Difference between revisions of "Warren G. Harding"

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{{President
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{{Officeholder
|image=Jgftyr.jpg
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|name=Warren Harding
|seq=29
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|image=Warren Harding by Hodgson.jpg
|term_start=March 4, 1921
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|party=[[Republican]]
|term_end=August 2, 1923<ref>http://home.comcast.net/~sharonday7/Presidents/AP060301.htm</ref>
+
|party=Republican
+
|vp=Calvin Coolidge
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|previous=Woodrow Wilson
+
|next=Calvin Coolidge
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|birth_date=November 2, 1865
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|birth_place=Near Blooming Groove, Ohio
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|death_date=August 2, 1923
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|death_place=San Francisco, California
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|spouse=Florence Kling Harding
 
|spouse=Florence Kling Harding
|spouse2=
 
 
|religion=[[Baptist]]
 
|religion=[[Baptist]]
 +
|offices=
 +
{{Officeholder/president
 +
|country=the United States
 +
|number=29th
 +
|terms=March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923<ref>http://home.comcast.net/~sharonday7/Presidents/AP060301.htm</ref>
 +
|vp=[[Calvin Coolidge]]
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|preceded=[[Woodrow Wilson]]
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|former=y
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|succeeded=[[Calvin Coolidge]]
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}}
 +
{{Officeholder/senator
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|state=Ohio
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|terms=March 4, 1915 – January 13, 1921
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|preceded=Theodore Burton
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|former=y
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|succeeded=Frank Willis
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}}
 +
        {{Officeholder/governor
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|number=28th
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|state=Ohio
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|terms=January 11, 1904 – January 8, 1906
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|lieutenant=y
 +
|preceded=Harry Gordon
 +
|former=y
 +
|succeeded=Andrew Harris
 +
}}
 
}}
 
}}
 +
'''Warren Gamaliel Harding''' (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the 29th [[President of the United States of America]], elected in a [[Republican Party|Republican]] landslide in 1920, and served from 1921 until his sudden death in 1923, after the [[First World War]]. His conservative presidency was marked as a "return to normalcy", with an end to strikes and race riots, broad-scale prosperity, and peace abroad. He looked like a president, and was highly popular; after his death, numerous scandals were blamed on him, by Democrats and by his Republican successor [[Calvin Coolidge]], so that his reputation among both conservative and liberal scholars is near the bottom.
  
'''Warren G. (Gamaliel) Harding''' (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was an [[Ohio]] [[Senator]] and the 29th [[President of the United States of America]], serving from 1921 to 1923. After the [[First World War]], his presidency was marked as a "return to normalcy". Mr. Harding and his running mate [[Calvin Coolidge]] were elected by a large majority over James Cox and [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]], in large part because of the American people's rejection of the internationalist policies of former President [[Woodrow Wilson]], particularly the [[League of Nations]].  <ref>http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=atb037b09&templatename=/article/article.html</ref>
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Despite his ethical weaknesses, Harding deserves praise for winding down World War I and the animosities, hatreds, strikes, race riots, and economic depression it caused, and for his appointments of strong conservatives to the highest positions in government, especially [[Charles Evans Hughes]] to the State Department, [[Andrew Mellon]] to the Treasury Department, [[Herbert Hoover]] to the Department of Commerce, as well as [[William Howard Taft]] as Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and [[Charles G. Dawes]] as budget director (a new position)
  
Harding's undeviating Republicanism and vibrant speaking voice, plus his willingness to let the machine bosses set policies, led him far in Ohio politics. He served in the state Senate and as Lieutenant Governor, and unsuccessfully ran for Governor. He delivered the nominating address for President [[William Howard Taft|Taft]] at the 1912 Republican Convention. In 1914 he was elected to the Senate. An Ohio admirer, Harry Daugherty, began to promote Harding for the 1920 Republican nomination because, he later explained, "He looked like a President." <ref>http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/wh29.html</ref>
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==Career==
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Harding's undeviating Republicanism and vibrant speaking voice, plus his willingness to let the machine bosses set policies, led him far in Ohio politics. He served in the state Senate and as lieutenant governor, and unsuccessfully ran for governor. He delivered the nominating address for President [[William Howard Taft|Taft]] at the 1912 Republican Convention. In 1914 he was elected to the U.S. Senate. An admirer from Ohio, Harry Daugherty, began to promote Harding for the 1920 Republican nomination because, he later explained, "He looked like a President."<ref>http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/wh29.html</ref>
  
