Difference between revisions of "Video game"

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A '''video game''' is any electronic game, played by means of a video screen on a computer or console, often emphasizing fast action <ref>Merriam-Webster Dictionary: Video Game http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/video+game?show=0&t=1322499353</ref>. The nature of video games varies, ranging from educational games for children, electronic versions of classic board and card games (such as online poker), through to more violent to war and fighting games. The [[video game industry]] is an important part of the [[knowledge economy]] and actually grew during the late-2000s recession.
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A '''video game''' is an [[electronic game]] that involves human interaction with a [[user interface]] to generate visual feedback on a [[video|video device]]. The word ''video'' in ''video game'' traditionally referred to a [[raster graphics|raster]] display device,<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.freepatentsonline.com/3659285.html |title= Television gaming apparatus and method | accessdate=2008-06-25 |work=United States Patents }}</ref> but following popularization of the term "video game", it now implies any type of [[display device]]. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are [[personal computer]]s and [[video game console]]s. These platforms range from large [[mainframe computer]]s to small [[handheld device]]s. Specialized video games such as [[arcade game]]s, while previously common, have gradually declined in use. Video games have gone on to become an [[art]] form and [[industry]].
  
Recently, some video games have been linked to murders and other [[violence]], stress-induced health problems (including unexpected heart attacks), [[atheism]], [[obesity]],<ref>[http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/child_obesity/ Childhood Obesity] Department of Health and Human Services, retrieved Sept 18th 2011</ref> and [[sexual immorality]].
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The [[input device]] used to manipulate video games is called a [[game controller]], and varies across platforms. For example, a controller might consist of only a button and a [[joystick]], while another may feature a dozen buttons and one or more joysticks. Early personal computer games often needed a [[computer keyboard|keyboard]] for [[gameplay]], or more commonly, required the user to buy a separate joystick with at least one button.<ref>*Patrick Stack. [http://web.archive.org/web/20090226064943/http://time.com/time/covers/1101050523/console_timeline "History of video game consoles"] ''Time Magazine website'' 2005 <!-- accessed August 23, 2009 -->/</ref> Many modern computer games allow or require the player to use a keyboard and a [[Mouse (computing)|mouse]] simultaneously. A few of the most common game controllers are [[gamepads]], mice, keyboards, and joysticks.
  
== Nature of Video games ==
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Video games typically use additional means of providing interactivity and information to the player. Audio is almost universal, using [[Sound recording and reproduction|sound reproduction]] devices, such as [[Computer speaker|speakers]] and [[headphones]]. Other feedback may come via [[haptic technology|haptic]] [[peripheral]]s, such as vibration or [[force feedback]], with vibration sometimes used to simulate force feedback.
  
The games vary greatly in type and complexity, but all games are alike in that they translate player input (from a controller, mouse, keyboard or motion sensor) into onscreen actions. Games are usually stored on some sort of digital media - ROM cartridge, [[CD]], [[DVD]], or even cassette tape for early computer games - though older or more inexpensive games may have dedicated chips which are pre-programmed to play certain games only. In recent years, game developers have moved to digital distribution, allowing anyone with a credit card or [[Paypal]] account to purchase games online.
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In the early days of cartridge consoles, they were sometimes called '''TV games''', a term now often used for [[handheld TV game]]s.
  
Home consoles are classified by ''generation'' to indicate their relative power and date of release. The current major consoles (XBox360, PS3, Wii) are considered ''seventh generation''. Handheld consoles are not generally put into generations due to their more irregular release schedules.
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==History==
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{{Main|History of video games}}
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{{See also|First video game}}
  
Video games have also been shown to help people to become more attuned to their surroundings and increase coordination, and in the future may be used to treat people with visual problems and to train soldiers. <ref> http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/05/0528_030528_videogames.html </ref>
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[[File:Tennis for Two.jpg|right|thumb|256px|''Tennis for Two'', an early [[analog computer]] game that used an [[oscilloscope]] for a display]]
  
== Various genres ==
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Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example is from 1947—a "[[Cathode ray tube]] Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on January 25, 1947, by [[Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr.]] and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on December 14, 1948, as U.S. Patent 2455992.<ref>{{US Patent|2455992}}</ref>
  
Video games in the course of their existence have grown from the simple arcade style games, and have become more detailed and separated from one another. Genres can now include [[first person shooters]], [[racing]], [[Simulation game|simulation]], [[role-playing]], [[sports]], [[action]], platformers and many others. Even then, games can combine genres, such as ''Mass Effect'' (Role Playing and Third Person Shooting), or not fit nicely into any genre, like ''The Mystery of the Druids''. Some genres have spawned sub-genres, for example, [[Super Mario Bros.]] was the first sidescroller, a sub-genre of the platformer.
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Inspired by radar display tech, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen.<ref name="PongStory">{{cite web| url = http://www.pong-story.com/intro.htm| title = Welcome to Pong-Story - Introduction| publisher = PONG-Story.com| accessdate = 2007-10-24}}</ref>
  
== Popularity & Controversy ==
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Other early examples include:
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* The [[Nimrod (computing)|NIMROD]] computer at the 1951 [[Festival of Britain]]
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* ''[[OXO]]'' a [[tic-tac-toe]] Computer game by [[A.S. Douglas|Alexander S. Douglas]] for the [[EDSAC]] in 1952
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* ''[[Tennis for Two]]'', an interactive game engineered by [[William Higinbotham]] in 1958
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* ''[[Spacewar!]]'', written by [[MIT]] students Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanen's on a DEC [[PDP-1]] computer in 1961.
  
Games have risen in popularity over the years, as is shown in the rise of video games sales from the 1980s until today. This has brought with it a various amount of controversy as the video game industry continues to grow with its original player base.
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Each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of [[Nim]],<ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.goodeveca.net/nimrod/| title = Welcome to... NIMROD!| publisher = | accessdate = 2007-10-24}}</ref> OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe <ref>{{cite web|first=David |last=Winter |url=http://www.pong-story.com/1952.htm |title=A.S.Douglas' 1952 Noughts and Crosses game |publisher=PONG-Story |accessdate=2009-07-03}}</ref> ''Tennis for Two'' used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court,<ref name="PongStory"/> and ''Spacewar!'' used the [[Digital Equipment Corporation|DEC]] PDP-1's vector display to have two [[spaceships]] battle each other.<ref>{{cite book |last= Rabin| first= Steve| title= Introduction to Game Development| publisher= Charles River Media| location= Massachusetts| isbn=1-58450-377-7 |year= 2005| origyear= 2005-06-14}}</ref>
  
Video games are addictive activities targeted at teenagers, sometimes with tragic results.<ref>Some claim that 2/3rds of video gamers are over 18 years old, but far more people are over that age and a much higher percentage of minors are videogamers.[http://www.pan-o-matic.com/blog/?p=45 Only a third of video gamers are under 18]</ref> Certain genres of games are becoming increasingly violent and offensive, attracting the attention of legislators in many states to protect the exploitation of children by them. Games such as ''[[Grand Theft Auto]]'' are very violent, sexually explicit, and feature [[criminal]] behavior. These games are rated "M (17+)" for "Mature" or "AO (18+)" for "Adults Only" by a private board that has much influence throughout retailers, but courts have stricken down laws preventing retailers from selling them to children, under an interpretation that the First Amendment protects offensive video games even for children.<ref>http://gamepolitics.livejournal.com/148962.html</ref> After a ''Conservapedian'' filed an [[amicus brief]] with the [[U.S. Supreme Court]] to consider this issue, it surprised [[liberal]]s by granting ''[[certiorari]]''.
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In 1971, ''[[Computer Space]]'', created by [[Nolan Bushnell]] and [[Ted Dabney]], was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game. It used a black-and-white [[television]] for its display, and the computer system was made of [[7400 series|74 series]] [[Transistor-transistor logic|TTL]] [[integrated circuit|chips]].<ref>{{cite web
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|url=http://marvin3m.com/arcade/cspace.htm
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|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20081228061939/http://www.marvin3m.com/arcade/cspace.htm
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|archivedate=2008-12-28
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|author=Marvin Yagoda
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|title=1972 Nutting Associates Computer Space
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}}</ref> The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film ''[[Soylent Green]]''. ''Computer Space'' was followed in 1972 by the [[Magnavox Odyssey]], the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by [[Ralph H. Baer]] called the "Brown Box", it also used a standard television.<ref name="PongStory"/><ref>{{cite web| title = Console Portraits: A 40-Year Pictorial History of Gaming| date = 2007-05-15| author = Orlando, Greg| url = http://www.wired.com/gaming/gamingreviews/multimedia/2007/05/gallery_game_history| publisher = [[Wired News]]| accessdate = 2007-10-24}}</ref> These were followed by two versions of [[Atari, Inc.|Atari]]'s ''[[Pong]]''; an [[Arcade game|arcade]] version in 1972 and a home version in 1975 that dramatically increased video game popularity.<ref name="PBS-GameRev-Time">{{cite web| title = History of Gaming - Interactive Timeline of Game History| url = http://www.pbs.org/kcts/videogamerevolution/history/timeline_flash.html| publisher = [[Public Broadcasting Service|PBS]]| accessdate = 2007-10-25}}</ref> The commercial success of ''Pong'' led numerous other companies to develop ''Pong'' clones and their own systems, spawning the [[video game industry]].<ref name="InformIT">{{cite web| author = Miller, Michael| url = http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=378141| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071012152258/http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=378141| archivedate = 2007-10-12| title = A History of Home Video Game Consoles| publisher = [[InformIT]]| date = 2005-04-01| accessdate = 2007-10-25}}</ref>
  
However, in 2011, the Supreme Court denied a ban on the sale of violent video games in California, claiming they were protected as they "qualify for First Amendment Protection" and pointing out that there has historically been no shortage of violent imagery in children's fairytales, classical literature, and comics.   Writing for the majority, Justice Scalia pointed out that "disgust is not a valid basis for restricting expression", and continued that any effects of violent video games on children "are both small and indistinguishable from effects produced by other media".<ref>[http://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/10pdf/08-1448.pdf BROWN, GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA, ET AL. v. ENTERTAINMENT MERCHANTS ASSOCIATION ET AL.]</ref>
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A flood of ''Pong'' clones eventually led to the [[video game crash of 1977]], which came to an end with the mainstream success of [[Taito Corporation|Taito]]'s 1978 [[shooter game]] ''[[Space Invaders]]'',<ref name="Whittaker-122">{{citation|title=The cyberspace handbook|author=Jason Whittaker|publisher=[[Routledge]]|year=2004|isbn=041516835X|page=122}}</ref> marking the beginning of the [[golden age of arcade video games]] and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market.<ref name="Whittaker-122"/><ref name="Kent-500">{{cite book| last = Kent| first = Steven L.| authorlink = Steven L. Kent| title = The Ultimate History of Video Games: From Pong to Pokémon| publisher = [[Three Rivers Press]]| year = 2001| isbn = 0761536434| page=500}}</ref> The game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as [[shopping mall]]s, traditional storefronts, [[restaurant]]s, and [[convenience store]]s.<ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.next-gen.biz/features/30-defining-moments-gaming| title = The 30 Defining Moments in Gaming| publisher = [[Future plc]]| work = [[Edge (magazine)|Edge]]| author= Edge Staff| date = 2007-08-13| accessdate = 2008-09-18}}</ref> The game also became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing [[Video game culture|video gaming]] as a rapidly growing mainstream hobby.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Atari Offers Largest Game Library|journal=Electronic Games|year=1981|month=Winter|volume=1|issue=1|pages=40-41 [41]|url=http://www.digitpress.com/library/magazines/electronic_games/electronic_games_winter81.pdf|accessdate=1 February 2012}}</ref><ref name="eg_2_36">{{cite journal|title=Players Guide To Electronic Science Fiction Games|journal=[[Electronic Games]]|year=1982|month=March|volume=1|issue=2|pages=35-45 [36]|url=http://www.archive.org/stream/electronic-games-magazine-1982-03/Electronic_Games_Issue_02_Vol_01_02_1982_Mar#page/n35/mode/1up|accessdate=1 February 2012}}</ref> ''Space Invaders'' was soon licensed for the [[Atari 2600|Atari VCS]] (later known as Atari 2600), becoming the first "[[killer app]]" and quadrupling the console's sales.<ref name="RG-41">{{Cite journal| month= September | year= 2007| title= The Definitive Space Invaders| journal= [[Retro Gamer]]| publisher= [[Imagine Publishing]]|issue= 41| pages= 24–33 | url= http://www.nowgamer.com/features/894697/the_definitive_space_invaders_part_1.html | accessdate=2011-04-20}}</ref> This helped Atari recover from their earlier losses,<ref name="Montfort-66">{{citation|title=Racing the beam: the Atari Video computer system|author=Nick Montfort & Ian Bogost|publisher=[[MIT Press]]|year=2009|isbn=026201257X|page=66|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=DqePfdz_x6gC&pg=PA66|accessdate=2011-05-01}}</ref> and in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the [[History of video game consoles (second generation)|second generation of consoles]], up until the [[North American video game crash of 1983]].<ref>{{citation|title=The cyberspace handbook|author=Jason Whittaker|publisher=[[Routledge]]|year=2004|isbn=041516835X|pages=122–3}}</ref> The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the [[Nintendo Entertainment System]],<ref>{{cite journal |author=Consalvo, Mia |year=2006 |title=Console video games and global corporations: Creating a hybrid culture |journal=New Media Society |volume=8 |issue=1 |pages=117–137 |doi=10.1177/1461444806059921 |url=http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/8/1/117 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080228191914/http://intl-nms.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/8/1/117.pdf |archivedate=2008-02-28 |format=PDF}}</ref> which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the [[United States]] to [[Japan]] during the [[History of video game consoles (third generation)|third generation of consoles]].<ref name="cgw_50">{{citation|author=Arnie Katz, Bill Kunkel, Joyce Worley|title=[[Computer Gaming World]]|year=1988|month=August|issue=50|page=44|chapter=Video Gaming World|quote=I'm sure you've noticed that I've made no reference to the Nintendo craze that has repeated the Atari and Mattel Phenomenon of 8 years ago. That's because for American game designers the Nintendo is a non-event: virtually all the work to date has been done in Japan. Only the future will tell if the design process ever crosses the Pacific as efficiently as the container ships and the letters of credit now do.}}</ref>
  
