| United Nations
|Headquarters||International Territory, within New York City, New York.|
|Official Languages||Arabic Chinese English French Russian Spanish|
|Membership||193 Member countries, as of Nov. 2017|
United Nations Charter signed 26 June 1945
Entry into force of Charter 24 October 1945
The United Nations is a globalist organization of countries all over the world, originally created to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, and human rights. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 51 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919. The UN currently has 193 members, including almost all the countries in the world. Non-members include Taiwan and Vatican City. Switzerland joined in 2002, being the last country to join the UN until now. The United Nations typically supports liberal, environmentalist, socialist and communist ideals.
The term "United Nations" was widely used during World War II to denote the allied powers making war against Germany and Japan, but the actual UN was created in 1945. It was designed by the U.S. State Department. President Franklin D. Roosevelt envisaged "four policemen", Britain, United States, Soviet Union, and Republic of China to be the major forces on what later became the UN Security Council to enforce the peace worldwide. This was deemed a modern approach to replace the old spheres of influence as they were called during the age of Imperialism.
US Secretary of State Cordell Hull said at the time while selling the idea to Congress, "there will no longer be need for spheres of influence, for alliances, for balance of power, or any other of the separate alliances through which in the unhappy past the nations strove to safeguard their security or promote their interest."
American enthusiasm for the UN soured after the Soviet Union vetoed most resolutions of the Security Council. However, the Soviets boycotted the UN in 1950, allowing the UN to officially sponsor the Korean War. In practice, the U.S. made all the decisions for the UN regarding that war. When the Soviets returned in 1951, they caused UN decisionmaking to stalemate, and the UN played a minor role in the Cold War.
The western military alliance of NATO began in 1949 and played a much greater role in US foreign policy commitments and decisions during the Cold War than the UN ever did. The one exception was the Korean War, which was fought under UN auspices since the Soviet Union was boycotting the UN in 1950.
Record of the Secretary-Generals
When the first UN secretary-general, Trygve Lie of Norway, a Stalinist sympathizer, was the Minister of Justice in Norway, he told Lenin's former right-hand man Leon Trotsky not to criticize Stalin or else he would be imprisoned and or kicked out of Norway; Lie eventually put him in prison, but later according to Stalin's wishes exiled him to Mexico where one of Stalin's hit men assassinated him by hitting his head with a pickax in 1940. As secretary-general, he failed to maintain peace in the 1947 Kashmir conflict, the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict, and the Korean War from 1950-1953.
The second secretary-general, Dag Hammarskjold of Sweden, former head of the Bank of Sweden, the oldest central bank in the world, even older than the Bank of England, refused to condemn Red China under Mao Tse-tung for invading Tibet and the USSR for crushing a revolt in Hungary, and in 1961, when the Katanga province of Zaire tried to get its independence from the pro-Marxist government, he used UN troops to crush the independence movement.
The third secretary-general, U Thant of Burma, was a Marxist whose mentor was Burmese prime minister U Nu, who said in a 1948 speech, “If we now look back in history, we find that Stalin followed the right path”; together, they abolished private property in Burma and U Thant choose a former KGB officer to be his personal assistant. U Thant was known for admiring Vladimir Lenin.” So it should not be surprising that U Thant was very well liked by Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev, whom he did not condemn for crushing Czechoslovakia, and did nothing to help John F. Kennedy handle the Cuban Missile Crisis. He failed to maintain peace in 1967 after the Six-Day Arab-Israeli War between Israel and its neighbors.
The fourth secretary-general, Kurt Waldheim, the future president of Austria, was a former Nazi infantry lieutenant who fought to help Adolf Hitler take over all of Europe, and he did not care who ruled the world, whether it be Nazi Germany or the UN, it did not matter to him so long as there was a one-world government. He believed that mass murder was merely a means to a better socialist end. So it should not be surprising that he sat down and did nothing to prevent from 1975-79 Cambodia’s Pol Pot from conducting his mass murders; Waldheim actually sent the UNICEF to send supplies to Hanoi, Vietnam, which in turn was sent to Pol Pot so he can conduct the “killing fields”.