== Key Accomplishments ==
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==1920 Election==
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Harding won a sweeping landslide victory over fellow Ohioan James Cox (with [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] as the defeated nominee for Vice President). Harding succeeded by promising to end the highly emotional debates of the Wilson years, and promising realism instead of idealism in foreign policy. Irish Catholics, angry at Wilson for not promoting the independence of Ireland as he had promised, were in control of the Democratic Party in most large cities. They sat out the election allowing the GOP to sweep all the major cities.
  
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Morello (2001) shows that advertising genius [[Albert Lasker]] sold candidate Harding to the American people by using new advertising strategies and techniques, borrowed from business and from the wartime bond campaigns. Lasker used the three pillars of consumer advertising: "reason why" selling, which compared products directly—aided especially by Harding's photogenic image; testimonial advertising, using endorsements by famous people; and "preemptive advertising," which rushed to claim common characteristics as unique features of the advertised commodity. Lasker used new technology such as movies. He adjusted the front porch campaign style used by [[William McKinley]] in 1896 to shield his weak candidate from uncontrolled public scrutiny. Lasker launched a sharp, relentlessly negative campaign against the policy failures of incumbent Democrat [[Woodrow Wilson]]. The result, Morello concludes, was a triumph of modern advertising technique which propelled the Republicans back into the White House and furthered the commodification of candidates in modern electoral contests.
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==Presidency==
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=== Key Accomplishments ===
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[[File:Tomas Edison Phonograph 1877.jpg|thumb|Harding speaking into recording apparatus, 1922.]]
 
*Eliminated wartime controls  
 
*Eliminated wartime controls  
 
*Slashed taxes  
 
*Slashed taxes  
Line 34: Line 58:
 
=== Immigration Control ===
 
=== Immigration Control ===
  
Mr. Harding signed into law the [[Emergency Quota Act]]<ref>http://tucnak.fsv.cuni.cz/~calda/Documents/1920s/QuotaAct1918.html</ref> which sought to control immigration following [[World War I]] and preserve the distinctive American culture by ensuring the majority of immigrants came from the historically compatible cultures of Northern Europe. This law aimed to bring wages of hard working Americans under control by limiting immigration to 3% of the 1910 census. It was followed on by a similar act in 1924, after Mr. Harding's death.<ref>http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/faculty/hodgson/Courses/so11/Race/quota_acts.htm</ref>
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Mr. Harding signed into law the [[Emergency Quota Act]]<ref>http://tucnak.fsv.cuni.cz/~calda/Documents/1920s/QuotaAct1918.html</ref> which sought to control immigration following [[World War I]] and preserve the distinctive American culture by ensuring the majority of immigrants came from the historically compatible cultures of Northern Europe. This law aimed to bring wages of hard working Americans under control by limiting immigration to 3% of the 1910 census. It was followed on by a similar act in 1924, after Mr. Harding's death.<ref>http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/faculty/hodgson/Courses/so11/Race/quota_acts.htm</ref>
  
=== Tulsa Race Riot ===
 
 
Harding sought to calm race relations during the [[Tulsa Race Riot]] and events that followed.  His wise words helped to calm the nation especially in the Tulsa area at this time of disturbance.  His press secretary also sent a telegram to the [[National Association for the Advancement of Colored People]] offering the president's support. <ref>http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3812/is_199911/ai_n8854233</ref>
 
  
 
=== Justice ===
 
=== Justice ===
  
Harding pardoned the [[socialist]] [[Eugene Debs]] who was imprisoned during World War I for opposing the war. Despite their political differences, Harding was cordial to him and met with him in the [[White House]], "I have heard so damned much about you, Mr Debs, that I am very glad to meet you personally."<ref>http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/vodebs.htm</ref>
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Harding pardoned the [[socialist]] [[Eugene Debs]], who was imprisoned in 1918 for inciting resistance to the draft during World War I. Despite their political differences, Harding was cordial to him and met with him in the [[White House]], "I have heard so damned much about you, Mr. Debs, that I am very glad to meet you personally."<ref>http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/vodebs.htm</ref>
  