It has also been suggested that it is the role of parents to regulate what their children play, and that laws restricting video game vendors are an effort to replace parents' decisions with the government's decisions.<ref> http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/45083/ </ref> <ref> http://www.gameculture.com/2010/11/10/editorial-parental-responsibility-and-today039s-media </ref> <ref> http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/opinion/la-ed-games28-2009feb28,0,1556900.story </ref>
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==Overview==
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===Platforms===
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{{See also|History of video games}}
  
<ref>http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-316491/Teenager-gets-life-Manhunt-murder.html</ref>
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The term "platform" refers to the specific combination of [[electronic component]]s or [[computer hardware]] which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate.<ref name="platformdef">{{cite web | title =platform - Definitions from Dictionary.com | publisher =Dictionary.com | url =http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/platform | accessdate =2007-11-03 }}</ref> The term "system" is also commonly used.
{{cquote|A number of Norway stores have pulled violent video games from sale - including several Call of Duty games and World of Warcraft - in the wake of the massacre carried out by Anders Behring Breivik on July 22.}}<ref>http://www.metro.co.uk/tech/games/871121-norway-stores-pull-violent-video-games-including-call-of-duty-after-massacre#ixzz1erUdaLo5</ref>
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===Violence===
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In common use a "[[personal computer game|PC game]]" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a [[IBM PC compatible]] [[personal computer]] connected to a [[video monitor]]. A "[[console game]]" is played on a specialized electronic device that connects to a common [[television set]] or [[Composite monitor|composite video monitor]]. A "[[Handheld game console|handheld]]" gaming device is a self contained electronic device that is portable and can be held in a user's hands. "[[Arcade game]]" generally refers to a game played on an even more specialized type of electronic device that is typically designed to play only one game and is encased in a special [[arcade cabinet|cabinet]]. These distinctions are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to personal computers, there are multiple other devices which have the ability to play games but are not dedicated video game machines, such as [[mobile phone]]s, [[PDA]]s and [[graphing calculator]]s.
  
Most of the controversy comes from the rising trend toward violence in video games, as pioneered by ''[[Doom (video game series)|Doom]]'', ''[[Quake]]'', and the ''[[Grand Theft Auto]]'' series.  
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With the advent of social networking and other online applications hubs, the term "platform" started being used to refer to the online service within which the game is played, regardless of the actual hardware on which it is executed. A game's platform could simply be "[[Facebook]]", whether it is played on a Windows PC, Mac, [[Smart TV]], or [[smartphone]].
  
Some people {{who}} point out that violent video games cause violent behavior in some children. The effects of violent video games on the developing psyche of children and adolescents vary greatly and of course have much to do with the mental stability of the subject in question {{Citation needed}} .
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===Genres===
Serious crimes have often been associated with video games. For example, a 14-year-old brutally murdered a video arcade employee one morning and his cousin stands trial for murdering the store manager when he entered the store shortly thereafter.<ref>http://www.nj.com/starledger/stories/index.ssf?/base/news-5/1212467732102240.xml&coll=1</ref>
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{{Main|Video game genres}}
In the [[United States|USA]], all retail games carry ratings from the [[ESRB]], a video game ratings organization.
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Some claim that kids who don't play video games at all seem to show more violent tendencies. Of course, as expected, those who played violent video games for large amounts of time also showed violent tendencies, however the study claims that this is a "risk marker", not an actual cause.<ref>http://wii.qj.net/New-research-reveals-kids-who-don-t-play-videogames-at-all-are-more-at-risk-of-violent-tendencies/pg/49/aid/118505 New research reveals kids who don't play video games at all are more at risk of violent tendencies</ref>
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A video game, like most other forms of media, may be categorized into [[Video game genres|genres]] based on many factors such as method of game play, types of goals, art style and more. Because genres are dependent on content for definition, genres have changed and evolved as newer styles of video games have come into existence. Ever advancing technology and production values related to video game development have fostered more life-like and complex games which have in turn introduced or enhanced genre possibilities (e.g., virtual pets), pushed the boundaries of existing video gaming or in some cases add new possibilities in play (such as that seen with titles specifically designed for devices like Sony's [[PlayStation Eye|EyeToy]]). Some genres represent combinations of others, such as [[massively multiplayer online role-playing game]]s, or, more commonly, MMORPGs. It is also common to see higher level genre terms that are collective in nature across all other genres such as with action, music/rhythm or horror-themed video games.
  
Multiple studies have shown a correlation between violent video games and levels of real life violence, caused by playing some of the aforementioned video games.<ref>http://www.apa.org/science/psa/sb-anderson.html</ref>
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===Classifications===
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====Casual games====
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{{Main|Casual game}}
  
===Sexuality===
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Casual games derive their name from their ease of accessibility, simple to understand gameplay and quick to grasp rule sets. Additionally, casual games frequently support the ability to jump in and out of play on demand. Casual games as a format existed long before the term was coined and include video games such as Solitaire or Minesweeper which can commonly be found pre-installed with many versions of the [[Microsoft Windows]] operating system.
  
Although nudity is not prominent in [[western]] video games, there are various products containing sexually-suggestive material. One reason for the relative lack of explicitly sexual material in western games may be the refusal of most major retailers including [[Wal-Mart]]<ref>http://www.walmart.com/catalog/catalog.gsp?cat=440903</ref> (the leading distributor of video games in the United States) and [[Toys R Us]]<ref>[http://www.toysrusinc.com/safety/practices/ See Toys "R" Us's video games policy]</ref> (the world's largest toy themed retailer) to sell games carrying an "Adults-Only" rating, and AO rated games can't even be sold on [[eBay]] except for in the adult section of the website. One notable target of controversy is the ''[[Grand Theft Auto]]'' series after a third-party mod was released that allowed the player to engage in a mini-game containing explicit sexual material. Mods are, as "third-party" would imply, fan-made and are not the responsibility of the game's developer. Other sources of this criticism relate to the game ''[[Tomb Raider]]'' as it was one of the first games where a female character (the protagonist) is depicted and advertised as a sex symbol.<ref>Ashley, Robert. "The Secret History of Videogame Sex." Official Playstation Magazine Feb. 2006: 96-99.</ref>
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Examples of genres within this category are [[Video game genres#Casual gaming genres|hidden object]], match three, time management, tetris or many of the [[tower defense]] style games. Casual games are generally sold through online retailers such as [[PopCap Games|PopCap]], [[Zylom]], [[Vans Video Games]] and [[GameHouse]] or provided for free play through [[web portal]]s such as [[Newgrounds]] or [[AddictingGames]].
  
== Video Games and Society ==
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While casual games are most commonly played on personal computers, cellphones or PDAs, they can also be found on many of the on-line console system download services (e.g., [[Xbox Live]], [[PlayStation Network]], or [[WiiWare]]).
  
As video games become more popular, their impact on society becomes ever more present. A prime example of this is the massive ad campaigns for the ''Halo'' series, as well as ''[[Grand Theft Auto]]''. Advertising, merchandising, and even social pressures have changed in the ever-growing influence of video gaming.
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====Serious games====
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{{Main|Serious game}}
  
Due to their popularity, various corporations have begun placing advertisements for their products within the context of the game. ''Second Life'', an Internet-based virtual world, has attempted to blur the lines between real-world and virtual world, and companies such as Adidas, Reebok, and Dell have set up virtual stores selling real-world products within the game. [[Reuters]] also operates a news bureau reporting news in the game.
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Serious games are games that are designed primarily to convey information or a learning experience of some sort to the player. Some serious games may even fail to qualify as a video game in the traditional sense of the term. Educational software does not typically fall under this category (e.g., [[touch typing]] tutors, language learning, etc.) and the primary distinction would appear to be based on the title's primary goal as well as target age demographics. As with the other categories, this description is more of a guideline than a rule.
  
== Education in Video Games ==
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Serious games are games generally made for reasons beyond simple entertainment and as with the core and casual games may include works from any given genre, although some such as [[exergaming|exergames]], [[educational game]]s, or [[propaganda]] games may have a higher representation in this group due to their subject matter. These games are typically designed to be played by professionals as part of a specific job or for skill set improvement. They can also be created to convey social-political awareness on a specific subject.
  