The fifth secretary-general, Javier Perez de Queller of Peru, who insisted on protecting the murderous regime of Pol Pot, did nothing to make peace during the Iraq-Iran War. After leaving his job, when he ran for president of Peru in the spring of 1995, he was surrounded by well-known communists who were running his campaign, even though his country was facing a Maoist insurgency.
The sixth secretary-general, Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt, the former vice-president of Socialist International and former member of the Arab Socialist Union, along with Undersecretary-general for Peacekeeping Operations Kofi Annan, aided the Rwandan genocide. Kofi Annan would not allow Canadian general Romeo Dallaire to get his troops to seize Hutu weapons and thwart an extermination plan. Annan at one time ordered UN troops to withdraw from a school that held Tutsi refugees causing them to get murdered by the Hutu mobs. In his June 1992 report An Agenda for Peace, he wrote, “The time of absolute and exclusive sovereignty . . . has passed.”
After Kofi Annan of Ghana became the seventh secretary-general, he did nothing to prevent the 2000s genocide in Sudan and sent UN troops to make peace in the Zaire, but instead, they were raping women as young as 11. During the ceremonies surrounding his acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001, Annan said, “The sovereignty of nations must no longer be used as a shield for gross violations of human rights.” In his opening address to the fifty-third annual DPI/NGO (Department of Public Information/Non-Governmental Organization) Conference in 2006, Annan also said, “It has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity.”
The eighth secretary-general, Ban Ki-Moon of South Korea, like Kofi Annan, is a global warming alarmist and has criticized Dutch politician Geert Wilders for condemning Islam. He is also a sponsor of UN Agenda 21, a green socialist agenda for the 21st century meant to abolish private property.
The ninth and current secretary-general, Antonio Guterres, the former prime minister of Portugal and former president of Socialist International as well as former secretary-general of the Portuguese Socialist Party, supported bringing in “refugees” from the Syrian Civil War into Europe, even though the supermajority of them were soldiers of ISIS, as even the UN reported that 75% of them were young males.
The main deliberative organ is the General Assembly which usually meets annually in September with representation by all member states. The General Assembly votes on the annual budget of the United Nations, elects members to other UN organs and committees and makes non-binding recommendations to member states through resolutions.
The Security Council handles matters relating to international peace and stability. It consists of five permanent members (USA, UK, France, Russia and PR China), and ten temporary members, which are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. The Security Council decides by vote. On substantive issues, nine members must support the proposal, including all five permanent members, giving each permanent member an effective veto power. The chair of the Security Council rotates each month among its members, in alphabetic order.
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice, based in The Hague, was founded to settle conflicts and disputes over questions arising from the interpretation of treaties among member states. It only may entertain  cases where all parties to the case in question have agreed to recognize the jurisdiction of the Court. The Court also advices other organs and agencies of the United Nations on questions of the interpretation of treaties.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council is a deliberative and advisory organ dedicated to promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. It cooperates with the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank Group and similar international agencies.
The United Nations Secretariat is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the UN system. The head of the Secretariat is the Secretary-General, who is nominated by the Security Council and appointed by the General Assembly for renewable five-year terms. The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon, the former Foreign Minister of the Republic of Korea. It is customary to let the position rotate among the different world regions.
The U.N. has at various times in its history been accused of inefficiency and waste, which some critics have attributed to its cumbersome and excessive bureaucracy. Probably the most controversial issue with the United Nations is the Oil-for-Food scandal.