Harding defined the [[Supreme Court]] for two decades, appointing four solidly [[conservative]] justices. Harding's appointments included former President [[William Howard Taft]] to be Chief Justice (1921), [[George Sutherland]] (1922), [[Pierce Butler]] (1923) and [[Edward Terry Sanford]] (1923). Two of these justices (Taft and Sanford) served until 1930. The other two (Sutherland and Butler) served until the late 1930s and stood up to the [[liberal]] policies of President [[Franklin Delano Roosevelt]].
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Harding defined the [[Supreme Court]] for two decades, appointing four solidly conservative justices. Harding's appointments included former President [[William Howard Taft]] to be Chief Justice (1921), [[George Sutherland]] (1922), [[Pierce Butler]] (1923) and [[Edward Terry Sanford]] (1923). Two of these justices (Taft and Sanford) served until 1930. The other two (Sutherland and Butler) served until the late 1930s and stood up to the liberal policies of President [[Franklin Delano Roosevelt]].
 
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In particular, Sutherland and Butler were the core of the conservative [[Four Horsemen]] who invalidated key aspects of the [[New Deal]] and drove President Roosevelt to propose his [[court-packing scheme]], which caused him to lose his credibility with [[Congress]] and the public.
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In selecting Pierce for the bench, Harding broke with tradition by picking a conservative Democrat even though Harding was a Republican.
 
In selecting Pierce for the bench, Harding broke with tradition by picking a conservative Democrat even though Harding was a Republican.
  
=== Fiscal ===
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Harding sought to calm race relations during the 1921 [[Tulsa Race Riot]].<ref>see [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3812/is_199911/ai_n8854233 online]</ref>
  
The Bureau of the Budget was created during Harding's tenure.  Harding attempted to restrain the federal budget and reduce expenses on wartime armaments. This stimulated the private economy and lead to a period of prosperity experienced in the United States during the 1920s known as the ''Roaring 20s''.  Shortly after taking office, Harding also successfully passed promotion of US Agriculture, repeal of the wartime "excess profits" tax and reduction of rail rates.<ref>http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0193620-00</ref>  Due in part to Mr. Harding's conservative economic policies, the US experienced a period of profound economic growth in the early 1920s that continued through most of the decade.
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=== Economics ===
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Harding cut federal spending, lowered taxes, and began paying off the wartime national debt. He restored prosperity by 1921, opening a decade of rapid growth known as the ''Roaring 20s''.  
  
=== Military === 
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Harding created the Bureau of the Budget to allow the White House to monitor all federal spending. Shortly after taking office, Harding also successfully passed promotion of US Agriculture, repeal of the wartime "excess profits" tax and reduction of rail rates.
  
Harding presided over modernization of the U.S. forces including the addition of the experimental [[aircraft carrier]] Langley and the T-2 [[submarine]], as well as the creation of a merchant marine which was critical in early US involvement in WWII via the [[Lend-Lease Act]].<ref>http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0193620-00</ref>
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Rader (1971) challenges the view that the tax policies of Harding's Treasury Secretary [[Andrew Mellon]] reversed the progressive policies of the Wilson years and allowed the wealthy to become wealthier. A congressional coalition of Democrats and insurgent Republicans shared responsibilities with Mellon for the tax legislation of that period, which was written by civil servants in the Treasury. The new rates were very low for most people, and yet were high enough to retire the war debt and generate a budget surplus. The net effect of this legislation, Rader argues, was to "impose more progressivity on the federal income tax structure than has existed in any other peace-time period of American history."
  