While most popular video games are experiencing an increase in violence, language, and sexuality, other gamers and game developers are beginning to view video games as an educational opportunity. Firaxis Games, a noteworthy video game development company, has been creating a video game series called ''Civilization'' for nearly a decade. <ref> http://www.firaxis.com/company/ </ref> Civilization is a simulation game that allows the player to lead a nation from ancient times to modern day. It features a dynamic military system, politics, trading, and historical content. It has been recognized for its unintentional educational properties. <ref> http://www.firaxis.com/community/teacher.php </ref>
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One of the longest running serious games franchises would be [[Microsoft Flight Simulator]] first published in 1982 under that name. The United States military uses virtual reality based simulations, such as [[VBS1]] for training exercises,<ref>{{cite web |url= http://science.howstuffworks.com/virtual-military.htm |title= How Virtual Reality Military Applications Work | accessdate=2009-11-24 }}</ref> as do a growing number of first responder roles (e.g., police, fire fighter, EMT).<ref>*Anne Derryberry, [http://www.adobe.com/resources/elearning/pdfs/serious_games_wp.pdf "Definition of Serious games] ''Adobe.com'' August 2007 <!-- accessed August 23, 2009 --></ref> One example of a non-game environment utilized as a platform for serious game development would be the virtual world of ''[[Second Life]]'', which is currently used by several United States governmental departments (e.g., [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|NOAA]], [[NASA]], [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory|JPL]]), Universities (e.g., [[Ohio University]], [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]]) for educational and remote learning programs<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.b-eye-network.com/view/4163 |title= Serious Games in Virtual Worlds: The Future of Enterprise Business Intelligence | accessdate=2009-11-24 }}</ref> and businesses (e.g., [[IBM]], [[Cisco Systems]]) for meetings and training.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.informationweek.com/blog/main/archives/2007/04/using_second_li_2.html |title= Using Second Life As A Business-To-Business Tool
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| accessdate=2009-11-24 }}</ref>
  
Microsoft Flight Simulator is another example of a video game being recognized for its unique educational properties. <ref> http://www.microsoft.com/Products/Games/FSInsider/product/Pages/InfoEducators.aspx </ref>
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[[Tactical media]] in video games plays a crucial role in making a statement or conveying a message on important relevant issues. This form of media allows for a broader audience to be able to receive and gain access to certain information that otherwise may not have reached such people. An example of tactical media in video games would be [[newsgame]]s. These are short games related to contemporary events designed to illustrate a point.<ref name="DiGRA">[http://www.wingchunsantacruz.com/gamesandart/research/newsgames-DiGRA2009.pdf "Newsgames: Procedural Rhetoric meets Political Cartoons" by Mike Treanor and Michael Mateas]</ref> For example, TAKE ACTION games is a game studio collective that was co-founded by Susana Ruiz and has made very successful and powerful serious games. Some of these games include ''[[Darfur is Dying]]'', ''Finding Zoe'', and ''In The Balance''. All of these games bring awareness to important issues and events in an intelligent and well thought out manner.<ref>[http://takeactiongames.com/TAG/HOME.html TAKE ACTION games<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
  
The popularity of several of the favorite sports video games has led to an uptake in children wishing to take part in them. If an adult plays video games with their children, they can learn about their child's personality and interests.
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===Educational games===
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{{See also|Educational software}}
  
== Faith in Video Games ==
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On September 23, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama launched a campaign called "Educate to Innovate" aimed at improving the technological, mathematical, scientific and engineering abilities of American students. This campaign states that it plans to harness the power of interactive games to help achieve the goal of students excelling in these departments.<ref>[http://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/education/educate-innovate Educate to Innovate | The White House<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>[http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/president-obama-launches-educate-innovate-campaign-excellence-science-technology-en President Obama Launches "Educate to Innovate" Campaign for Excellence in Science, Technology, Engineering & Math (Stem) Education | The White House<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> This campaign has stemmed into many new and exciting opportunities for the video game realm and has contributed to many new competitions. Some of these competitions include the STEM NATIONAL VIDEO GAME COMPETITION and the [[Imagine Cup]].<ref>[http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/video-game-competitions-to-expand-stem-learning-in-the-united-states-71656557.html Video Game Competitions to Expand Stem Learning in the United States]</ref><ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20080822015626/http://imaginecup.com/support/faq.aspx#Question1.1 Imagine Cup Student Competition - Support FAQ's<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Both of these examples are events that bring a focus to relevant and important current issues that are able to be addressed in the sense of video games to educate and spread knowledge in a new form of media. www.NobelPrize.org uses games to entice the user to learn about information pertaining to the Nobel prize achievements while engaging in a fun to play video game.<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/educational/ Educational Games<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> There are many different types and styles of educational games all the way from counting to spelling to games for kids and games for adults. Some other games do not have any particular targeted audience in mind and intended to simply educate or inform whoever views or plays the game.
  
Faith in Video Gaming has, as a rule, either led to the creation of new and dynamic antagonists, or video games that are mediocre, such as ''Spiritual Warfare'' and ''Bible Adventure'' for the Nintendo, or ''The Bible Game'' for various systems. ''Bible Adventure'' in particular is infamous for its poor design and playability.
+
==Development==
 +
{{Main|Game development}}
 +
{{See also|Video game industry practices}}
 +
[[Image:Virtual-camera-system.png|thumb||Developers use various tools to create video games, here an editor to fine tune the [[virtual camera system]].]]
 +
Video game development and authorship, much like any other form of entertainment, is frequently a cross-disciplinary field. [[Video game developer]]s, as employees within this industry are commonly referred, primarily include [[game programmer|programmers]] and [[graphic design]]ers. Over the years this has expanded to include almost every type of skill that one might see prevalent in the creation of any movie or television program, including [[sound design]]ers, [[musician]]s, and other technicians; as well as skills that are specific to video games, such as the [[game designer]]. All of these are managed by [[game producer|producers]].
  
The Bible, or other such religious texts, tell a story spanning many different viewpoints. Turning these ideas into a video game, however, most often leads to games that tend to bore most video game audiences.
+
In the early days of the industry, it was more common for a single person to manage all of the roles needed to create a video game. As platforms have become more complex and powerful in the type of material they can present, larger teams have been needed to generate all of the art, programming, cinematography, and more. This is not to say that the age of the "one-man shop" is gone, as this is still sometimes found in the casual gaming and handheld markets,<ref name="numberofdevs">{{cite web | title =The Edge of Reason? | publisher =eurogamer.net | url =http://www.eurogamer.net/articles/the-edge-of-reason | accessdate =2009-11-16 }}</ref> where smaller games are prevalent due to technical limitations such as limited [[RAM]] or lack of dedicated 3D graphics rendering capabilities on the target platform (e.g., some cellphones and [[PDAs]]).{{Citation needed|date=September 2009}}
  
Religion has, however, taken a prominent place amongst the various heroes and villains in video games. The ''Breath of Fire'' series and the ''Shin Megami Tensei'' games, in particular, use a god as a main antagonist in many of its incarnations. Other games to use religion in some way include the ''Final Fantasy'' series, ''[[Left Behind: Eternal Forces]]'', ''Black and White'', ''Heaven and Hell'', ''Xenogears'', ''Okami'', and the ''Tales'' series, particularly ''Tales of Symphonia''. Unfortunately, many (not all) of the aforementioned games (And nearly any Role Playing game from East Asia) present religion (or it's respective church and followers) as evil, fake, or having ulterior and nefarious motives.  
+
With the growth of the size of development teams in the industry, the problem of cost has increased. Development studios need to be able to pay their staff a competitive wage in order to attract and retain the best talent, while publishers are constantly looking to keep costs down in order to maintain profitability on their investment. Typically, a video game console development team can range in sizes of anywhere from 5 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding 100. In May 2009, one game project was reported to have a development staff of 450.<ref>[http://www.nowgamer.com/news/513/assassins-creed-ii-triples-size-of-dev-team "Assassin's Creed II dev team triples in size"]{{dead link|date=December 2011}}, Christopher Reynolds, 18 May 2009, NOW Gamer.</ref> The growth of team size combined with greater pressure to get completed projects into the market to begin recouping production costs has led to a greater occurrence of missed deadlines and unfinished products.{{Citation needed|date=June 2008}}
  
The computer game ''Civilization IV'' has a religion element that enables players to spread their civilization's culture through religion. Available religions include Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Taoism, Confucianism and Hinduism.<ref>http://guides.gamepressure.com/sidmeierscivilization4/guide.asp?ID=599</ref>
+
===Downloadable content===
 +
{{Main|Downloadable content}}
  
Games may include a fictional religion as part of the setting if the use of a real religion may invite undesirable controversy.
+
A newer phenomenon of withholding content from the game and then releasing it at a later date for additional funds not factored into the retail price began with digital video game distribution known as Downloadable Content (also known colloquially as 'DLC'). Studios may choose to utilize this to issue original content after the game is released, such as [[Rockstar Games]] with [[Grand Theft Auto IV]], or Bethesda with [[Fallout 3]], yet often opt instead to create content before the game is released to be intentionally withheld, such as [[Activision]] and [[Treyarch]] with [[Call of Duty]] (Despite knowing well public affection for a 'Zombies' game mode, it was shipped with only one map for this game mode, and periodically releases new ones with $10 DLC).<ref>[http://www.giantbomb.com/downloadable-content/92-329/], Giant Bomb.</ref><ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20110105153819/https://orders.bethsoft.com/dlc/], Bethesda.</ref><ref>[http://www.joystiq.com/2011/04/11/call-of-duty-black-ops-escalation-dlc-xbox-release-date/], Gilbert, Ben, 11 Apr 2011, Joystiq.</ref>
  
Video game reviewers have sometimes unjustly attacked and reviewed games where real-world religion plays a notable role. One of the most prominent examples of this is the game ''[[Left Behind: Eternal Forces]]''.<ref>http://www.gamerevolution.com/review/pc/left_behind</ref>.
+
===Modifications===
 +
{{Main|Mod (computer gaming)}}
  
==Video Games as Art==
+
Many games produced for the PC are designed such that technically oriented consumers can modify the game. These [[mod (computer gaming)|mods]] can add an extra dimension of replayability and interest. Developers such as [[id Software]], [[Valve Software]], [[Crytek]], [[Bethesda Softworks|Bethesda]], [[Epic Games]] and [[Blizzard Entertainment]] ship their games with some of the development tools used to make the game, along with documentation to assist mod developers. The [[Internet]] provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they may be a factor in the commercial success of some games.<ref name="lombardi">[http://web.archive.org/web/20080506004712/http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/search/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1000484956 Hollywood Reporter interviewing Doug Lombardi, Quote: "Mods absolutely helped us drive huge sales to 'Half-Life,{{' "}}].</ref> This allows for the kind of success seen by popular mods such as the ''[[Half-Life (video game)|Half-Life]]'' mod ''[[Counter-Strike]]''.
  
Recently, video games have gained the legal protections of any other art form due to an official ruling by the supreme court<ref>http://articles.cnn.com/2011-06-27/tech/supreme.court.video.game.art_1_sale-of-violent-video-video-games-hansel-and-gretel?_s=PM:TECH</ref>, ruling that video games are as protected as any other art form by the [[First Amendment]]. Video games are fully capable of communicating moral and social views through tropes universal in other mediums, such as characters, dialog, and symbolism, in addition to it's unique characteristic, interactivity. A Smithsonian exhibit on art in video games is planned for 2012.
+
===Cheating===
 +
{{Main|Cheating (video games)}}
  
==Most popular video games==
+
Cheating in computer games may involve [[cheat codes]] and hidden spots implemented by the game developers,<ref name="WashPost">{{cite web| title = In Game World, Cheaters Proudly Prosper| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/27/AR2006082701059.html| publisher = Washington Post| author = Vargas, Jose Antonio| date = 2006-08-28| accessdate = 2007-10-24}}</ref><ref name="KonamiCode">{{cite web| url = http://www.1up.com/features/cracking-code-konami-code| title = Cracking the Code: The Konami Code| publisher = [[1UP.com]]| author = 1UP Staff| accessdate = 2007-10-24}}</ref> modification of game code by third parties,<ref name="AboutCheatCodes">{{cite web| title = Video Game Cheats and Codes - What Are Cheat Codes?| url = http://vgstrategies.about.com/od/faqglossary/a/WhatAreCheats.htm| publisher = [[About.com]]| author = Rybka, Jason| accessdate = 2007-10-24}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| title = Why Use Cheats and Codes for Console and PC Games?| url = http://vgstrategies.about.com/od/basicgamingtipstricks/a/whyusecheats.htm| publisher = About.com| author = Rybka, Jason| accessdate = 2007-10-24}}</ref> or players exploiting a software glitch. Modifications are facilitated by either [[cheat cartridge]] hardware or a software [[trainer (games)|trainer]].<ref name="AboutCheatCodes"/> Cheats usually make the game [[Difficulty level|easier]] by providing an unlimited amount of some resource; for example weapons, health, or ammunition; or perhaps the ability to walk through walls.<ref name="KonamiCode"/><ref name="AboutCheatCodes"/> Other cheats might give access to otherwise unplayable levels or provide unusual or amusing features, like altered game colors or other graphical appearances.
{| class="wikitable"
+
!Game!!platform!!Sold
+
|-
+
|Wii Sports||[[Wii]]||76.76 million
+
|-
+
|Super Mario Bros.||[[NES]]||40.24 million
+
|-
+
|Tetris||[[Gameboy|GB]]||35 million
+
|-
+
|Mario Kart Wii||Wii||28.23 million
+
|-
+
|Wii Sports Resort||Wii||27.68 million
+
|-
+
|Wii Play||Wii||27.38 million
+
|-
+
|New Super Mario Bros.||[[DS]]||26.88 million
+
|-
+
|Pokémon Red, and Blue||GB||23.64 million
+
|-
+
|Nintendogs All versions||DS||23.26 million
+
|-
+
|Pokémon Gold and Silver||GB||23 million
+
|-
+
|Wii Fit||Wii||22.61 million
+
|-
+
|New Super Mario Bros. Wii||Wii||21.94 million
+
|-
+
|Mario Kart DS||DS||21.04 million
+
|-
+
|Super Mario World||[[SNES]]||20.60 million
+
|-
+
|Brain Age: Train Your Brain in Minutes a Day!||DS||18.72 million
+
|-
+
|Wii Fit Plus||Wii||18.49 million
+
|-
+
|Super Mario Land||GB||18.06 million
+
|-
+
|Super Mario Bros. 3||NES||18 million
+
|-
+
|Pokémon Diamond and Pearl||DS||17.39 million
+
|-
+
|Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas||[[Playstation 2|PS2]]||17.33 million
+
|-
+
|The Sims||[[PC]]||16 million
+
|-
+
|Sonic the Hedgehog||[[Sega]]||15 million
+
|}
+
  