As a meeting place for many different nations, the UN can only act as a mechanism for international consensus. The UN has been unable to act in a clear and decisive way when confronted crises in which this consensus is not present. Recent examples include the Iranian nuclear program and the genocides in Darfur, Sudan and Rwanda. Because each of the five permanent members of the Security Council has a veto, and because they often disagree, many times no action can be agreed upon. Typically but not always this division includes the United States on one side with either China, Russia or both on the other. Other times the Security Council has been able to agree but lacks the will or means to enforce its resolutions. A recent example is the 2006 Israel-Lebanon Crisis, where no action has been taken to enforce the provisions of Resolution 1559 and Resolution 1701 to disarm terrorist organizations such as Hezbollah. There usually are no consequences for violating a Security Council resolution.
Alex Jones, a paleoconservative believes that the United Nations is plotting to take over the world along with the Bilderberg organization. Some believe the United Nations will be the one-world government mentioned in Revelation.
Inclusion on the old United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) of nations such as Sudan and Libya, whose leaderships have dubious records on human rights, and Libya's chairmanship of this Commission, has been a highly controversial issue.
The U.N. has been accused of hypocritical conduct and double standards. The U.N. condemns Israel for its conduct toward the Palestinians, yet it refuses to condemn China for its conduct toward the Tibetans.
The United Nations has on many occasions ignored the plight of people across the world, especially in parts of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Current examples include the UN's inaction toward the Sudanese government in Darfur, the Chinese government's ethnic cleansing in Tibet, and the Israel-Arab conflict.
During the Rwandan genocide, the UN did not authorize UNAMIR to intervene or use force to prevent or halt the killing.
It was also criticized as being a Communist front, with evidence including Alger Hiss, who was infamously exposed as being a Soviet agent, being one of the key founders of the United Nations, several key founders of the UN being Soviet spies or otherwise enablers, the UN's own charter being a direct copy of the Soviet constitution, and former Communist leader Joseph Z. Kornfelder's own testimony that the people who founded the UN intended for it to be a Trojan horse to implement Communism in America.
The UN has supported left-wing pet agenda items. In his 2018 New Year proclamation, Secretary-General António Guterres issued a "red alert for our world" to fight against "nationalism," "xenophobia," and "climate change." The UN is supportive of open borders and mass migration. On Easter 2018, a UN agency made a tweet claiming that mass migration is "inevitable," "necessary," and even "desirable." In May 2018, the UN's Migration Agency Director-General William Lacy Swing attacked conservative immigration policies and claimed that mass migration was in the "national interest." In September 2018, Filippo Grandi, the UN High Commissioner in charge of refugee matters, downplayed the seriousness of the European migrant crisis and labeled migration in general as "a source of progress and prosperity." The UN has challenged President Trump's immigration actions in court. The UN aided illegal immigration to the United States. Even for issues ostensibly unrelated to international relations, the UN promotes globalism as the solution to problems.
Conservatives and proponents of Judeo-Christian values have criticized the UN's education programs for instilling left-wing and Marxist values into children in the countries where they are implemented.
In 2018, the United Nations Human Rights Council effectively called for making nationalist-populism illegal and cracking down on those who voice conservative and Christian beliefs. In 2019, U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres announced in a speech that the UN would target so-called "hate speech."
The UN has also been criticized for promoting left-wing environmentalism and exaggerating reports on environmental damage.
The Committee for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) pushes countries to promote abortion.  The UN played a role in passing a radical 2019 New York abortion law that allowed abortion up to the very moment of birth.
The UN has taken a one-sided approach to issues relating to the Israel-Arab conflict. Israel has consistently been singled out by the UN for uniquely critical treatment. In 1975 the General Assembly passed a resolution declaring that "Zionism is racism", and UN-sponsored meetings supposedly opposing racism have criticized Israel (which grants equal political and religious rights to Arabs) while suppressing all criticism of those Arab countries (where non-Muslims are second-class citizens and anti-Semitism enjoys state support).