=== Diplomatic ===
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Winters (1990) examines Harding's farm policies and those of Henry Cantwell Wallace, the Secretary of Agriculture (1921–24). Wallace's handling of the postwar collapse of land values and the weakening of the farm economy was inconsistent and largely ineffective because of conflicting views of the value of agriculture in society. On one hand, he saw farming as a business that needed to improve its efficiency; on the other hand, he saw farmers as "yeoman," a special group, embodying republican virtues of independence, which deserved to be subsidized. Programs based on one view often negated those based on the other. Hoover meanwhile argued that the long-term solution lay in modernizing agricultural machinery, seeds, animal breeding and, especially, business practices.
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===Foreign and military affairs===
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Grant (1995) shows that during World War I, the U.S. loaned over $4 billion to Britain. This British war debt was not part of the agenda of the Paris Peace Conference or the 1921 settlement of the Reparation Commission. In response to an appeal by President Harding in his 1921 state of the union address, Congress passed the World War Foreign Debt Commission Act in 1922. The commission was mandated to determine each European nation's debt and negotiate payment over a period up to 25 years. In 1923 the British government agreed to pay $4.6 billion, with an initial payment of $4.1 million, the remainder to be paid over 62 years at 3% interest for the first ten years, 3.5% thereafter. Britain was able to pay because it received large war reparations annually from Germany. Germany in turn borrowed the money from the U.S. During the [[Great Depression]] President [[Herbert Hoover]] suspended all payments, and they were never resumed.
  
Harding avoided entangling alliances that lead to war and defended US interests.  Mr. Harding outlined his policy in his inaugural address: "...every commitment must be made in the exercise of our national sovereignty. Since freedom impelled, and independence inspired, and nationality exalted, a world supergovernment is contrary to everything we cherish and can have no sanction by our Republic. This is not selfishness, it is sanctity. It is not aloofness, it is security. It is not suspicion of others, it is patriotic adherence to the things which made us what we are." <ref>http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/print.php?pid=25833</ref> 
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Irwin (2003) shows that the Harding Navy department oversaw or initiated the development of fleets of aircraft carriers, the strengthening of submarine forces and naval aviation, and the Marine Corps' adoption of amphibious assault strategies, all of which contributed significantly to US naval success in World War II.
  
Supported by his conservative colleagues in congress as well as the American people, Harding succeeded at continuing to keep the United States out of the League of Nations.  <ref>http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=atb037b09&templatename=/article/article.html</ref>
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=== Labor and economic issues ===
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Labor unions were very weak in the Harding years. Under [[Andrew Mellon]] the Treasury systematically reduced federal income taxes, which had soared during the war, and simultaneously paid off most of the wartime debt. Harding today has come under criticism by both liberal economists and free trade advocates for [[protectionist]] policies—high tariffs.
  
Harding's administration was successful in negotiating the Washington Naval Treaty, which limited battleships.
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==Scandals==
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=== Teapot Dome Scandal===
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{{main|Teapot Dome Scandal}}
  
=== Labor issues ===
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Harding appointed a close friend and drinking partner, Senator Albert B. Fall of New Mexico, as his Secretary of the Interior. Fall had charge of valuable oil lands known as "Teapot Dome" and Elk Hills that were meant for the long-term use of the Navy.  
Mr. Harding's administration helped bring about the 40-hour work week which restricted the economic output of the US and restricted small, medium and large businesses alike.
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=== Teapot Dome incident ===
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Fall secretly leased oil rights to an old friend, who paid bribes to Fall of over $400,000. Fall had entangled other businessmen and politicians into his wrongdoing, which led to other indictments of both Democrats and Republicans, and which continued into the Coolidge administration.  
Mr. Harding, in a quest to help re-privatize land taken from the American people and industry by their own government, appointed Senator Albert B. Fall of New Mexico as his Secretary of the Interior.  Falls misappropriated this effort for his own gain in an abuse of the public trust.  Democrats in congress, lead by Senator [[Thomas J. Walsh]] and Republican Senator [[Robert M. LaFollette]] (a former progressive), began an investigation with the support of the [[conservationist]] interests that backed them.  They found that Fall had used his privatization efforts to benefit himself to the tune of over $400,000.  Mr. Fall also had entangled other businessmen and politicians into his wrongdoing which lead to other indictments of both Democrats and Republicans and continued into the Coolidge administration. Mr. Harding did not know about these dealings until shortly before his death. In later years the petroleum reserves would prove to be less valuable than initially overestimated by the government. <ref>http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0380900-00</ref>
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==="The President's Daughter"===
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Harding did not know about these dealings until shortly before his death. The scandal was discovered after Harding's death by Harding's enemies in Congress in late 1923.
In 1928, Nan Britton published a book entitled "The President's Daughter" claiming that she and Harding had been lovers and had conceived a child in 1919. According to her, the affair continued for six years, and the lovers' meeting-places included a coat closet in the executive offices of the White House.<ref name=taylor>Allen, Frederick Lewis (1931), ''Only Yesterday,'' ch. VI, "Harding and the Scandals"</ref>
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== Death ==
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===Interpretation===
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Fine (1990) explains why Harding's reputation took a nosedive, as the new president Calvin Coolidge blamed the troubles of the day on his dead predecessor. "Reputational entrepreneurs" attempt to control the memory of historical figures through motivation, narrative facility, and institutional placement, says Fine. Men remembered as great heroes or great villains or evil are explained by the Durkheimian theory of consensus and cohesion, but this does not explain the memory of the "incompetent" like Harding. Reputational politics is an arena in which forces compete to control memory. Reputations are grounded in a social construction of character, subsequently generalized to policy and the character of the society. In the case of Harding, the president rated lowest by historians and the public, political opponents set the agenda, while potential supporters did not defend him, given their political interests, structural positions, and a lack of credible narrative.
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== Strange Death ==
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Harding appeared to be in good health until his collapse and death. The surprise soon gave rise to a savage case of character assassination by insinuations of murder, all thoroughly unfounded.<ref>Ferrell, Robert H. (1996), The Strange Deaths of President Harding, University of Missouri Press p.31</ref>
  
