venture anywhere alone or unarmed, and to look out for “bandits” hiding in the forests. The NKVD (People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs – as the law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union between 1934 and 1946 was known) units that followed close behind the Red Army quickly proceeded with their routine practice of rounding up numerous suspected Nazi collaborators, as well as members of the Polish anti-Nazi underground, in Lviv and other west Ukrainian cities. However, a number of feared Soviet secret policemen were soon found dead in Ukrainian villages and Galician forests, and in some areas of the countryside those who dared to venture there had to be heavily armed and in large numbers. This was the start of a brutal insurgency that lasted almost ten years in rural Western Ukraine and resulted in one of the toughest counterinsurgency challenges the Soviets ever faced.
In 1948, the CIA report NSC 20/1, section 4: “US objectives with respect to Russia” warned that separating Ukraine from Russia will not work.
Reconstruction proceeded rapidly in the late 1940s and the 1950s, as the Soviets needed the food and raw materials of Ukraine. Political repression of nationally conscious Ukrainians also intensified. The widespread acculturation and assimilation of the Soviet Jews by the 1930s led Stalin to consider the "Jewish question" as settled; he now viewed the Jews as a national rather than a religious group. With the influx of Jews into the Ukraine and Russia from Poland, the Baltic states, Bessarabia, and Bukovina following the Hitler-Stalin Pact of 1939, there followed an intensification of Jewish religious activity, and the reopening of many synagogues. However, political unrest preceding the creation of the state of Israel unleashed Stalin's massive repression against Jews during the "black years" of 1948-53. Suspected of Zionism and cosmopolitanism, Jews were systematically removed from positions of leadership in culture, science, medicine, politics, and economics. The anti-Semitic campaign ended only with the death of Stalin in March 1953.
When the CIA was created by the National Security Act in 1947, one of its top priorities was collaborating with the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Banderites) to carry on an armed insurgency in western Ukraine against Soviet authorities which lasted until 1954. Many of these Banderite groups were former formations of the Nazi SS Galicia Division known for horrendous atrocities against Polish and Jewish civilians. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, a Ukrainian himself, pacified the insurgency after Stalin's death and placed Russian Crimea, a famous resort area with a mild climate, under Kyiv administration.
Denazificatrion and reconstruction: 1954 to 1991
Stalin's death finally brought relief in many ways. The thaw initiated by Nikita Khrushchev, who had served as Ukrainian party chief in the 1930s, led to the emergence in the late 1950s and the early 1960s of the "sixties generation" of writers, artists, and intellectuals. In order to mark the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, Khrushchev gave Crimea to Ukraine in 1954. Following Khrushchev's downfall in 1964, Moscow, under Leonid Brezhnev initiated a series of crackdowns on Ukrainian dissidents, including Ivan Dziuba (b. 1931), the author of Internationalism or Russification?; Vyacheslav Chornovil (b. 1938), the editor of the underground Ukrainian Herald; and Valentyn Moroz (b. 1936), the author of stinging attacks on Soviet policy. In 1972, Petro Shelest, the national-Communist Ukrainian party chief, was replaced by hardliner Volodymyr Shcherbytsky.
The Number Four reactor at Chernobyl exploded during a routine power test in April 1986. Radioactive contaminants from the Chernobyl disaster fell on northern Ukraine and several neighboring countries, reaching as far as Japan and the United States, causing casualties, sparking a major embarrassment for the Soviet Union, and inciting fears of nuclear energy.
The arrival of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985 started a slow revolution. The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 undercut trust in Moscow. "Glasnost" permitted Ukrainian intellectuals to discuss the "blank spots" in their history, and growing political liberalization led to the reemergence of dissident groups and the emergence of nationally minded cultural organizations. A major turning point occurred in late 1989, with the founding of Rukh and the removal of Shcherbytsky from power.