==See Also==
+
===Glitches===
*[[Video game controversy]]
+
[[File:UMK3 Fighter Glitch.png|thumb|190px|Example of a color glitch from the video game ''[[Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3]]'']]
*[[Jack Thompson]]
+
{{Main|Glitch}}
*[[Video game industry]]
+
  
==External Links==
+
Software errors not detected by software testers during development can find their way into released versions of computer and video games. This may happen because the glitch only occurs under unusual circumstances in the game, was deemed too minor to correct, or because the game development was hurried to meet a publication deadline. Glitches can range from minor graphical errors to serious bugs that can delete saved data or cause the game to malfunction. In some cases publishers will release updates (referred to as ''patches'') to repair glitches. Sometimes a glitch may be beneficial to the player, these are often referred to as [[Exploit (online gaming)|exploits]].
*[http://www.whattheyplay.com/ What They Play - the parent's guide to video games]
+
 
*[http://www.leftbehindgames.com/index.php Left Behind Games - a Christian, family friendly video game company]
+
===Easter eggs===
 +
[[Easter egg (media)|Easter eggs]] are hidden messages or jokes left in games by developers that are not part of the main game.
 +
 
 +
==Theory==
 +
{{Main|Game studies}}
 +
 
 +
Although departments of computer science have been studying the technical aspects of video games for years, theories that examine games as an artistic medium are a relatively recent development in the humanities. The two most visible schools in this emerging field are [[ludology]] and [[narratology]]. Narrativists approach video games in the context of what [[Janet Murray]] calls "Cyberdrama". That is to say, their major concern is with video games as a storytelling medium, one that arises out of interactive fiction. Murray puts video games in the context of the [[Holodeck]], a fictional piece of technology from ''[[Star Trek]]'', arguing for the video game as a medium in which we get to become another person, and to act out in another world.<ref>{{cite book | last = Murray | first = Janet | authorlink = Janet Murray | year = 1998 | title = Hamlet on the Holodeck | publisher = MIT Press | isbn = 0262631873}}</ref> This image of video games received early widespread popular support, and forms the basis of films such as ''[[Tron]]'', ''[[eXistenZ]]'' and ''[[The Last Starfighter]]''.
 +
 
 +
Ludologists break sharply and radically from this idea. They argue that a video game is first and foremost a game, which must be understood in terms of its rules, interface, and the concept of play that it deploys. [[Espen J. Aarseth]] argues that, although games certainly have plots, characters, and aspects of traditional narratives, these aspects are incidental to gameplay. For example, Aarseth is critical of the widespread attention that narrativists have given to the heroine of the game ''[[Tomb Raider]]'', saying that "the dimensions of [[Lara Croft]]'s body, already analyzed to death by [[film theory|film theorists]], are irrelevant to me as a player, because a different-looking body would not make me play differently... When I play, I don't even see her body, but see through it and past it."<ref>{{cite web| last = Aarseth| first = Espen J.| authorlink = Espen J. Aarseth|date=2004-05-21| url = http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/firstperson/vigilant| title = Genre Trouble| publisher = Electronic Book Review | accessdate = 2006-06-14}}</ref> Simply put, ludologists reject traditional theories of art because they claim that the artistic and socially relevant qualities of a video game are primarily determined by the underlying set of rules, demands, and expectations imposed on the player.
 +
 
 +
While many games rely on [[Emergence|emergent principles]], video games commonly present simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of the game. The term "emergent narrative" has been used to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player."<ref>[http://xbox.ign.com/articles/502/502409p1.html IGN: GDC 2004: Warren Spector Talks Games Narrative<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> However, emergent behavior is not limited to sophisticated games. In general, any place where event-driven instructions occur for [[Artificial Intelligence|AI]] in a game, emergent behavior will exist. For instance, take a racing game in which cars are programmed to avoid crashing, and they encounter an obstacle in the track: the cars might then maneuver to avoid the obstacle causing the cars behind them to slow and/or maneuver to accommodate the cars in front of them and the obstacle. The programmer never wrote code to specifically create a traffic jam, yet one now exists in the game.
 +
 
 +
==Social aspects==
 +
===Demographics===
 +
The November 2005 Nielsen Active Gamer Study, taking a survey of 2,000 regular [[gamer]]s, found that the U.S. games market is diversifying. The age group among male players has expanded significantly in the 25–40 age group. For casual online puzzle-style and simple mobile [[cell phone]] games, the gender divide is more or less equal between males and females. Females have also been found to show an attraction to online multi-player games where there is a communal experience.{{Citation needed|date=November 2009}} More recently there has been a growing segment of female players engaged with the aggressive style of games historically considered to fall within traditionally male genres (e.g., [[first-person shooter]]s). According to the ESRB almost 41% of PC gamers are women<ref>{{cite web | author = Guy, Hannah |year=2007 | url = http://www.pcworld.ca/news/column/a7fe9b8a0a010408019ac931643ebf2c/pg0.htm | title = Women video gamers: Not just solitaire |archiveurl= http://www.asiancanadian.net/2007/03/women-video-gamers-not-just-solitaire.html |archivedate= 2007-03-12 |publisher= ''[[PC World (magazine)|PC World]]'' [[Canada]] }}</ref> (see [[Girl gamer]]).
 +
 
 +
When comparing today's industry climate with that of 20 years ago, women and many adults are more inclined to be using products in the industry. While the market for teen and young adult men is still a strong market, it is the other demographics which are posting significant growth. The [[Entertainment Software Association]] (ESA) provides the following summary for 2011 based on a study of almost 1,200 American households carried out by Ipsos MediaCT:<ref>{{cite web | author = ESA | title = Game Player Data | url = http://www.theesa.com/facts/gameplayer.asp}}</ref>
 +
* The average gamer is 37 years old and has been playing for 12 years. Eighty-two percent of gamers are 18 years of age or older.
 +
* Forty-two percent of all players are women and women over 18 years of age are one of the industry's fastest growing demographics.
 +
* Today, adult women represent a greater portion of the game-playing population (37 percent) than boys age 17 or younger (13 percent).
 +
* Twenty-nine percent of game players are over the age of 50, an increase from nine percent in 1999.
 +
* Sixty-five percent of gamers play games with other gamers in person.
 +
* Fifty-five percent of gamers play games on their phones or handheld device.
 +
 
 +
A 2006 academic study, based on a survey answered by 10.000 gamers, identified the [[gaymer]]s (gamers that identify as [[LGBT]]) as a significant demographic group.
 +
<ref name="first ever survey">{{cite web |url=http://www.washingtonblade.com/thelatest/thelatest.cfm?blog_id=7415 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20060618040019/http://www.washingtonblade.com/thelatest/thelatest.cfm?blog_id=7415 |archivedate=2006-06-18 |title=First-ever survey of gay videogamers |accessdate= |last=Sliwinski |first=Alexander |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2006-06-10 |year= |month= |work= |publisher=[[Washington Blade]] |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=}}</ref>
 +
<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.innewsweekly.com/innews/?class_code=Ga&article_code=2071|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20090101100249/http://www.innewsweekly.com/innews/?class_code=Ga&article_code=2071|archivedate=2009-01-01|title=Gay video game player survey |accessdate= |last=Sliwinski |first=Alexander |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2006-06-08 |year= |month= |work= |publisher=In Newsweekly |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://i.joystiq.com/2007/02/26/gay-gamer-survey-results-with-large-hetero-inclusion/|title=Gay gamer survey results with large hetero inclusion|last=Sliwinski |first=Alexander|publisher=Joystiq}}</ref> A followup survey in 2009 studied the purchase habits and content preferences of people in the group.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.joystiq.com/2009/10/08/new-gaymer-survey-explores-sexual-identity-interest-in-games/#continued |title=New 'gaymer' survey explores sexual identity, interest in games |accessdate= |last=Sliwinski |first= Alexander |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2009-10-08 |year= |month= |work= |publisher=Joystiq.com |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://kotaku.com/5377127/what-do-gay-gamers-want-from-their-games |title=What Do Gay Gamers Want From Their Games? |accessdate= |last=Fahey |first= Mike |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2009-10-08 |year= |month= |work= |publisher=Kotaku.com |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.watermarkonline.com/w-news/orlando/item/403-orlando-student-conducts-gay-gamer-survey |title=Orlando student conducts gay gamer survey |accessdate= |last=Hyman |first=Jamie |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2009-09-03 |year= |month= |work= |publisher=Orlando Watermark |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
Based on the study by NPD group in 2011, about 91 percent of kids aged 2-17 play games.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://techcrunch.com/2011/10/11/91-of-kids-aged-2-17-playing-video-games-says-report/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Techcrunch+%28TechCrunch%29 |title=91% Of Kids Aged 2-17 Playing Video Games, Says Report |accessdate=October 12, 2011}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Multiplayer===
 +
{{Main|Multiplayer video game}}
 +
 
 +
Video gaming has traditionally been a social experience. [[Multiplayer game|Multiplayer video games]] are those that can be played either competitively, sometimes in [[Electronic Sports]], or cooperatively by using either multiple input devices, or by [[Hotseat (multiplayer mode)|hotseating]]. ''[[Tennis for Two]]'', arguably the first video game, was a two player game, as was its successor ''[[Pong]]''. The first commercially available game console, the [[Magnavox Odyssey]], had two controller inputs.
 +
 
 +
Since then, most consoles have been shipped with two or four controller inputs. Some have had the ability to expand to four, eight or as many as 12 inputs with additional adapters, such as the [[Multitap]]. Multiplayer [[arcade game]]s typically feature play for two to four players, sometimes tilting the monitor on its back for a top-down viewing experience allowing players to sit opposite one another.
 +
 
 +
Many early computer games for non-PC descendant based platforms featured multiplayer support. Personal computer systems from [[Atari]] and [[Commodore International|Commodore]] both regularly featured at least two game ports. PC-based computer games started with a lower availability of multiplayer options because of technical limitations. PCs typically had either one or no game ports at all. Network games for these early personal computers were generally limited to only text based adventures or [[MUD]]s that were played remotely on a dedicated server. This was due both to the slow speed of modems (300-1200-bit/s), and the prohibitive cost involved with putting a computer online in such a way where multiple visitors could make use of it. However, with the advent of widespread [[local area network]]ing technologies and Internet based online capabilities, the number of players in modern games can be 32 or higher, sometimes featuring integrated text and/or voice chat. [[Massively multiplayer online game|MMOs]] can offer extremely high numbers of simultaneous players; ''[[Eve Online]]'' set a record with 54,446 players on a single server in 2010.<ref name="MMORPGdotCOMReport32955PCU">[http://www.strategyinformer.com/news/6545/ccp-reveals-new-eve-online-record-with-54446-concurrent-users CCP reveals new EVE Online record with 54,446 concurrent users]</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Benefits===
 +
{{unreliable|date=February 2012}}
 +
{{Main|Video game behavioral effects}}
 +
 