The death of President Warren Harding would eventually give rise to a savage case of liberal character assassination. Through allegations made by a political novelist, an alleged adulterous lover of  Warren Harding’s, and a criminal who would die in [[Leavenworth]] prison for accepting money in exchange for returning the kidnapped [[Lindbergh baby]], liberal historian Frederick Lewis Allen would plant firmly in the public mind the notions that Harding was murdered by his wife, out of jealousy and fear of  political scandal.<ref>Ferrell, Robert H. (1996), The Strange Deaths of President Harding, University of Missouri Press  p.31</ref>
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Shaken by the talk of corruption among the friends he had appointed to office, he began a tour on June 20, 1923 of the West and Alaska. Although suffering from high blood pressure and an enlarged heart, he seemed to enjoy himself and the food — especially the seafood in Alaska. On his return journey, he became ill with food poisoning. The presidential train rushed to [[San Francisco]], where his condition worsened. He developed [[pneumonia]], and complicated by his heart ailment, died suddenly on August 23. He suffered a [[heart attack]] in the evening while his wife was reading to him. He died quietly and instantaneously.
  
Shaken by the talk of corruption among the friends he had appointed to office, Warren and Florence Harding began a tour on June 20, 1923 of the West and Alaska. He hoped to get out and meet people, to shake hands and explain his policies. Although suffering from high blood pressure and an enlarged heart, he seemed to enjoy himself and the food -- especially the seafood in Alaska. On his return journey, he became ill with what was then attributed to food poisoning. The Presidential train rushed to [[San Francisco]], where his condition worsened. He developed [[pneumonia]], and complicated by his heart ailment, died suddenly on August 23, he suffered a [[heart attack]] in the evening, while his wife was reading to him. He died quietly and instantaneously.
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After Harding’s death, the reputation of his administration was ruined by revelations of scandal, primarily the Teapot Dome scandal and a scandal in the [[Veteran’s Administration]] which was particularly distasteful in that post World War I period. The scandals were pushed forward by congressional hearings, but were greeted by the public with what historian Frederick Lewis Allen concedes was brief resentment at both scandals and scandalmongers, followed by apathy.<ref>see [http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/ALLEN/ch6.html Allen, ''Only Yesterday'']</ref>
  
After Harding’s death, the reputation of his administration was tarnished by revelations of scandal, primarily the Teapot Dome scandal (mentioned above) and a scandal in the [[Veteran’s Administration]] which was particularly distasteful in that post World War I period. The scandals were pushed forward by congressional hearings, but were greeted by the public with what liberal historian Frederick Lewis Allen concedes was brief resentment at both scandals and scandalmongers, followed by apathy.<ref>http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/ALLEN/ch6.html</ref>
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In 1926, author [[Samuel Hopkins Adams]] published the novel “Revelry”, with characters which appeared to be thinly disguised members of the Harding administration. The president in the novel, “Willis Markham” poisons himself by accident, but does not take an available antidote, because he realizes that his death “will wipe out the whole score” of soon to be revealed scandals involving oil and the Veteran’s Administration. The novel was later dramatized .<ref>Ferrell, ''The Strange Deaths of President Harding,'' p.33</ref>  
  
