The Civil Service Commission is a federal agency that was created by the passage of the 1883 Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, which regulates the hiring of government employees.
After the bitter divisions created by Civil War Reconstruction and the assassination of James A. Garfield by Charles Julius Guiteau, a consensus emerged to do away with the spoils system and recruit a permanent professional class of government employees, bureaucrats, and managers who would not be subject to political cronyism and patronage. Democrat President Grover Cleveland and Republican Theodore Roosevelt are usually associated with originating and implementing the new system of hiring federal employees.
Unionization and collective bargaining rights
"The unionization of government employees created a new class of American citizen:
A mass of untouchables who ran the daily business of government and who, through the alliance of their unions with the Democratic Party, created a state within the state."
- Garfield Assassination Causes Creation of Civil Service System, by Steve Byas of The New American, July 2, 2019