 +
It has been shown that action video game players have better [[hand-eye coordination]] and [[Motor coordination|visuo-motor skill]]s, such as their resistance to [[distraction]], their sensitivity to information in the [[peripheral vision]] and their ability to count briefly presented objects, than nonplayers.<ref>
 +
{{cite journal
 +
| authorlink = Shawn Green (game designer)
 +
| title = Action video game modifies visual selective attention
 +
| journal = Nature
 +
| volume = 423
 +
| pages = 534–537
 +
| year = 2003
 +
| id = Green & Bavelier
 +
| doi = 10.1038/nature01647
 +
| author = Green, C. Shawn
 +
| pmid = 12774121
 +
| last2 = Bavelier
 +
| first2 = Daphne
 +
| issue = 6939}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
Researchers found that such enhanced abilities could be acquired by training with action games, involving challenges that switch attention between different locations, but not with games requiring concentration on single objects.
 +
It has been suggested by a few studies that online/offline video gaming can be used as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of different mental health concerns.{{Which?|date=August 2009}}
 +
 
 +
In [[Steven Berlin Johnson|Steven Johnson]]'s book, ''[[Everything Bad Is Good for You]]'', he argues that video games in fact demand far more from a player than traditional games like ''[[Monopoly (game)|Monopoly]]''. To experience the game, the player must first determine the objectives, as well as how to complete them. They must then learn the game controls and how the human-machine interface works, including menus and [[HUD (computer gaming)|HUDs]]. Beyond such skills, which after some time become quite fundamental and are taken for granted by many gamers, video games are based upon the player navigating (and eventually mastering) a highly complex system with many variables. This requires a strong analytical ability, as well as flexibility and adaptability. He argues that the process of learning the boundaries, goals, and controls of a given game is often a highly demanding one that calls on many different areas of cognitive function. Indeed, most games require a great deal of patience and focus from the player, and, contrary to the popular perception that games provide instant gratification, games actually delay gratification far longer than other forms of entertainment such as film or even many books.<ref>[http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2005/05/16/050516crbo_books Brain Candy: The New Yorker<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Some research suggests video games may even increase players' attention capacities.<ref>{{cite web | author = Daphne Bavelier ''et al.'' | year = 2003 | url = http://www.bcs.rochester.edu/people/daphne/GreenandBavelier.pdf | title = Action video game modifies visual selective attention | publisher = Nature/University of Rochester | accessdate = April 29, 2006 |format=PDF |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060329174957/http://www.bcs.rochester.edu/people/daphne/GreenandBavelier.pdf |archivedate = March 29, 2006}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
Learning principles found in video games have been identified as possible techniques with which to reform the U.S. education system.<ref>{{cite book| last = Gee | first = James Paul | title = What Video Games Have to Teach us About Literacy and Learning | publisher = Palgrave Macmillan | year = 2003 | isbn = 1403961697 }}</ref> It has been noticed that gamers adopt an attitude while playing that is of such high concentration, they do not realize they are learning, and that if the same attitude could be adopted at school, education would enjoy significant benefits.<ref>{{cite web | author = James Paul Gee ''et al.'' | year = 2007 | url = http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.05/view.html | title = Wired 11.05: View | publisher = Codenet, Inc. | accessdate = December 4, 2007 }}</ref> Students are found to be "learning by doing" while playing video games while fostering creative thinking.<ref>
 +
{{cite journal
 +
| title = Video games
 +
| journal = CQ Researcher
 +
| volume = 16
 +
| pages = 960–937
 +
| year = 2006
 +
| id = cqresrre2006111000
 +
| author = Glazer, S.}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
The [[United States Army|U.S. Army]] has deployed machines such as the [[PackBot]] and [[UAV]] vehicles, which make use of a game-style [[Game controller|hand controller]] to make it more familiar for young people.<ref>{{cite web | year=2007 | url = http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/iRobot_Receives_New_Military_Orders_14_PackBot_Robots_999.html | title=iRobot Receives New Military Orders 14 PackBot Robots | accessdate = July 25, 2007}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
According to research discussed at the 2008 Convention of the American Psychological Association, certain types of video games can improve the gamers' [[dexterity]] as well as their ability to problem-solve. A study of 33 laparoscopic surgeons found that those who played video games were 27 percent faster at advanced surgical procedures and made 37 percent fewer errors compared to those who did not play video games. A second study of 303 laparoscopic surgeons (82 percent men; 18 percent women) also showed that surgeons who played video games requiring spatial skills and hand dexterity and then performed a drill testing these skills were significantly faster at their first attempt and across all 10 trials than the surgeons who did not play the video games first.<ref>[http://newswise.com/articles/view/543366/ Playing Video Games Offers Learning Across Life Span] Newswise, Retrieved on August 17, 2008.</ref>
 +
 
 +
Whilst many studies have detected superior mental aptitudes{{which|date=February 2012}} amongst habitual gamers, research by Walter Boot at the University of Illinois found that non-gamers showed no improvement in memory or multitasking abilities after 20 hours of playing three different games. The researchers suggested that "individuals with superior abilities are more likely to choose video gaming as an activity in the first place".<ref>{{Cite journal|journal=New Scientist|title=One less excuse to play video games|date=November 1, 2008|issue=2680|page=23|publisher=Reed Business Information|url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20026805.700-video-games-dont-train-your-brain.html|accessdate = 2008-10-30}}</ref><small>''[[template:unreliable|Unreliable - Discuss]]''</small>
 +
 
 +
===Controversy===
 +
{{Main|Video game controversy}}
 +
 
 +
Like related forms of media, computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and [[censorship]], due to the depiction of graphic [[violence]], [[Sex|sexual themes]], [[advergaming]] (a form of [[advertising]] in games), consumption of [[Recreational drug use|drugs]], consumption of [[Alcoholic beverage|alcohol]] or [[tobacco]], [[propaganda]], or [[profanity]] in some games. Among others, critics of video games often include parents' groups, [[politician]]s, organized [[religious]] groups, and other [[advocacy group]]s. Various games have been accused of causing [[video game addiction|addiction]] and even violent behavior, though how much ground this holds is debatable. "Video game censorship" is defined as the use of state or group power to control the playing, distribution, purchase, or sale of video games or computer games. Video game controversy comes in many forms, and censorship is a controversial subject. Proponents and opponents of censorship are often very passionate about their individual views.
 +
 
 +
Various national content rating organizations, such as the [[Entertainment Software Ratings Board]] or ESRB in North America, rate software for certain age groups and with certain content warnings. Some of these organizations are optional industry self-regulation (such as the ESRB), while others are part of national government censorship organizations. Most video games display their rating on the front side of their packaging. However, parents are not always aware of the existence of these ratings. Not all ratings are considered accurate. Organizations such as ''What They Play'' and ''Common Sense Media'' aim to provide guidance and advice for parents.<ref>{{cite web | publisher = Console Watcher | year = 2006 | url = http://www.consolewatcher.com/2006/01/grand-theft-auto-makers-sued-by-la-attorney-for-hidden-porn/ | title = Grand Theft Auto Makers Sued By LA Attorney For Hidden Porn | accessdate = October 26, 2006}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Ratings and censorship==
 +
===ESRB===
 +
The [[Entertainment Software Rating Board]] (ESRB) gives videogames maturity ratings based on their content. For example, a game might be rated ''T'' for ''Teen'' if the game contained obscene words or violence. If a game contains explicit violence or sexual themes, it is likely to receive an ''M'' for ''Mature'' rating, which means that no one under 17 should play it. There is a rated "A/O" games for "Adults Only" these games have massive violence or nudity. There are no laws that prohibit children from purchasing "M" rated games in the [[United States]].  Laws attempting to prohibit minors from purchasing "M" rated games were established in [[California]], [[Illinois]], [[Michigan]], [[Minnesota]], and [[Louisiana]], but all were overturned on the grounds that the establishment of such laws were in violation of a child's First Amendment rights{{Citation needed|date=June 2007}}. However, many stores have opted to not sell such games to children anyway. Of course, video game laws vary from country to country. One of the most controversial games of all time, ''[[Manhunt 2]]'' by Rockstar Studios, was denied a rating by the ESRB until Rockstar could make the content more suitable for a mature audience.
 +
 
 +
Video game manufacturers usually exercise tight control over the games that are made available on their systems, so unusual or special-interest games are more likely to appear as [[PC games]]. Free, casual, and [[browser-based game]]s are usually played on available computers, [[mobile phone]]s, or [[Personal digital assistant|PDA]]s.
 +
 
 +
===PEGI===
 +
[[Pan European Game Information]] (PEGI) is a system that was developed to standardize the game ratings in all of [[Europe]] (not just [[European Union]], although the majority are EU members), the current members are: all EU members, except [[Germany]] and the 10 accession states; [[Norway]]; [[Switzerland]]. Iceland is expected to join soon, as are the 10 EU accession states. For all PEGI members, they use it as their sole system, with the exception of the [[United Kingdom|UK]], where if a game contains certain material<ref>{{cite web|title=Classification: Guidelines: Introduction|url=http://www.bbfc.co.uk/classification/guidelines/introduction/|publisher=British Board of Film Classification|accessdate=23 November 2011|quote=The BBFC classifies video works which are released as video recordings under the Video Recordings Act 1984. (The video games covered by the VRA are those whose exemption is forfeited under section 2(2) because they depict human sexual activity, gross violence or other matters of concern.)}}</ref> , it must be rated by [[British Board of Film Classification|BBFC]]. The PEGI ratings are legally binding in Vienna and it is a criminal offence to sell a game to someone if it is rated above their age.<ref>{{cite web|title=Pan European Game Information|url=http://bupp.at/chancen-amp-risiken/jugendschutz/pegi/|publisher=Bundesstelle für die Positivprädikatisierung von Computer- und Konsolenspielen|accessdate=23 November 2011|language=German|quote=Eine Kennzeichung mit der PEGI-Altersempfehlung ist in Wien seit April 2008 verpflichtend: Es dürfen nur Spiele verkauft werden, die eine PEGI-Kennzeichnung tragen. Und es dürfen die Spiele nur an Jugendliche verkauft werden, wenn diese zumindest das Alter gemäß PEGI-Kennzeichung erreicht haben. Bis Ende 2009 gilt in der Übergangsfrist alternativ auch die Kennzeichnung der USK.}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Germany: BPjM and USK===
 +
Stricter game rating laws mean that Germany does not operate within the PEGI. Instead, they adopt their own system of certification which is required by law. The [[Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle]] (''USK'' or Voluntary Certification of Entertainment Software) checks every game before release and assigns an age rating to it - either none (white), 6 years of age (yellow), 12 years of age (green), 16 years of age (blue) or 18 years of age (red). It is forbidden for anyone, retailers, friends or parents alike, to allow a child access to a game for which he or she is underage. If a game is particularly violent, it may be referred to the BPjM (''[[Bundesprüfstelle für jugendgefährdende Medien]]'' - Federal Verification Office for Child-Endangering Media) who may opt to place it on the ''Index'' upon which the game may not be sold openly or advertised in the open media. Unofficially, the titles are not "banned" - adult gamers are still technically free to obtain the titles by other means, although it is still considered a felony to supply these titles to a child.
 +
 
 +
==Commercial aspects==
 +
===Game sales===
 +
{{See also|List of best-selling video games}}
 +
 
 +
[[File:Videogameretaildisplay.jpg|thumb|220px|A typical retail display (in [[Geneva]], [[Switzerland]]) with a large selection of games for several major consoles]]
 +
 
 +
The three largest producers of and markets for computer and video games (in order) are [[North America]] (US and Canada), [[Japan]] and the [[United Kingdom]]. Other significant markets include [[Australia]], [[Spain]], [[Germany]], [[South Korea]], [[Mexico]], [[France]] and [[Italy]].<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20080624233600/http://www.elspa.com/assets/files/c/computerandvideogamesabritishphenomenonaroundthewo_174.pdf Computer And Video Games: A British Phenomena Around the World] ([[Portable Document Format|PDF]])</ref> Both [[India]] and [[People's Republic of China|China]] are considered emerging markets in the video game industry and sales are expected to rise significantly in the coming years. [[Ireland|Irish]] are the largest per capita consumers of video games.<ref>Global Entertainment and Media Outlook:2009-2013</ref>
 +
 