In 1926, author [[Samuel Hopkins Adams]]  published the novel “Revelry”, with characters which appeared to be thinly disguised members of the Harding administration. The president in the novel, “Willis Markham” poisons himself by accident, but does not take an available antidote, because he realizes that his death “will wipe out the whole score” of soon to be revealed scandals involving oil and the Veteran’s Administration. The novel was later dramatized .<ref>Ferrell, Robert H. (1996), The Strange Deaths of President Harding, University of Missouri Press  p.33</ref>.  Adams was a successful writer, and would go on to write the story which would become Frank Capra’s film “It Happened One Night”, and to share screenwriting credits with President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on an unrelated film, “The President’s Mystery” in 1936. His fictional account of Harding’s death brought the issue of poison firmly into the public mind.
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In 1928, Nan Britton published a book entitled "The President's Daughter" claiming that she and Harding had been lovers and had conceived a child in 1919. According to her, the affair continued for six years, and the lovers' meeting places included a coat closet in the executive offices of the White House. Historians generally agree she was indeed his lover.
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In 1930, Gaston B. Means, who served briefly as an FBI agent during the Harding administration, published ''The Strange Death of President Harding, by Gaston B. Means as told to May Dixon Thacker'', in which he alleged that Mrs. Harding murdered her husband out of jealousy of Ms. Britton, and out of fear of the soon-to-be-revealed Teapot Dome and Veteran’s Administration scandals. Means, who had a long criminal record, provided no evidence and historians dismiss his claims.  
  
The publication of Nan Britton’s book "The President's Daughter" in 1928 portrayed the late President as a womanizer, which historians now unanimously agree was true, even if some disputes remain regarding the degree to which Harding was involved with Ms. Britton herself, and as to the paternity of her child.
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No evidence has ever been found to suggest that Harding had been poisoned by anyone, let alone his wife. The suggestion that she had a motivation to kill the president because of Florence Harding’s jealousy over an affair with Nan Britton makes little sense since she had long known her husband was a womanizer. The suggestion that she would murder the president to somehow deflect scandals that would be met by public apathy is similarly unlikely. Yet despite the source of these charges, their utter lack of factual support, and the unlikeliness of the alleged motives of the First Lady, Frederick Lewis Allen repeated these charges in his very successful book ''Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920s'' in 1931. Coming as it did in the deepest part of the [[Great Depression]], Allen’s book, which depicted all of the Republican presidents of the 1920s as bumbling incompetents, was eagerly accepted by a public looking for someone to blame.  
 