In the 47 years of Soviet control after the liberation of Ukraine from German occupation, the Soviet Union as never able to completely de-nazify Ukraine is it did in East Germany.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union: 1991
In 1990 Leonid Kravchuk, formerly in charge of ideology in the CPU, was appointed chairman of the presidium of a revamped supreme soviet, one fourth of whose deputies were nationalists and "democrats" elected in the semifree elections of 1990. On July 16, 1990, Ukraine proclaimed its sovereignty, an ambiguous formula that meant independence to the nationalists and autonomy to the Russian minority. On Nov. 21, 1990, Ukraine and Russia signed a treaty recognizing each other's sovereignty and promising not to interfere in each other's affairs.
As the Communist system collapsed in 1991, Ukraine, Russia, and the other republics engaged in lengthy negotiations with Gorbachev over the form of a new union. In August 1991 an abortive coup by committed KGB operatives in Moscow destroyed Gorbachev's strength and impelled the republics to go their own way. The Ukraine national assembly declared independence on Aug. 24, 1991. Several days later the CPU was suspended and its property was confiscated. A popular referendum on independence was held on December 1, and over 90 percent of the voters supported the declaration. Most of the countries of the world recognized the new Republic of Ukraine in the months that followed. Ukraine became a member of the Council on Security and Cooperation in Europe, the International Monetary Fund, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and after much controversy a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) program in 1994. As a consequence of the autonomous republics system, Ukraine became a second Yugoslavia.
The nominal successor to the Soviet Union was the Commonwealth of Independent States; Ukraine joined on Dec. 8, 1991. Serious tensions soon emerged with Russia as Moscow took possession of the Black Sea fleet anchored at Sevastopol, while some Russian politicians wanted the Donbas and the Crimea; the latter, being in Russian hands since 1783, had been transferred to Ukraine by the Soviet authorities without referendum or self-determination of peoples in 1954. The Ukrainian government responded by taking steps to create its own army and navy. Crimean secessionists elected Yuri Meshkov as president of the Crimea in early 1994. The Kiyv government established closer economic and political ties with Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. Ukrainian nationalists fears of Russia led it to postpone action on its earlier promise to give up strategic nuclear missiles, prompting concern in the West. After the signing the Budapest Memorandum by the presidents of Ukraine, Russia, and the United States in early 1994, Ukraine began shipping these weapons to Russia. Thereafter, Ukraine's relations with the United States and western Europe improved.
Leonid Kravchuk, the most powerful politician, became Ukraine's first popularly elected president, with over 60 percent of the vote, on Dec. 1, 1991. His authority, like that of the legislature, declined precipitously, however, as he proved unable to solve the country's mounting economic difficulties. In contrast to Rukh, which had split into pro-Kravchuk and anti-Kravchuk factions in 1992, the former Communists remained strong, controlling many local government councils, industrial plants, and collective farms. The CPU was officially reconstituted as a powerful political force in late 1993. Ukrainian neo-Nazis also become more prominent. Elections for the supreme soviet in March 1994 yielded a legislature in which the CPU and its left-wing allies were the strongest bloc, followed by the center-right nationalists grouped about what remained of Rukh and the centrist pro-government "independents." Kravchuk ran for reelection in the presidential election in June 1994. No candidate won a majority, so a second round was held in July, pitting Kravchuk against former premier Leonid Kuchma. Kuchma won the election with 52 percent of the vote.
The national goal was the creation of a market-oriented economy and the establishment of stable democratic institutions and a system of laws. However the goals were partly frustrated by political deadlock, inexperience, an inefficient state apparatus, a collapsing economy, internal anti-Russian xenophobia, and external tensions with the Russian Federation. The Soviet culture of corruption continued after independence, and rampant criminality became even more widespread in the mid-1990s. In the latter 1990s, Viktor Yushchenko, as chairman of the National Bank of Ukraine, tamed rampant inflation and introduced responsible economic controls. From 1999 to 2004, Ukraine's GNP nearly doubled.
Official trade unions have been grouped under the Federation of Trade Unions. A number of independent unions, which emerged during 1992, among them the Independent Union of Miners of Ukraine, have formed the Consultative Council of Free Trade Unions. While the right to strike is legally guaranteed, strikes based solely on political demands are prohibited.