 +
Sales of different types of games vary widely between these markets due to local preferences. Japanese consumers tend to purchase console games over computer games, with a strong preference for games catering to local tastes. In South Korea, computer games are preferred, especially [[Massively multiplayer online role-playing game|MMORPG]] games and [[real-time strategy]] games. There are over 20,000 [[Internet café]]s in South Korea where computer games can be played for an hourly charge.
 +
 
 +
The [[NPD Group]] tracks computer and video game sales in the United States. It reported in 2004 that:
 +
* Console and portable software sales: $6.2&nbsp;billion, up 8% from 2003<ref name="sales">{{cite web | date = January 18, 2005 | url = http://gameinfowire.com/news.asp?nid=5650 | title = U.S. video game industry sales dip in 2004 | publisher = Game Info Wire | accessdate = February 12, 2006}}</ref>
 +
* Console and portable hardware and accessory sales: $3.7&nbsp;billion, down 35% from 2003<ref name="sales" />
 +
* PC game sales: $1.1&nbsp;billion, down 15% from 2006<ref name="ussales">{{cite web|publisher = Entertainment Software Association (ESA)|year=2004|url=http://www.theesa.com/facts/salesandgenre.asp|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20060208194822/http://www.theesa.com/facts/sales_genre_data.php|archivedate=8 February 2006|title=Sales & Genre data|accessdate=12 February 2006}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
PC games that are [[digital distribution|digitally distributed]] either directly or by networks such as [[Steam (software)|Steam]] are not tracked by the NPD, and [[Valve Corporation|Valve]] does not list sales numbers for games downloaded through their service. [[Copyright infringement of software|Unauthorized distribution]] is also rampant on the PC.<ref name="forbes">{{cite web|last=DiCarlo|first=Lisa|title =Do Game Publishers Ignore Piracy?|publisher=Forbes.com|date=18 July 2005|url=http://www.forbes.com/2005/07/18/videogame-piracy-worldwide-cx_ld_0718piracy.html|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080103014804/http://www.forbes.com/2005/07/18/videogame-piracy-worldwide-cx_ld_0718piracy.html|archivedate=2008-01-03|accessdate=29 October 2007}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
These figures are sales in dollars, not units, Unit shipments for each category were higher than the dollar sales numbers indicate, because more software and hardware was discounted than in 2003. But with the release of the next-generation consoles in 2006, these numbers increased dramatically. The game and film industries are also becoming increasingly intertwined, with companies like [[Sony]] having significant stakes in both. A large number of summer blockbuster films spawn a companion game, often launching at the same time to share the marketing costs.
 +
 
 +
The global market for console games has seen an average of 6.9 percent compound annual growth rate and is expected to become a $34.7 billion market in 2012.Online game sales are expected to grow at a larger rate of 16.9 percent, escalating from $6.6 billion in 2008 to $14.4 billion by 2012. The largest channel for growth, however, is in mobile gaming with a growth rate of 19 percent; growing from $5.6 billion to $13.5 billion in four years.<ref name="digital media wire">{{cite web|last=Bond|first=Paul|title=Video game sales on winning streak, study projects|publisher=reuters|date=2008-06-18|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2008/06/18/us-videogames-idUSN1840038320080618?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0|accessdate=2011-03-12}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Criticism===
 +
Video games have the problem of [[regional lockout]]. In Australia, while most DVD players are sold [[DVD region code#Legal concerns|region-free]] to accommodate local consumer rights legislation,<ref>[http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/sinodisp/au/cases/cth/HCA/2005/58.html "High Court of Australia enforcing region free"]</ref> video game consoles are still sold fully region protected. Some effort has been made to increase awareness of the issue, specifically to [[Nintendo]] of Australia,<ref>[http://www.nintendo.com.au/ Nintendo Australia]</ref> in the form of a formal report outlining the issues, published by Aaron Rex Davies.<ref>[http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~aaronights/2007-8-11_report_into_software_releases.pdf "Research report into excessive delays in release of Wii software by [[Nintendo]] in Australia and New Zealand regions"] by Aaron Rex Davies ([[Portable Document Format|PDF]])</ref> The report has gone on to gain a lot of attention in the public media.<ref>[http://www.aussie-nintendo.com/?v=news&p=16776 "Australia to Nintendo: Knock It Off"]</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Museums==
 +
There are many video game museums around the world, for example Museum of Soviet Arcade Machines in [[Moscow]]<ref>[http://www.15kop.ru/en/ Museum of Soviet arcade machines]</ref> or Computer Game Museum in [[Berlin]].<ref>[http://www.computerspielemuseum.de/index.php?lg=en Computerspielemuseum - Berlin]</ref>
 +
 
 +
==See also==
 +
{{Portal|Video games}}
 +
{{Wikipedia books|Video game}}
 +
<!-- Please add related links to [[Outline of video games]] -->
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* [[Outline of video games]]
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* [[Video game etiquette]]
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{{clear}}
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 +
==Notes==
 +
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 +
{{Refbegin}}
 +
* {{cite web | author = Lieu, Tina |month=August | year=1997 | url = http://www.cjmag.co.jp/magazine/issues/1997/aug97/0897pcgames.html | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/19980112155115/http://www.cjmag.co.jp/magazine/issues/1997/aug97/0897pcgames.html | archivedate = 1998-01-12 | title = Where have all the PC games gone? | publisher = Computing Japan }}
 +
* {{cite web | author = Costikyan, Greg |year=1994 | url = http://www.costik.com/nowords.html | title = I Have No Words & I Must Design }}
 +
* {{cite web | author = Crawford, Chris |year=1982 | url = http://library.vancouver.wsu.edu/art-computer-game-design | title = The Art of Computer Game Design }}
 +
* {{cite book |first=Katie|last=Salen | title=The Game Design Reader: A Rules of Play Anthology| coauthors=Eric Zimmerman| year=2005 | publisher=[[The MIT Press]] | isbn=0-262-19536-4}}
 +
* {{cite web | author = Smuts, Aaron |year=2005 | url = http://www.contempaesthetics.org/newvolume/pages/article.php?articleID=299 | title = Are Video Games Art? }}
 +
* {{cite web | author = Blodget, Henry | date = April 12, 2005 | url = http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/go_east_young_man/2005/04/how_to_solve_chinas_piracy_problem.html | title = How to Solve China's Piracy Problem | publisher = Slate.com | accessdate = February 12, 2006 }}
 +
* {{cite web | author = Winegarner, Beth | date = January 28, 2005 | url = http://www.gamespot.com/news/game-sales-hit-record-highs-6117438 | title = Game sales hit record highs | publisher = Gamespot | accessdate = February 12, 2006 }}
 +
* {{cite journal | publisher = Routledge | volume = 6 | issue = 4 | date = 2002-10-01 | pages = 395–417 | doi = 10.1080/1362517022000047334 | title = Digital Dinosaurs and Artificial Life: Exploring the Culture of Nature in Computer and Video Games | author = John Wills | journal = Cultural Values (Journal for Cultural Research)}}
 +
* Williams, J. P., & Smith, J. H., eds. (2007). The players' realm: studies on the culture of video games and gaming. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. ISBN 9780786428328
 +
{{Refend}}
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==External links==
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{{Sister project links|Computer and video games}}
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* {{dmoz|Games/Video_Games|Video Games}}
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* [http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/2008/06/rageagainstthemachines/ Tom Chatfield writes] on the culture and future of video games for [[Prospect Magazine]]
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* [http://archives.cbc.ca/arts_entertainment/media/topics/3607/ CBC Digital Archives: The Arcade Age]
 +
* [http://www.mauriciogiraldo.com/vgline/beta/ An interactive video game history timeline]
 +
* [http://www.life.com/gallery/42862/video-games-through-the-ages#index/0 Video Games Through the Ages] - slideshow by ''[[Life magazine]]''
 +
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<!--======================== {{No more links}} ============================
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    | PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS IN ADDING MORE LINKS TO THIS ARTICLE. Wikipedia  |
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    |          Excessive or inappropriate links WILL BE DELETED.        |
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    | See [[Wikipedia:External links]] & [[Wikipedia:Spam]] for details.  |
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    | If there are already plentiful links, please propose additions or  |
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    | replacements on this article's discussion page, or submit your link |
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    | to the relevant category at the Open Directory Project (dmoz.org)  |
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    | and link back to that category using the {{dmoz}} template.        |
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{{Years in Video Gaming}}
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{{VideoGameGenre}}
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Revision as of 22:21, 14 March 2012

Template:Pp-protected Template:Redirect Template:Video Games Template:Unreliable A video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device,[1] but following popularization of the term "video game", it now implies any type of display device. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use. Video games have gone on to become an art form and industry.

The input device used to manipulate video games is called a game controller, and varies across platforms. For example, a controller might consist of only a button and a joystick, while another may feature a dozen buttons and one or more joysticks. Early personal computer games often needed a keyboard for gameplay, or more commonly, required the user to buy a separate joystick with at least one button.[2] Many modern computer games allow or require the player to use a keyboard and a mouse simultaneously. A few of the most common game controllers are gamepads, mice, keyboards, and joysticks.

Video games typically use additional means of providing interactivity and information to the player. Audio is almost universal, using sound reproduction devices, such as speakers and headphones. Other feedback may come via haptic peripherals, such as vibration or force feedback, with vibration sometimes used to simulate force feedback.

In the early days of cartridge consoles, they were sometimes called TV games, a term now often used for handheld TV games.

History

For a more detailed treatment, see History of video games.

See also: First video game
File:Tennis for Two.jpg
Tennis for Two, an early analog computer game that used an oscilloscope for a display

Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on January 25, 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on December 14, 1948, as U.S. Patent 2455992.[3]

Inspired by radar display tech, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen.[4]

Other early examples include:

Each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim,[5] OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe [6] Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court,[4] and Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other.[7]

In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game. It used a black-and-white television for its display, and the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips.[8] The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it also used a standard television.[4][9] These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong; an arcade version in 1972 and a home version in 1975 that dramatically increased video game popularity.[10] The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry.[11]

A flood of Pong clones eventually led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders,[12] marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market.[12][13] The game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts, restaurants, and convenience stores.[14] The game also became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a rapidly growing mainstream hobby.[15][16] Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS (later known as Atari 2600), becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales.[17] This helped Atari recover from their earlier losses,[18] and in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.[19] The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System,[20] which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles.[21]

Overview

Platforms

See also: History of video games

The term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate.[22] The term "system" is also commonly used.

In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a IBM PC compatible personal computer connected to a video monitor. A "console game" is played on a specialized electronic device that connects to a common television set or composite video monitor. A "handheld" gaming device is a self contained electronic device that is portable and can be held in a user's hands. "Arcade game" generally refers to a game played on an even more specialized type of electronic device that is typically designed to play only one game and is encased in a special cabinet. These distinctions are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to personal computers, there are multiple other devices which have the ability to play games but are not dedicated video game machines, such as mobile phones, PDAs and graphing calculators.

With the advent of social networking and other online applications hubs, the term "platform" started being used to refer to the online service within which the game is played, regardless of the actual hardware on which it is executed. A game's platform could simply be "Facebook", whether it is played on a Windows PC, Mac, Smart TV, or smartphone.

Genres

For a more detailed treatment, see Video game genres.

A video game, like most other forms of media, may be categorized into genres based on many factors such as method of game play, types of goals, art style and more. Because genres are dependent on content for definition, genres have changed and evolved as newer styles of video games have come into existence. Ever advancing technology and production values related to video game development have fostered more life-like and complex games which have in turn introduced or enhanced genre possibilities (e.g., virtual pets), pushed the boundaries of existing video gaming or in some cases add new possibilities in play (such as that seen with titles specifically designed for devices like Sony's EyeToy). Some genres represent combinations of others, such as massively multiplayer online role-playing games, or, more commonly, MMORPGs. It is also common to see higher level genre terms that are collective in nature across all other genres such as with action, music/rhythm or horror-themed video games.