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In 1930, [[Gaston B. Means]], a lifelong criminal who had nonetheless managed to get himself hired as an FBI agent for a brief time during the Harding administration, published “The Strange Death of President Harding, by Gaston B. Means as told to May Dixon Thacker", in which he alleged that Mrs. Harding murdered her husband out of jealousy of Ms. Britton, and out of fear of the soon to be revealed Teapot Dome and Veteran’s Administration scandals. Means was later described by J. Edgar Hoover, who knew Means personally, as “the greatest faker of all time” and “the most amazing figure in contemporary criminal history”. Means, who had been previously acquitted of murder and had been involved in a number of other questionable situations such as possible insurance fraud, was convicted of bootlegging and mail fraud in 1925. While in prison he met May Dixon Thacker, who was interested in the rehabilitation of prisoners, and convinced her that he had been unjustly convicted. He convinced her to help him write a tell-all book about how he was railroaded, but as May Dixon Thacker herself wrote in a subsequent magazine article, he failed to provide her with any of the documentation of his account that he had promised. In the end, she made most of it up.<ref> Ferrell, Robert H. (1996), The Strange Deaths of President Harding, University of Missouri Press  pp. 42-43</ref> Means would go on to further criminal enterprise, and would finally be convicted of swindling Florence Harding’s close friend [[Evalyn Walsh McLean]] of  over $100,000.00 which he was to use to ransom the kidnapped Lindbergh baby. Means was then sent to Leavenworth, where he died.
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No forensic evidence has ever been found to suggest that Warren G. Harding had been poisoned by any person, let alone his wife. The suggestion that she had a motivation to kill the president because of Florence Harding’s jealousy over an affair with Nan Britton makes little sense in light of the nearly unanimous consensus of modern historians that Harding had been a womanizer for many years prior to his election to the Presidency, and his wife had had knowledge of at least some of those affairs. The suggestion that she would murder the President to somehow deflect scandals that would be met by public apathy is similarly unlikely. Yet despite the source of these charges, their utter lack of factual support, and the unlikeliness of the alleged motives of the First Lady, Frederick Lewis Allen would repeat these charges in his very successful book “Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920s” in 1931. Coming as it did in the deepest part of the [[Great Depression]], Allen’s book, which depicted all of the Republican presidents of the 1920s as bumbling incompetents, was eagerly accepted by a public looking for someone to blame. Allen’s history remains in print, and continues to provide misinformation quoted in poorly researched histories, articles and encyclopedias down to the present day.
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The impact of Allen’s attack on Harding’s character is astounding in its depth. For decades afterward, Harding was routinely rated as the worst president in United States history in polls of professional historians, and the portrayal of Harding as a clueless fool who died one way or another because of political scandals has been accepted, even by many conservatives, as gospel. The success of Allen in damaging the collective memory of Republican presidents, Harding among them, continues to effect the public’s perception of both parties and their relative competence.
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== Criticism ==
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Harding today has come under criticism by both liberal economists and free trade advocates for [[protectionist]] policies--restrictions on [[free trade]]--which resulted in the collapse of international trade and is widely considered a cause of the worldwide [[Great Depression]] that occurred later in the decade and throughout the 1930s. Most economic historians today, however, follow liberal economist John Kenneth Galbraith’s view that the Great Depression was primarily the result of a bank collapse due to a lack of effective regulation of the loan and credit market<ref>Galbraith, John Kenneth (1954) The Great Crash 1929, Houghton Mifflin</ref> Those economists who believe that high [[tariff]]s were an important cause of the Depression often note that the tariff made it harder for European nations to pay their war debts.
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== Trivia ==
 
== Trivia ==
 
 
* Out of all of the Presidents of the U.S. he had the largest feet.
 
* Out of all of the Presidents of the U.S. he had the largest feet.
 
* He was the first president to visit Alaska.
 
* He was the first president to visit Alaska.
* He was the first President to speak on the radio and the first to have a radio in the White House.
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* He was the first president to speak on the radio, and the first to have a radio in the White House.
* Harding and [[John F. Kennedy]] are the only two sitting United States Senators elected to the Presidency.
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* Harding, [[John F. Kennedy]] and [[Barack Obama]] are the only three sitting United States Senators elected to the presidency.
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==Bibliography==
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* Anthony, Carl S. ''Florence Harding: The First Lady, the Jazz Age, and the Death of America's Most Scandalous President.'' (1998)
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* Downes Randolph C. ''The Rise of Warren Gamaliel Harding, 1865-1920.'' (1970), standard biograpohy to 1920
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* Fine, Gary Alan. "Reputational Entrepreneurs and the Memory of Incompetence: Melting Supporters, Partisan Warriors, and Images of President Harding." ''American Journal of Sociology'' 1996 101(5): 1159-1193. Issn: 0002-9602 Fulltext: in Jstor and Ebsco
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* Grant, Philip A., Jr. "President Warren G. Harding and the British War Debt Question, 1921-1923." ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'' 1995 25(3): 479-487. Issn: 0360-4918
 +
* Grieb, Kenneth J. ''The Latin American Policy of Warren G. Harding'' [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=2970223 1976 online]
 +
* Irwin, Manley R. "Harding Policies Foster Future Naval Success." ''Naval History'' 2003 17(4): 28-31. Issn: 1042-1920 Fulltext: at Ebsco
 +
* Malin, James C. ''The United States after the World War'' [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5260560 1930. online] detailed analysis of foreign and economic policies by a conservative historian
 +
* Morello, John A. ''Selling the President, 1920: Albert D. Lasker, Advertising, and the Election of Warren G. Harding.'' Praeger, 2001. [http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=201811039533562 online review]
 +
* Murray, Robert K. ''The Harding Era 1921-1923: Warren G. Harding and his Administration.'' (1969), the standard academic study; by a conservative historian
 +
* Payne, Phillip. "Instant History and the Legacy of Scandal: the Tangled Memory of Warren G. Harding, Richard Nixon, and William Jefferson Clinton." ''Prospects'' 2003 28: 597-625. Issn: 0361-2333
 +
* Pietrusza, David ''1920: The Year of the Six Presidents'' New York: Carroll & Graf, 2007.
 +
* Rader, Benjamin G. "Federal Taxation in the 1920s: a Re-examination." ''Historian'' 1971 33(3): 415-435. Issn: 0018-2370
 +
* Russell, Francis. ''The Shadow of Blooming Grove'' , 1968. biography
 +
* Sinclair, Andrew. ''The Available Man: The Life behind the Masks of Warren Gamaliel Harding'' (1965) [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8550753 online full-scale biography]
 +
* Winters, Donald L. "Ambiguity and Agricultural Policy: Henry Cantwell Wallace as Secretary of Agriculture." ''Agricultural History'' 1990 64(2): 191-198. Issn: 0002-1482
 +
 