Unlike other refugee groups, the Palestinian Arabs have their own agency within the United Nations, and are beneficiaries of special events such as an "International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People." Israel was excluded from membership in any of the UN's regional groups until 2000. In effect, this meant Israel was forbidden from serving on UN bodies such as the Security Council. Israel's recent permission to participate more fully within the UN as a member of the Western European and Others regional group is temporary and subject to renewal. Israel is allowed to participate only in the New York operations of the UN and is excluded from the UN offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Rome, and Vienna which handle such issues as human rights and arms control. Censure of Israel has apparently been instituted as a routine agenda item for various UN bodies such as the Human Rights Council. The 1975 Resolution 3379 qualified Zionism as a form of racism (later revoked with Resolution 4686).
On December 23, 2016, due to the leftist Obama Administration's abstention from a vote which broke over 35 years of American policy, a blatantly anti-Israel resolution was passed in the U.N. In response to the anti-Israel UN vote, Israel cut $6 million in its annual dues to the leftist organization on January 6, 2017.
In March 2017, the UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia authored a destructive and anti-Semitic report against Israel. The report and agency were strongly criticized by the United States and UN Ambassador Nikki Haley, and the executive director of the commission resigned in response.
The U.N.'s Human Rights Council passed a resolution that directs the body's expert on free speech to report on “individuals and news media for negative comments on Islam.”  This suppression of free speech at an organization purporting to fairly represent the world's nations in a common forum is one of numerous actions in the past decade that has undermined U.N. credibility.
Contemporary U.S. Criticism
Some American critics view the UN as an agent for eroding the sovereignty of the United States and instead promoting forms of one-world government. Some claim that President Bill Clinton rejected and ignored the position of the United Nations when he ordered U.S. military "police actions" in foreign countries. President George W. Bush also rejected the inaction of the UN when he authorized military action against the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq for ignoring various UN resolutions. Some commentators now feel that it has since devolved into a radical debating society which has ironically blocked most of the goals for which it has been formed.
One of the major reasons the United Nations is considered by some to be useless is the Security Council. Along with other countries elected for a term of years, the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, China, and France all have a permanent seat, along with the power to veto any decision made by the Security Council. When combined with the Security Council's role as voting on most major issues, including military intervention, and the tendency for most resolutions introduced to be vetoed by one or more nations, the Security Council and by extension the United Nations has become ineffective. The U.N. at times places member states in commissions or positions of importance which many believe they don't deserve. The following is a sample of some of those nations and the positions of importance they have been placed in (this list does not include members that are on those commissions and deserve their place).
The following programs expose the U.N.'s incompetence by placing unworthy member states in positions of importance;
U.N. Human Rights Council
Mission: "…responsible for promoting universal respect for the protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all….”
Members: Saudi Arabia, China, Vice-Presidents: Cuba, Angola. Libya was kicked off in February.
U.N. Commission on the Status of Women
Mission: “…set global standards and formulate concrete policies to promote gender equality and advancement of women worldwide."
Members: The Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran
U.N. Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Mission: “…set…out global strategy to prevent crime and promote stable criminal justice systems...and improving the efficiency and fairness of criminal justice administration systems."
Members: Libya, Russia, Sudan, Iran, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Pakistan
Mission: “…support, address and contribute to gender equality and the empowerment and the advancement of women…”
Members: Executive Board: Libya, Saudi Arabia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, China
U.N. Economic and Social Council
Mission: “…responsible for: promoting higher standards of living, full employment, and economic and social progress…encouraging universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms…"
Members: Saudi Arabia
U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development
Mission: "...to promote dialogue and build partnerships for sustainable development with major groups include[ing] women, youth, indigenous peoples, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, workers and trade unions, business and industry, the scientific community, and farmers…"
Members: Angola, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia
U.N. Commission on Social Development
Mission: “….promoting full employment and decent work for all...Improving public sector effectiveness....National and international cooperation for social development..."
Members: Cuba, Egypt, Zimbabwe
U.N. Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations
Mission: “…The consideration of applications for consultative status [with the UN]…submitted by NGOs…”
Members: Sudan, Cuba, Pakistan, China
U.N. Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)
Mission: “…promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all…security of tenure and equal access to economic resources for all, with a specific focus on gender equality.”