Classifications

Casual games

For a more detailed treatment, see Casual game.

Casual games derive their name from their ease of accessibility, simple to understand gameplay and quick to grasp rule sets. Additionally, casual games frequently support the ability to jump in and out of play on demand. Casual games as a format existed long before the term was coined and include video games such as Solitaire or Minesweeper which can commonly be found pre-installed with many versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system.

Examples of genres within this category are hidden object, match three, time management, tetris or many of the tower defense style games. Casual games are generally sold through online retailers such as PopCap, Zylom, Vans Video Games and GameHouse or provided for free play through web portals such as Newgrounds or AddictingGames.

While casual games are most commonly played on personal computers, cellphones or PDAs, they can also be found on many of the on-line console system download services (e.g., Xbox Live, PlayStation Network, or WiiWare).

Serious games

For a more detailed treatment, see Serious game.

Serious games are games that are designed primarily to convey information or a learning experience of some sort to the player. Some serious games may even fail to qualify as a video game in the traditional sense of the term. Educational software does not typically fall under this category (e.g., touch typing tutors, language learning, etc.) and the primary distinction would appear to be based on the title's primary goal as well as target age demographics. As with the other categories, this description is more of a guideline than a rule.

Serious games are games generally made for reasons beyond simple entertainment and as with the core and casual games may include works from any given genre, although some such as exergames, educational games, or propaganda games may have a higher representation in this group due to their subject matter. These games are typically designed to be played by professionals as part of a specific job or for skill set improvement. They can also be created to convey social-political awareness on a specific subject.

One of the longest running serious games franchises would be Microsoft Flight Simulator first published in 1982 under that name. The United States military uses virtual reality based simulations, such as VBS1 for training exercises,[23] as do a growing number of first responder roles (e.g., police, fire fighter, EMT).[24] One example of a non-game environment utilized as a platform for serious game development would be the virtual world of Second Life, which is currently used by several United States governmental departments (e.g., NOAA, NASA, JPL), Universities (e.g., Ohio University, MIT) for educational and remote learning programs[25] and businesses (e.g., IBM, Cisco Systems) for meetings and training.[26]

Tactical media in video games plays a crucial role in making a statement or conveying a message on important relevant issues. This form of media allows for a broader audience to be able to receive and gain access to certain information that otherwise may not have reached such people. An example of tactical media in video games would be newsgames. These are short games related to contemporary events designed to illustrate a point.[27] For example, TAKE ACTION games is a game studio collective that was co-founded by Susana Ruiz and has made very successful and powerful serious games. Some of these games include Darfur is Dying, Finding Zoe, and In The Balance. All of these games bring awareness to important issues and events in an intelligent and well thought out manner.[28]

Educational games

See also: Educational software

On September 23, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama launched a campaign called "Educate to Innovate" aimed at improving the technological, mathematical, scientific and engineering abilities of American students. This campaign states that it plans to harness the power of interactive games to help achieve the goal of students excelling in these departments.[29][30] This campaign has stemmed into many new and exciting opportunities for the video game realm and has contributed to many new competitions. Some of these competitions include the STEM NATIONAL VIDEO GAME COMPETITION and the Imagine Cup.[31][32] Both of these examples are events that bring a focus to relevant and important current issues that are able to be addressed in the sense of video games to educate and spread knowledge in a new form of media. www.NobelPrize.org uses games to entice the user to learn about information pertaining to the Nobel prize achievements while engaging in a fun to play video game.[33] There are many different types and styles of educational games all the way from counting to spelling to games for kids and games for adults. Some other games do not have any particular targeted audience in mind and intended to simply educate or inform whoever views or plays the game.

Development

For a more detailed treatment, see Game development.

See also: Video game industry practices
File:Virtual-camera-system.png
Developers use various tools to create video games, here an editor to fine tune the virtual camera system.

Video game development and authorship, much like any other form of entertainment, is frequently a cross-disciplinary field. Video game developers, as employees within this industry are commonly referred, primarily include programmers and graphic designers. Over the years this has expanded to include almost every type of skill that one might see prevalent in the creation of any movie or television program, including sound designers, musicians, and other technicians; as well as skills that are specific to video games, such as the game designer. All of these are managed by producers.

In the early days of the industry, it was more common for a single person to manage all of the roles needed to create a video game. As platforms have become more complex and powerful in the type of material they can present, larger teams have been needed to generate all of the art, programming, cinematography, and more. This is not to say that the age of the "one-man shop" is gone, as this is still sometimes found in the casual gaming and handheld markets,[34] where smaller games are prevalent due to technical limitations such as limited RAM or lack of dedicated 3D graphics rendering capabilities on the target platform (e.g., some cellphones and PDAs).[Citation Needed]

With the growth of the size of development teams in the industry, the problem of cost has increased. Development studios need to be able to pay their staff a competitive wage in order to attract and retain the best talent, while publishers are constantly looking to keep costs down in order to maintain profitability on their investment. Typically, a video game console development team can range in sizes of anywhere from 5 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding 100. In May 2009, one game project was reported to have a development staff of 450.[35] The growth of team size combined with greater pressure to get completed projects into the market to begin recouping production costs has led to a greater occurrence of missed deadlines and unfinished products.[Citation Needed]

Downloadable content

For a more detailed treatment, see Downloadable content.

A newer phenomenon of withholding content from the game and then releasing it at a later date for additional funds not factored into the retail price began with digital video game distribution known as Downloadable Content (also known colloquially as 'DLC'). Studios may choose to utilize this to issue original content after the game is released, such as Rockstar Games with Grand Theft Auto IV, or Bethesda with Fallout 3, yet often opt instead to create content before the game is released to be intentionally withheld, such as Activision and Treyarch with Call of Duty (Despite knowing well public affection for a 'Zombies' game mode, it was shipped with only one map for this game mode, and periodically releases new ones with $10 DLC).[36][37][38]

Modifications

For a more detailed treatment, see Mod (computer gaming).

Many games produced for the PC are designed such that technically oriented consumers can modify the game. These mods can add an extra dimension of replayability and interest. Developers such as id Software, Valve Software, Crytek, Bethesda, Epic Games and Blizzard Entertainment ship their games with some of the development tools used to make the game, along with documentation to assist mod developers. The Internet provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they may be a factor in the commercial success of some games.[39] This allows for the kind of success seen by popular mods such as the Half-Life mod Counter-Strike.

Cheating

For a more detailed treatment, see Cheating (video games).

Cheating in computer games may involve cheat codes and hidden spots implemented by the game developers,[40][41] modification of game code by third parties,[42][43] or players exploiting a software glitch. Modifications are facilitated by either cheat cartridge hardware or a software trainer.[42] Cheats usually make the game easier by providing an unlimited amount of some resource; for example weapons, health, or ammunition; or perhaps the ability to walk through walls.[41][42] Other cheats might give access to otherwise unplayable levels or provide unusual or amusing features, like altered game colors or other graphical appearances.

Glitches

File:UMK3 Fighter Glitch.png
Example of a color glitch from the video game Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3

For a more detailed treatment, see Glitch.

Software errors not detected by software testers during development can find their way into released versions of computer and video games. This may happen because the glitch only occurs under unusual circumstances in the game, was deemed too minor to correct, or because the game development was hurried to meet a publication deadline. Glitches can range from minor graphical errors to serious bugs that can delete saved data or cause the game to malfunction. In some cases publishers will release updates (referred to as patches) to repair glitches. Sometimes a glitch may be beneficial to the player, these are often referred to as exploits.

Easter eggs

Easter eggs are hidden messages or jokes left in games by developers that are not part of the main game.

Theory

For a more detailed treatment, see Game studies.

Although departments of computer science have been studying the technical aspects of video games for years, theories that examine games as an artistic medium are a relatively recent development in the humanities. The two most visible schools in this emerging field are ludology and narratology. Narrativists approach video games in the context of what Janet Murray calls "Cyberdrama". That is to say, their major concern is with video games as a storytelling medium, one that arises out of interactive fiction. Murray puts video games in the context of the Holodeck, a fictional piece of technology from Star Trek, arguing for the video game as a medium in which we get to become another person, and to act out in another world.[44] This image of video games received early widespread popular support, and forms the basis of films such as Tron, eXistenZ and The Last Starfighter.

Ludologists break sharply and radically from this idea. They argue that a video game is first and foremost a game, which must be understood in terms of its rules, interface, and the concept of play that it deploys. Espen J. Aarseth argues that, although games certainly have plots, characters, and aspects of traditional narratives, these aspects are incidental to gameplay. For example, Aarseth is critical of the widespread attention that narrativists have given to the heroine of the game Tomb Raider, saying that "the dimensions of Lara Croft's body, already analyzed to death by film theorists, are irrelevant to me as a player, because a different-looking body would not make me play differently... When I play, I don't even see her body, but see through it and past it."[45] Simply put, ludologists reject traditional theories of art because they claim that the artistic and socially relevant qualities of a video game are primarily determined by the underlying set of rules, demands, and expectations imposed on the player.

While many games rely on emergent principles, video games commonly present simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of the game. The term "emergent narrative" has been used to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player."[46] However, emergent behavior is not limited to sophisticated games. In general, any place where event-driven instructions occur for AI in a game, emergent behavior will exist. For instance, take a racing game in which cars are programmed to avoid crashing, and they encounter an obstacle in the track: the cars might then maneuver to avoid the obstacle causing the cars behind them to slow and/or maneuver to accommodate the cars in front of them and the obstacle. The programmer never wrote code to specifically create a traffic jam, yet one now exists in the game.

Social aspects

Demographics

The November 2005 Nielsen Active Gamer Study, taking a survey of 2,000 regular gamers, found that the U.S. games market is diversifying. The age group among male players has expanded significantly in the 25–40 age group. For casual online puzzle-style and simple mobile cell phone games, the gender divide is more or less equal between males and females. Females have also been found to show an attraction to online multi-player games where there is a communal experience.[Citation Needed] More recently there has been a growing segment of female players engaged with the aggressive style of games historically considered to fall within traditionally male genres (e.g., first-person shooters). According to the ESRB almost 41% of PC gamers are women[47] (see Girl gamer).

When comparing today's industry climate with that of 20 years ago, women and many adults are more inclined to be using products in the industry. While the market for teen and young adult men is still a strong market, it is the other demographics which are posting significant growth. The Entertainment Software Association (ESA) provides the following summary for 2011 based on a study of almost 1,200 American households carried out by Ipsos MediaCT:[48]

  • The average gamer is 37 years old and has been playing for 12 years. Eighty-two percent of gamers are 18 years of age or older.
  • Forty-two percent of all players are women and women over 18 years of age are one of the industry's fastest growing demographics.
  • Today, adult women represent a greater portion of the game-playing population (37 percent) than boys age 17 or younger (13 percent).
  • Twenty-nine percent of game players are over the age of 50, an increase from nine percent in 1999.
  • Sixty-five percent of gamers play games with other gamers in person.
  • Fifty-five percent of gamers play games on their phones or handheld device.

A 2006 academic study, based on a survey answered by 10.000 gamers, identified the gaymers (gamers that identify as LGBT) as a significant demographic group. [49] [50][51] A followup survey in 2009 studied the purchase habits and content preferences of people in the group.[52][53][54]

Based on the study by NPD group in 2011, about 91 percent of kids aged 2-17 play games.[55]

Multiplayer

For a more detailed treatment, see Multiplayer video game.

Video gaming has traditionally been a social experience. Multiplayer video games are those that can be played either competitively, sometimes in Electronic Sports, or cooperatively by using either multiple input devices, or by hotseating. Tennis for Two, arguably the first video game, was a two player game, as was its successor Pong. The first commercially available game console, the Magnavox Odyssey, had two controller inputs.

Since then, most consoles have been shipped with two or four controller inputs. Some have had the ability to expand to four, eight or as many as 12 inputs with additional adapters, such as the Multitap. Multiplayer arcade games typically feature play for two to four players, sometimes tilting the monitor on its back for a top-down viewing experience allowing players to sit opposite one another.