Ethnic tensions in Crimea during 1992 prompted a number of pro-Russian political organizations to advocate secession of Crimea and reincorporation to Russia. (Crimea was ceded by the RFSSR to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954, in recognition of historic links and for economic convenience, to mark the 300th anniversary of Ukraine's union with Russia.) In July 1992, the Crimean and Ukrainian parliaments determined that Crimea would remain under Ukrainian jurisdiction while retaining significant cultural and economic autonomy.
In July 1994, Leonid Kuchma was elected as Ukraine's second president in free and fair elections. Kuchma was reelected in November 1999 to another five-year term, with 56% of the vote. International observers criticized aspects of the election, especially slanted media coverage; however, the outcome of the vote was not called into question. Ukraine's March 2002 parliamentary elections were characterized by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) as flawed, but an improvement over the 1998 elections. The pro-presidential For a United Ukraine bloc won the largest number of seats, followed by the reformist Our Ukraine bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (who was then a former Prime Minister), and the Communist Party.
Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances: 1994
- See also: Near abroad
At the time of Ukraine's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine held the third largest nuclear arsenal in the world, including an estimated 1,800 strategic warheads, 176 long-range ballistic missiles, and 42 strategic bombers.
To solidify security commitments to Ukraine, the United States, Russia, and the United Kingdom signed the December 5, 1994 Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances. The memorandum included assurances against the threat or use of force against Ukraine's territory or political independence. The countries promised to respect the sovereignty and existing borders of Ukraine.
The United States took custody and control of Ukraine's obsolete nuclear stockpiles for disposal in exchange for assurances by the United States and NATO to safeguard Ukraine's independence. Ukraine was coaxed to give up it nuclear weapons in exchange for a written pledge, should Ukraine ever be threatened or invaded, the United States would be there to intervene with military power.
By 1996, Ukraine had returned all of its operational nuclear warheads to Russia in exchange for economic aid and security assurances, and Ukraine became a non-nuclear weapon state party to the 1968 nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). The last strategic nuclear delivery vehicle in Ukraine was eliminated in 2001 under the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). It took years of political maneuvering and diplomatic work, starting with the Lisbon Protocol in 1992, to remove the weapons and nuclear infrastructure from Ukraine.
Failed color revolution: 2004
Kuchma's second term in office as president (1999-2004) was characterized by the collapse of the national democratic-centrist alliance, the "Kuchmagate" crisis, the rise of a non-Communist opposition in the 2002 elections, and the election of Viktor Yushchenko in 2004 following the Open Society Foundations' Orange Revolution. The deep divisions that have become evident under Yushchenko had their origins in Ukraine's regionalism, the "Kuchmagate" crisis, antiregime protests, and different attitudes to dealing with the past. The country is divided by linguistic and regional cleavages that appear sharply in regional polarization in national elections. These divisions have led to constant questioning of the viability of the Ukrainian state and predictions of violence and civil war. Secessionist movements have made few inroads, however, and violence has been nonexistent. Because the Russian "minority" group in Ukraine is actually quite large, it has immense influence in the state without resort to regional autonomy or secession. The balance of power between Ukraine's regions and ethnic groups has ensured that neither side has dominated. This does not make for rapid reform.
The campaign leading to the October 31, 2004 presidential election was characterized by widespread violations of democratic norms, including government intimidation of the opposition and of independent media, abuse of state administrative resources, highly skewed media coverage, and numerous provocations. The two major candidates—Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and opposition leader (and former Prime Minister) Viktor Yushchenko—each garnered between 39% and 40% of the vote and proceeded to a winner-take-all second round. The November 21 runoff election was marred by credible reports of widespread and significant violations, including illegal expulsion of opposition representatives from election commissions, multiple voting by busloads of people, abuse of absentee ballots, reports of coercion of votes in schools and prisons, and an abnormally high number of (easily manipulated) mobile ballot box votes. Hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets of Kyiv and other cities to protest electoral fraud and express support for Yushchenko, and conducted ongoing peaceful demonstrations during what came to be known as the "Orange Revolution."