Members: Governing Council: Iran
U.N. Committee on Information
Mission: “To promote the establishment of a new, more just and more effective world information and communication order…based on the free circulation and wider and better-balanced dissemination of information…”
Members: China, Libya, Kazakhstan, Iran
U.N. Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Mission: “….advocate for the protection of children's rights, to help meet their basic needs and to expand their opportunities to reach their full potential…”
Members: Executive Board: Sudan, China
U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees
Mission: “…safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees.”
Members: Executive Committee: Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan
U.N. World Food Programme
Mission: “advocate policies, strategies and operations that directly benefit the poor and hungry."
Members: Executive Board: Sudan
UN Peacekeepers Child Sexual Abuse
The United Nations since its founding has been enmeshed in various scandals.
In July 1997 the UN announced an investigation into United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in Cote d'Ivoire on charges of widespread sexual abuse with a large number of underage girls. More than 300 members of UN peacekeeping missions around the world have been investigated for sexual exploitation and abuse since 2004, including some stationed in Congo, Cambodia and Haiti.
- 1998 - Bosnia 
- 2003 - Nepalese troops accused of sexual abuse while serving in DR Congo. Six are later jailed
- 2004 - Two UN peacekeepers repatriated after being accused of abuse in Burundi
- 2005 - UN troops accused of rape and sexual abuse in Sudan 
- 2006 - UN personnel accused of rape and exploitation on missions is Haiti and Liberia
- 2007 - UN launches probe into sexual abuse claims in Ivory Coast
Notable roles of U.S. Ambassadors to the U.N.
- Pubantz, Jerry, ed. Encyclopedia of the United Nations (2nd ed. 2008), useful basic guide to all activities
- Weiss, Thomas G., and Sam Daws, eds. The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (2009), 848pp; articles by scholars excerpt and text search
- Weiss, Thomas G. The United Nations and Changing World Politics (6th ed. 2009), 504pp; solid college textbook and text search
- United Nations Day — Day of Shame, by Steve Byas of The New American
- Funding the United Nations Is Making Less Sense Than Ever, by James Murphy of The New American
- United Nations - Official site
- All about the United Nations Budget June 2006
- UN General Assembly President Shaikha Haya Rashed Al Khalifa calls for Islamic texts re-interpretation, Khaleej Times Online, 19 May 2007.
- International Committee for the Rescue of KAL 007 Survivors
- UNDP Officials Said To Hamper Probe Into Counterfeit Cash, By Benny Avni, The New York Sun, June 7, 2007.
- H.R. 972 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 - Title I: Combatting International Trafficking in Persons - (Sec. 101); Directs the U.S. Secretary of State, prior to voting for a peacekeeping mission, to notify the appropriate Congressional committees respecting measures taken to prevent Peacekeeping personnel from involvement in human trafficking or sexual exploitation.
Sites critical of the U.N.
- There are some caveats; It is administered by the United Nations, and Subject only to International Law, but is still part of the United States.
- Kincaid, Cliff. The Plan For Socialist World Government. Accuracy in Media. Retrieved on 2010-02-06.
- United Nations. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved on 2010-02-06.
- Liberal equals socialist equals communitarian equals fabian society equals Agenda 21. middletownca.com. Retrieved on 2010-02-06.
- Paun, Carmen (May 30, 2019). UN secretary-general attacks populists in Charlemagne Prize speech. Politico. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- International Court of Justice, How the Court works, retrieved 26 April 2007.
- The U.N.'s Hypocrisy in Tibet, Joseph Klein, Front Page Magazine, March 28, 2008
- IBD Editorial, U.N. Fiddles As China Torches Tibet, retrieved 30 March 2008.