Many early computer games for non-PC descendant based platforms featured multiplayer support. Personal computer systems from Atari and Commodore both regularly featured at least two game ports. PC-based computer games started with a lower availability of multiplayer options because of technical limitations. PCs typically had either one or no game ports at all. Network games for these early personal computers were generally limited to only text based adventures or MUDs that were played remotely on a dedicated server. This was due both to the slow speed of modems (300-1200-bit/s), and the prohibitive cost involved with putting a computer online in such a way where multiple visitors could make use of it. However, with the advent of widespread local area networking technologies and Internet based online capabilities, the number of players in modern games can be 32 or higher, sometimes featuring integrated text and/or voice chat. MMOs can offer extremely high numbers of simultaneous players; Eve Online set a record with 54,446 players on a single server in 2010.[56]

Benefits

Template:Unreliable For a more detailed treatment, see Video game behavioral effects.

It has been shown that action video game players have better hand-eye coordination and visuo-motor skills, such as their resistance to distraction, their sensitivity to information in the peripheral vision and their ability to count briefly presented objects, than nonplayers.[57]

Researchers found that such enhanced abilities could be acquired by training with action games, involving challenges that switch attention between different locations, but not with games requiring concentration on single objects. It has been suggested by a few studies that online/offline video gaming can be used as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of different mental health concerns.Template:Which?

In Steven Johnson's book, Everything Bad Is Good for You, he argues that video games in fact demand far more from a player than traditional games like Monopoly. To experience the game, the player must first determine the objectives, as well as how to complete them. They must then learn the game controls and how the human-machine interface works, including menus and HUDs. Beyond such skills, which after some time become quite fundamental and are taken for granted by many gamers, video games are based upon the player navigating (and eventually mastering) a highly complex system with many variables. This requires a strong analytical ability, as well as flexibility and adaptability. He argues that the process of learning the boundaries, goals, and controls of a given game is often a highly demanding one that calls on many different areas of cognitive function. Indeed, most games require a great deal of patience and focus from the player, and, contrary to the popular perception that games provide instant gratification, games actually delay gratification far longer than other forms of entertainment such as film or even many books.[58] Some research suggests video games may even increase players' attention capacities.[59]

Learning principles found in video games have been identified as possible techniques with which to reform the U.S. education system.[60] It has been noticed that gamers adopt an attitude while playing that is of such high concentration, they do not realize they are learning, and that if the same attitude could be adopted at school, education would enjoy significant benefits.[61] Students are found to be "learning by doing" while playing video games while fostering creative thinking.[62]

The U.S. Army has deployed machines such as the PackBot and UAV vehicles, which make use of a game-style hand controller to make it more familiar for young people.[63]

According to research discussed at the 2008 Convention of the American Psychological Association, certain types of video games can improve the gamers' dexterity as well as their ability to problem-solve. A study of 33 laparoscopic surgeons found that those who played video games were 27 percent faster at advanced surgical procedures and made 37 percent fewer errors compared to those who did not play video games. A second study of 303 laparoscopic surgeons (82 percent men; 18 percent women) also showed that surgeons who played video games requiring spatial skills and hand dexterity and then performed a drill testing these skills were significantly faster at their first attempt and across all 10 trials than the surgeons who did not play the video games first.[64]

Whilst many studies have detected superior mental aptitudesTemplate:Which amongst habitual gamers, research by Walter Boot at the University of Illinois found that non-gamers showed no improvement in memory or multitasking abilities after 20 hours of playing three different games. The researchers suggested that "individuals with superior abilities are more likely to choose video gaming as an activity in the first place".[65]Unreliable - Discuss

Controversy

For a more detailed treatment, see Video game controversy.

Like related forms of media, computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, advergaming (a form of advertising in games), consumption of drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, propaganda, or profanity in some games. Among others, critics of video games often include parents' groups, politicians, organized religious groups, and other advocacy groups. Various games have been accused of causing addiction and even violent behavior, though how much ground this holds is debatable. "Video game censorship" is defined as the use of state or group power to control the playing, distribution, purchase, or sale of video games or computer games. Video game controversy comes in many forms, and censorship is a controversial subject. Proponents and opponents of censorship are often very passionate about their individual views.

Various national content rating organizations, such as the Entertainment Software Ratings Board or ESRB in North America, rate software for certain age groups and with certain content warnings. Some of these organizations are optional industry self-regulation (such as the ESRB), while others are part of national government censorship organizations. Most video games display their rating on the front side of their packaging. However, parents are not always aware of the existence of these ratings. Not all ratings are considered accurate. Organizations such as What They Play and Common Sense Media aim to provide guidance and advice for parents.[66]

Ratings and censorship

ESRB

The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) gives videogames maturity ratings based on their content. For example, a game might be rated T for Teen if the game contained obscene words or violence. If a game contains explicit violence or sexual themes, it is likely to receive an M for Mature rating, which means that no one under 17 should play it. There is a rated "A/O" games for "Adults Only" these games have massive violence or nudity. There are no laws that prohibit children from purchasing "M" rated games in the United States. Laws attempting to prohibit minors from purchasing "M" rated games were established in California, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Louisiana, but all were overturned on the grounds that the establishment of such laws were in violation of a child's First Amendment rights[Citation Needed]. However, many stores have opted to not sell such games to children anyway. Of course, video game laws vary from country to country. One of the most controversial games of all time, Manhunt 2 by Rockstar Studios, was denied a rating by the ESRB until Rockstar could make the content more suitable for a mature audience.

Video game manufacturers usually exercise tight control over the games that are made available on their systems, so unusual or special-interest games are more likely to appear as PC games. Free, casual, and browser-based games are usually played on available computers, mobile phones, or PDAs.

PEGI

Pan European Game Information (PEGI) is a system that was developed to standardize the game ratings in all of Europe (not just European Union, although the majority are EU members), the current members are: all EU members, except Germany and the 10 accession states; Norway; Switzerland. Iceland is expected to join soon, as are the 10 EU accession states. For all PEGI members, they use it as their sole system, with the exception of the UK, where if a game contains certain material[67] , it must be rated by BBFC. The PEGI ratings are legally binding in Vienna and it is a criminal offence to sell a game to someone if it is rated above their age.[68]

Germany: BPjM and USK

Stricter game rating laws mean that Germany does not operate within the PEGI. Instead, they adopt their own system of certification which is required by law. The Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle (USK or Voluntary Certification of Entertainment Software) checks every game before release and assigns an age rating to it - either none (white), 6 years of age (yellow), 12 years of age (green), 16 years of age (blue) or 18 years of age (red). It is forbidden for anyone, retailers, friends or parents alike, to allow a child access to a game for which he or she is underage. If a game is particularly violent, it may be referred to the BPjM (Bundesprüfstelle für jugendgefährdende Medien - Federal Verification Office for Child-Endangering Media) who may opt to place it on the Index upon which the game may not be sold openly or advertised in the open media. Unofficially, the titles are not "banned" - adult gamers are still technically free to obtain the titles by other means, although it is still considered a felony to supply these titles to a child.

Commercial aspects

Game sales

See also: List of best-selling video games
File:Videogameretaildisplay.jpg
A typical retail display (in Geneva, Switzerland) with a large selection of games for several major consoles

The three largest producers of and markets for computer and video games (in order) are North America (US and Canada), Japan and the United Kingdom. Other significant markets include Australia, Spain, Germany, South Korea, Mexico, France and Italy.[69] Both India and China are considered emerging markets in the video game industry and sales are expected to rise significantly in the coming years. Irish are the largest per capita consumers of video games.[70]

Sales of different types of games vary widely between these markets due to local preferences. Japanese consumers tend to purchase console games over computer games, with a strong preference for games catering to local tastes. In South Korea, computer games are preferred, especially MMORPG games and real-time strategy games. There are over 20,000 Internet cafés in South Korea where computer games can be played for an hourly charge.

The NPD Group tracks computer and video game sales in the United States. It reported in 2004 that:

  • Console and portable software sales: $6.2 billion, up 8% from 2003[71]
  • Console and portable hardware and accessory sales: $3.7 billion, down 35% from 2003[71]
  • PC game sales: $1.1 billion, down 15% from 2006[72]

PC games that are digitally distributed either directly or by networks such as Steam are not tracked by the NPD, and Valve does not list sales numbers for games downloaded through their service. Unauthorized distribution is also rampant on the PC.[73]

These figures are sales in dollars, not units, Unit shipments for each category were higher than the dollar sales numbers indicate, because more software and hardware was discounted than in 2003. But with the release of the next-generation consoles in 2006, these numbers increased dramatically. The game and film industries are also becoming increasingly intertwined, with companies like Sony having significant stakes in both. A large number of summer blockbuster films spawn a companion game, often launching at the same time to share the marketing costs.

The global market for console games has seen an average of 6.9 percent compound annual growth rate and is expected to become a $34.7 billion market in 2012.Online game sales are expected to grow at a larger rate of 16.9 percent, escalating from $6.6 billion in 2008 to $14.4 billion by 2012. The largest channel for growth, however, is in mobile gaming with a growth rate of 19 percent; growing from $5.6 billion to $13.5 billion in four years.[74]

Criticism

Video games have the problem of regional lockout. In Australia, while most DVD players are sold region-free to accommodate local consumer rights legislation,[75] video game consoles are still sold fully region protected. Some effort has been made to increase awareness of the issue, specifically to Nintendo of Australia,[76] in the form of a formal report outlining the issues, published by Aaron Rex Davies.[77] The report has gone on to gain a lot of attention in the public media.[78]

Museums

There are many video game museums around the world, for example Museum of Soviet Arcade Machines in Moscow[79] or Computer Game Museum in Berlin.[80]

See also

Template:Portal Template:Wikipedia books

Notes

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  2. *Patrick Stack. "History of video game consoles" Time Magazine website 2005 /
  3. Template:US Patent
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  5. Welcome to... NIMROD!. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  6. Winter, David. A.S.Douglas' 1952 Noughts and Crosses game. PONG-Story. Retrieved on 2009-07-03.
  7. Rabin, Steve [2005-06-14] (2005). Introduction to Game Development. Massachusetts: Charles River Media. ISBN 1-58450-377-7. 
  8. Marvin Yagoda (2008). 1972 Nutting Associates Computer Space. Archived from the original on 2008-12-28.
  9. Orlando, Greg (2007-05-15). Console Portraits: A 40-Year Pictorial History of Gaming. Wired News. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  10. History of Gaming - Interactive Timeline of Game History. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
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  12. 12.0 12.1 Jason Whittaker (2004), The cyberspace handbook, Routledge, p. 122, ISBN 041516835X 
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  27. "Newsgames: Procedural Rhetoric meets Political Cartoons" by Mike Treanor and Michael Mateas
  28. TAKE ACTION games
  29. Educate to Innovate | The White House
  30. President Obama Launches "Educate to Innovate" Campaign for Excellence in Science, Technology, Engineering & Math (Stem) Education | The White House
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  32. Imagine Cup Student Competition - Support FAQ's
  33. Educational Games
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  36. [1], Giant Bomb.
  37. [2], Bethesda.
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References

Template:Refbegin

Salen, Katie; Eric Zimmerman (2005). The Game Design Reader: A Rules of Play Anthology. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19536-4. 

  • Smuts, Aaron (2005). Are Video Games Art?.
  • Blodget, Henry (April 12, 2005). How to Solve China's Piracy Problem. Slate.com. Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  • Winegarner, Beth (January 28, 2005). Game sales hit record highs. Gamespot. Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  • John Wills (2002-10-01). "Digital Dinosaurs and Artificial Life: Exploring the Culture of Nature in Computer and Video Games". Cultural Values (Journal for Cultural Research) (Routledge) 6 (4): 395–417. doi:10.1080/1362517022000047334. 
  • Williams, J. P., & Smith, J. H., eds. (2007). The players' realm: studies on the culture of video games and gaming. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. ISBN 9780786428328

Template:Refend

External links

Template:Sister project links


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