The OSCE International Election Observation Mission found that the November 21, 2004 run-off presidential election "did not meet a considerable number of OSCE commitments and Council of Europe and other European standards for democratic elections…Overall, State executive authorities and the Central Election Commission (CEC) displayed a lack of will to conduct a genuine democratic election process." Other independent observers were similarly critical. On November 24, 2004, the CEC declared Prime Minister Yanukovych the winner with 49.46% compared to 46.61% for Yushchenko. The U.S. and Europe refused to accept the result as legitimate due to the numerous, uninvestigated reports of fraud. European leaders traveled to Kyiv to mediate a political solution between the parties. On November 27, Ukraine's Supreme Rada passed a resolution declaring that the election results as announced did not represent the will of the people. On December 1, the Rada passed a vote of "no confidence" in the government. On December 3, Ukraine's Supreme Court invalidated the CEC's announced results and mandated a repeat of the second round vote to take place on December 26. An agreement mediated by the European leaders resulted in new legislation being passed by the Rada and signed by the President December 8. The electoral law was reformed to close loopholes that had permitted pervasive electoral fraud. The constitution was amended, effective not earlier than September 2005, to transfer power, especially with respect to appointment of ministers, from the president to the cabinet. Yet another law was passed, in first reading, to devolve some powers of the central government to regional councils. In addition, Prime Minister Yanukovych requested and was granted a leave of absence, and Prosecutor General Hennadiy Vasilyev submitted his resignation.
The December 26 re-vote took place in an atmosphere of calm. While irregularities were noted, observers found no systemic or massive fraud. The OSCE Mission noted that "campaign conditions were markedly more equal, observers received fewer reports of pressure on voters, the election administration was more transparent and the media more balanced than in previous rounds…in our collective view Ukraine’s elections have moved substantially closer to meeting OSCE and other European standards." On January 10, 2005, after the CEC and the Supreme Court had considered and rejected numerous complaints and appeals filed by the Yanukovych campaign, the CEC certified the results: Yushchenko had won 51.99% of the votes, with 44.20% for Yanukovych. President Yushchenko was inaugurated January 23, 2005.
Ukraine held parliamentary and local elections on March 26, 2006. International observers noted that conduct of the Rada election was in line with international standards for democratic elections, making this the most free and fair in Ukraine's history. Unlike the first rounds of the 2004 presidential election, candidates and parties were able to express themselves freely in a lively press and assembled without hindrance. There was no systemic abuse of administrative resources as there had been under the previous regime. The Party of Regions and the bloc of former Prime Minister Tymoshenko, whose government the President dismissed in September 2005, finished ahead of the pro-presidential Our Ukraine bloc. Other parties passing the 3% threshold to enter parliament were the Socialist Party of Ukraine and the Communist Party of Ukraine. No party held the majority of Rada seats needed to form a government. Following four months of difficult negotiations, a government led by Prime Minister Yanukovych and including representatives from the Party of Regions, Our Ukraine, and the Socialist Party took office on August 4, 2006. This, the first government formed after the extensive constitutional amendments brokered as part of the Orange Revolution, has been the focus the Prime Minister's growing influence, sometimes at the expense of the President. Amid shifting political alliances, the "Anti-Crisis Coalition" formed by the Party of Regions, Socialist and Communist parties has grown into a "Coalition of National Unity," as some members of the pro-presidential "Our Ukraine" bloc have moved into the Prime Minister's camp. Meanwhile, others have joined forces with Bloc Yuliya Tymoshenko.
Western-backed Euromaidan regime change: 2014/2015
See main article: Euromaidan coup
2010 Viktor Yanukovych and his pro-Russian "Party of Regions" won the free, fair and democratic elections certified by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). In a 2013, an Obama administration-backed color revolution was unleashed, in which the Ukrainians nationalists protested against Yanukovych and wanted a pro-EU and NATO course by the government. These protests were dubbed "EuroMaidan". The key figures of the opposition were Victoria Nuland, Yulia Tymoshenko, Vitali Klitschko and neo-Nazi Oleh Tyahnybok. As a result, prime minister Mykola Azarov resigned and Yanukovich was discontinued on February 22, 2014 by the parliament.