- Starr, Penny (January 1, 2018). U.N. Chief Issues ‘Red Alert’ Against Nationalism, Xenophobia, Climate Change for 2018. Breitbart News. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
- Montgomery, Jack (January 12, 2018). New United Nations Boss Unveils Plan to Promote Global Mass Migration. Breitbart News. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- Williams, Thomas D. (April 3, 2018). UN Easter Message: Migration Is ‘Inevitable – Desirable – Necessary’. Breitbart News. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- Montgomery, Jack (May 20, 2018). United Nations Migration Chief Attacks Trump, Claims Mass Migration in ‘National Interest’. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
- Hale, Virginia (September 22, 2018). UN Refugee Chief Denies Migrant Crisis in Europe, Declares Mass Migration a ‘Source of Progress and Prosperity’. Breitbart News. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
- Munro, Neil (October 10, 2018). U.N. Official Says U.S. Judge Must Block Donald Trump’s Migration Reforms. Breitbart News. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
- Madden, Nate (April 25, 2019). The UN is directly assisting the erosion of our sovereignty at the border. Why are we still funding it? Conservative Review. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- Starr, Penny (May 6, 2019). UN: Humans Could Cause Extinction of 1 Million Species, Globalism Will Fix. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- Worstall, Tim (May 6, 2019). A UN report is concerned about 1 million species going extinct, but its solutions are dead wrong. Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- Newman, Alex (February 6, 2019). Education’s Future: Globalization of Indoctrination. The New American. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Newman, Alex (November 12, 2018). UN Demands Ban on Trump-style “Nationalist Populism”. The New American. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
- Ruse, Austin (March 11, 2019). United Nations secretary-general prepared to fight free speech worldwide. LifeSiteNews (from C-Fam). Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- Richardson, Valerie (May 22, 2019). 'Authoritative propaganda': Skeptics blast U.N. warning of mass species extinction. The Washington Times. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
- United Nations Committee Pushes Countries to Promote Abortion in CEDAW Mtg, Samantha Singson, Life News, February 15, 2008
- Ruse, Austin (February 15, 2019). Pro-abortion UN helped pass New York abortion-till-birth law. LifeSiteNews (from C-Fam). Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- 16/12/1991, A/RES/46/86, Elimination of racism and racial discrimination/Zionism
- UN Web Site for International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People, retrieved June 29, 2007
- Israel fears Obama will strike again. World Israel News. December 26, 2016. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
- Berkowitz, Adam Eliyahu (December 26, 2016). Fed Up With United States Trickery, Netanyahu Takes Drastic Actions. Breaking Israel News. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
- Israel halts $6 million to UN to protest UN settlements vote. Fox News (from the Associated Press). January 6, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- Tobin, Jonathan S. (March 17, 2017). More than Just Another Anti-Israel U.N. Farce. National Review. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Russell, George (March 17, 2017). Beyond 'apartheid'--U.N. commission pushes legal and propaganda offensive against Israel. Fox News. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Shaw, Adam (March 17, 2017). UN official resigns over nixed anti-Israel report after pressure from Haley. Fox News. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- UN Official Quitting Over ‘Israel Apartheid’ Report. Breitbart News. March 17, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- U.N.'s Ban condemns Dutch film as anti-Islamic, Reuters, March 28, 2008.
- The United Nations: Islam’s Gestapo, Stephen Brown, Front Page Magazine, April 11, 2008
- Why the Security Council Failed, Michael J. Glennon, Foreign Affairs, May/June 2003.
- U.N. Hypocrisy On Full Display, Fox News, March 4, 2011
- U.N. suspends peacekeepers amid sex abuse charges, CNN, July 21, 2007.
- UN probes 'abuse' in Ivory Coast, BBC, July 23, 2007.
- Teenagers 'used for sex by UN in Bosnia', By Stewart Payne, London Telegraph, 25/04/2002.
- UN staff accused of raping children in Sudan, By Kate Holt in Juba and Sarah Hughes, London Telegraph, 04/01/2007.