In response to the armed fascist coup of a democratically elected president, Russian soldiers landed in Crimea the same month. Because many of the people living in Crimea are ethnic Russians, there was an ongoing dispute whether Crimea belongs to Ukraine or to Russia. On March 11, 2014, Crimea declared its independence from the illegally US-installed Ukrainian regime. On March 16, 2014, Russia sponsored a referendum in Crimea about joining Russia. As a result of it 95.5% of voters supported joining Russia. The decision of the voters was ratified by the Russian Duma. Since March 18, 2014, Russia claims Crimea as a part of its territory. Afghanistan, Cuba, Nicaragua, North Korea, Russia, Syria and Venezuela recognized Crimea as a part of Russia.
As a result of the reincorporation of Crimea, the Donetsk People's Republic and the Lugansk People's Republic declared their independence and created a confederation called "Federal State of Novorossiya". Novorossiya was dissolved in May 2015 but the separate Lugansk and Donetsk People's Republics however still exist. In June 2014 Petro Poroshenko was elected as new president of the Western-installed Kyiv regime and Arseniy Yatsenyuk became prime minister. Since then the U.S.-backed Ukrainian regime backed neo-Nazi paramilitary terror attacks against the Donetsk and Lugansk Republics. When President Donald Trump attempted to hold back military aid to the fascist Kyiv regime, U.S. Democrats impeached him.
Ukrainian collusion: 2016
- Main article: Ukrainian collusion
The government of Ukraine in collusion with the Democratic National Committee colluded to interfere in the 2016 United States Presidential Election and to subvert American democracy. In so doing, they sought to blame Russia for foreign influence.
Paul Sperry of Realclearinvestigations documented how the Ukrainian government, working with both the Obama administration and the 2016 Clinton campaign, Ukrainian officials intervened in the 2016 race to help Hillary Clinton and hurt Donald Trump in a sweeping and systematic foreign influence operation. The improper, if not illegal, operation was run chiefly out of the Ukrainian Embassy in Washington, D.C. where officials worked with Alexander Chalupa, a Ukrainian-American Banderist and Clinton campaign operative, to attack the Trump campaign. The Obama White House was also deeply involved in an effort to groom their own favored leader in Ukraine and then work with his government to dig up dirt on and investigate their political rival.
Alexandra 'Ali' Chalupa (left) and Col. Alexander Vindman (right), two Ukrainian Banderists deeply involved in the plot to remove President Trump and drive the United States to war with Russia.
Ukrainian and Democratic operatives also huddled with American journalists to spread damaging information on Trump and his advisers – including allegations of illicit Russian-tied payments that, though later proved false, forced the resignation of his campaign manager Paul Manafort. The embassy actually weighed a plan to get Congress to investigate Manafort and Trump and stage hearings in the run-up to the election. As it worked behind the scenes to undermine Trump, Ukraine also attacked him publicly. Ukraine's ambassador took the extraordinary step of attacking Trump in an Op-Ed article published in The Hill, an influential U.S. Capitol newspaper, while other top Ukrainian officials slammed the GOP candidate on social media.
The Ukrainian mischief is part of Special Counsel John Durham’s broader Trump-Russia inquiry, as of 2022 a full-blown criminal investigation with grand jury indictments – into efforts to falsely target Trump as a Kremlin conspirator in 2016 and beyond.
Nine days after the U.S. presidential election, the Russian Federation sponsored a U.N. Resolution entitled Combating glorification of Nazism, Neo-Nazism and other practices that contribute to fueling contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance aimed at condemning the neo-fascist groups openly displaying Nazi symbols and regalia in Ukraine and Donbas. The Obama administration voted against the resolution.
Impeachment 2.0: 2019-2020
- See also: Impeachment sham
In December 2016 Sens. Lindsey Graham and John McCain visited the Azov Battalion. Graham told them "Your fight is our fight, 2017 will be the year of offense" to retake Crimea. However, the election of Donald Trump a month earlier interrupted the neocon globalist agenda for war with Russia. When the Trump-Russia collusion hoax and Mueller investigation failed to remove President Trump, undeterred, Ukranian nationalists and their American collaborators attempted to impeach President Trump in the fall and winter of 2020 for not enthusiastically supporting war with Russia over Ukraine.
Russia-Ukraine war: 2022
- See also: Russia-Ukraine war
Former comedian, now President Volodoymr Zelensky (second from left), chest exposed, tight leather pants, wearing high heels depicted as the modern "Churchill";
(right) Vladimir Putin's "My Pet Goat" moment, receives briefing on Zelensky.
In the run up to the war, both the United States and NATO rejected without consideration two treaty proposals by the Russian Federation to avoid war. The treaty proposals would require NATO to pledge not granting Ukraine and the Republic of Georgia NATO membership; U.S. missiles in Poland and Romania to be removed; and NATO deployments to Eastern Europe reversed. The U.S. and NATO rejected the proposals without consideration and instead sent more NATO forces to Eastern Europe and continued to heavily arm Ukraine.
In early December 2021 it was reported that the Armed Forces of Ukraine deployed 125,000 troops against the Donbas against 15,000 separatist forces. NATO-backed neo-Nazis attacked the Donbas on February 14, 2022. In Donetsk region, between the evenings of 18 and 20 February 2022, the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine recorded 2,158 ceasefire violations, including 1,100 explosions. In the previous reporting period, it recorded 591 ceasefire violations in the region. In Luhansk region, between the evenings of 18 and 20 February, the Mission recorded 1,073 ceasefire violations, including 926 explosions. In the previous reporting period, it recorded 975 ceasefire violations in the region.
With a diplomatic solution rejected out of hand by the United States and NATO, the Russian Federation entered Ukraine on February 24, 2022 to put a stop to the eight year war against the people of the Donbas by the Kyiv regime which had already claimed 14,000 lives. After more than two weeks fighting claiming more civilian lives with NATO-supplied weapons, on March 11, 2022, EU external minister Josep Borrell back peddled on EU policy which provoked the war saying, "I am ready to admit that we made a number of mistakes and that we lost the possibility of Russia’s rapprochement with the West. There are moments that we could do better, there are things that we proposed and then could not implement, such as, for example, the promise that Ukraine and Georgia will become part of NATO." The following day NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg began walking back NATO threats to Russia by saying membership for Ukraine was not relevant or on the agenda.
The scholarly study of the Ukraine's history emerged from romantic impulses in the late 19th century. The outstanding leaders were Volodymyr Antonovych (1834-1908), based in Kiev, and his student Michael Hrushevsky (1866-1934). For the first time full-scale scholarly studies based on archival sources, modern research techniques, and modern historical theories became possible. However, the demands of government officials—especially Soviet, but also Czarists and Polish—made it difficult to disseminate ideas that ran counter to the central government. Therefore, exile schools of historians emerged in central Europe and Canada after 1920.
Strikingly different interpretations of the medieval state of Kievan Rus' appear in the four schools of historiography within Ukraine: Russophile, Sovietophile, Eastern Slavic, and Ukrainophile. The Sovietophile and Russophile schools have become marginalized in independent Ukraine, with the Ukrainophile school being dominant in the early 21st century. The Ukrainophile school promotes an identity that is mutually exclusive of Russia. It has come to dominate the nation's educational system, security forces, and national symbols and monuments, although it has been dismissed as nationalist by Western historians. The East Slavic school, an eclectic compromise between Ukrainophiles and Russophilism, has a weaker ideological and symbolic base, although it is preferred by Ukraine's centrist former elites.
Many historians in recent years have sought alternatives to national histories, and Ukrainian history invited approaches that looked beyond a national paradigm. Multiethnic history recognizes the numerous peoples in Ukraine; transnational history portrays Ukraine as a border zone for various empires; and area studies categorizes Ukraine as part of Eurasia, or more often as part of East-Central Europe. Plokhy (2007) argues that looking beyond the country's national history has made possible a richer understanding of Ukraine, its people, and the surrounding regions.
After 1991, historical memory was a powerful tool in the political mobilization and legitimation of the post-Soviet Ukrainian state, as well as the division of selectively used memory along the lines of the political division of Ukrainian society. Ukraine did not experience the restorationist paradigm typical of some other post-Soviet nations, including the Baltic states, although the multifaceted history of independence, the Orthodox Church in Ukraine, Soviet-era repressions, mass famine, and World War II collaboration were used to provide a different constitutive frame for the new Ukrainian nation. The politics of identity (which includes the production of history textbooks and the authorization of commemorative practices) has remained fragmented and tailored to reflect the ideological anxieties and concerns of individual regions of Ukraine.
BibliographyCanadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, partly online
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Recent (since 1991)
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- Hanna H. Starostenko, "Economic and Ecological Factors of Transformations in Demographic Process in Ukraine" Uktraine Magazine #2 1998 online at 
- Brienna Perelli-Harris, "The Path to Lowest-low Fertility in Ukraine" Population Studies 2005 59(1): 55-70. Issn: 0032-4728; not online
- Jacques Vallin; Meslé, France; Adamets, Serguei; and Pyrozhkov, Serhii. "A New Estimate of Ukrainian Population Losses During the Crises of the 1930s and 1940s." Population Studies (2002) 56(3): 249-264. Issn: 0032-4728 Fulltext in Jstor
- Oksana Malanchuk, "Social Identification Versus Regionalism in Contemporary Ukraine." Nationalities Papers 2005 33(3): 345-368. Issn: 0090-5992 Fulltext in Ebsco
- Ukraine Court Rules Manafort Disclosure Caused 'Meddling' in U.S. Election, The New York Times, December 12, 2018. National Anti-Corruption Bureau Director Artem Sytnyk and legislator Serhiy Leshchenko broke the law by revealing Manafort's name. The disclosure “led to interference in the electoral processes of the United States in 2016 and harmed the interests of Ukraine as a state,” the court said. https://www.theepochtimes.com/ties-to-ukrainian-national-a-unifying-theme-in-early-attacks-on-trump_2872609.html
In October 2019, an audiotape of Sytnyk was release discussing his efforts to help Hillary during the 2016 election. He and Leschenko were responsible for publishing the Black Ledger which forced Paul Manafort to resign from Trump’s campaign.
- How the Obama White House engaged Ukraine to give Russia collusion narrative an early boost.
- ""telizhenko,andriy,g,U67540,100561,VA,1/19/16 10:57,D1101,1/19/16 12:53,,01/19/2016 12:00:00 AM,1/19/16 11:00,1/19/16 23:59,,1,KH,WIN,1/19/16 10:51,KH,Ciaramella,Eric,OEOB,230A,HARTWELL,KYLE,,,04/29/2016 07:00:00 AM +0000",,,,"  Judicial Watch: White House Visitor Logs Detail Meetings of Eric Ciaramella.
- Scoop: Germany urges Congress not to sanction Putin’s pipeline, Zachary Basu, Axios, Nov 28, 2021.
- Servicemen of the Vinnitsa Battalion of the Armed Forces of Ukraine on the actual state of affairs in the troops of Ukraine 1,071,758 views May 5, 2022. 
- ANOTHER UKRAINIAN UNIT DOESN'T WANT TO BE CANNON FODDER
- "A SHOCKING VIDEO FROM THE PHONE OF A DEAD MILITANT FROM LIMAN", "They threw us to the slaughter. For 4 days already, artillery, tanks, hailstones. We ask you to take us out, but they don't take us out. We are not meat with Kalash against artillery."
- You're on your own": African students stuck in Ukraine seek refuge or escape route
- Immigration turns Sweden into rape capitol of Europe.. conservative-headlines.com
- Likely the identities of US contacts and counterparts in the Ukranian government with knowledge of the arrangements and authority to act in a given situation.
- Rep. Marcy Kaptur.
- Victor Pinchuk, the Clintons & Endless Connections, by Jeff Carlson, March 11, 2018.
- Taras Kuzio, "Nation Building, History Writing and Competition over the Legacy of Kyiv Rus in Ukraine." Nationalities Papers 2005 33(1): 29-58. Issn: 0090-5992 Fulltext: in Ebsco
- Reid (2000) p. 30
- He is called Bogdan Khmelnitsky in Russian and Bogdan Chmielnicki in Polish.
- The Cossacks formed a military regime but most historians say the hetmanate was not a fully formed state, as it lacked borders, stable laws, an administrative apparatus or an ethnic population base. Apart from Russia it did not seek diplomatic recognition through the exchange of ambassadors.
- Serhii Plokhy, "The Ghosts of Pereyaslav: Russo-Ukrainian Historical Debates in the Post-soviet Era." Europe-Asia Studies 2001 53(3): 489-505. Fulltext: in Jstor; Zenon E. Kohut, "In Search of Early Modern Ukrainian Statehood: Post-Soviet Studies of the Cossack Hetmanate." Journal of Ukrainian Studies 1999 24(2): 101-112. Issn: 0228-1635 not online
- Reid (2000) p 27-30
- Barbara Skinner, "Borderlands of Faith: Reconsidering the Origins of a Ukrainian Tragedy." Slavic Review 2005 64(1): 88-116. Fulltext: in Jstor
- Michael Ellman, "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931-1934." Europe-Asia Studies 2005 57(6): 823-841. Issn: 0966-8136 Fulltext in Ebsco
- Stephen G. Wheatcroft, "Agency and Terror: Evdokimov and Mass Killing in Stalin's Great Terror." Australian Journal of Politics and History 2007 53(1): 20-43. Issn: 0004-9522 Fulltext in Ebsco; Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet collectivization and the terror-famine (1986). Mark B. Tauger, "The 1932 Harvest and the Famine of 1933" Slavic Review, Vol. 50, No. 1 (Spring, 1991), pp. 70-89, notes the harvest was unusually poor. online in JSTOR; R. W. Davies, M. B. Tauger, S. G. Wheatcroft, "Stalin, Grain Stocks and the Famine of 1932-1933," Slavic Review, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Autumn, 1995), pp. 642-657 ; online in JSTOR; Michael Ellman. "Stalin and the Soviet famine of 1932-33 Revisited," Europe-Asia Studies, Volume 59, Issue 4 June 2007 , pages 663-93.
- Jim T. Smith, and Nicholas A. Beresford, Chernobyl: Catastrophe and Consequences. Springer, 2005. 310 pp.
- Serhii Plokhy, Unmaking Imperial Russia: Mykhailo Hrushevsky and the Writing of Ukrainian History (2005)
- KubijovyČ, ed. Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia (1963) 1:559-74
- Taras Kuzio, "National Identity and History Writing in Ukraine," Nationalities Papers 2006 34(4): 407-427, online in EBSCO
- Serhii Plokhy, "Beyond Nationality" Ab Imperio 2007 (4): 25-46,
- See Andryi Portnov, "Exercises with history Ukrainian style (notes on public aspects of history's functioning in post-Soviet Ukraine)," Ab Imperio 2007 (3): 93-138, in Ukrainian
- CIA Factbook
- Ukraine page at The Economist
- Ukraine magazine, English edition
- Ukrainian Collaboration with Germany in World War II (1941 – 1945)
- "Between Hitler and Stalin: Ukraine in World War II," a 2003 Canadian film produced and directed by Slavko Nowytski and narrated by Jack Palance.
- U.S. State Department Background Note: Ukraine (2008), the source for several sections of this text
- 2014 Mariupol. Crimes of the Ukrainian regime . The war in Ukraine has been going on for 8 years. youtube.
- Civil War in Ukraine 2014-2022