 +
===Primary sources===
 +
* Warren G. Harding, ''Our Common Country: Mutual Good Will in America.'' 2003; essays written in late 1920; [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109794562 online edition]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
  
 +
==External links==
 +
* [https://librivox.org/author/11297 Works by Warren Harding - text and free audio] - [[LibriVox]]
  
 
{{USPresidents}}
 
{{USPresidents}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Harding, Warren G.}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Harding, Warren G.}}
  
[[Category:Republican Party]]
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[[Category:Republicans]]
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[[Category:United States History]]
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[[Category:1920s]]
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[[Category:Conservatives]]
 +
[[Category:Corruption]]

Latest revision as of 17:26, 14 October 2016

Warren Harding
Warren Harding by Hodgson.jpg
29th President of the United States
From: March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923[1]
Vice President Calvin Coolidge
Predecessor Woodrow Wilson
Successor Calvin Coolidge
Former U.S. Senator from Ohio
From: March 4, 1915 – January 13, 1921
Predecessor Theodore Burton
Successor Frank Willis
28th Lieutenant Governor of Ohio
From: January 11, 1904 – January 8, 1906
Predecessor Harry Gordon
Successor Andrew Harris
Information
Party Republican
Spouse(s) Florence Kling Harding
Religion Baptist

Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the 29th President of the United States of America, elected in a Republican landslide in 1920, and served from 1921 until his sudden death in 1923, after the First World War. His conservative presidency was marked as a "return to normalcy", with an end to strikes and race riots, broad-scale prosperity, and peace abroad. He looked like a president, and was highly popular; after his death, numerous scandals were blamed on him, by Democrats and by his Republican successor Calvin Coolidge, so that his reputation among both conservative and liberal scholars is near the bottom.

Despite his ethical weaknesses, Harding deserves praise for winding down World War I and the animosities, hatreds, strikes, race riots, and economic depression it caused, and for his appointments of strong conservatives to the highest positions in government, especially Charles Evans Hughes to the State Department, Andrew Mellon to the Treasury Department, Herbert Hoover to the Department of Commerce, as well as William Howard Taft as Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and Charles G. Dawes as budget director (a new position)

Career

Harding's undeviating Republicanism and vibrant speaking voice, plus his willingness to let the machine bosses set policies, led him far in Ohio politics. He served in the state Senate and as lieutenant governor, and unsuccessfully ran for governor. He delivered the nominating address for President Taft at the 1912 Republican Convention. In 1914 he was elected to the U.S. Senate. An admirer from Ohio, Harry Daugherty, began to promote Harding for the 1920 Republican nomination because, he later explained, "He looked like a President."[2]

1920 Election

Harding won a sweeping landslide victory over fellow Ohioan James Cox (with Franklin D. Roosevelt as the defeated nominee for Vice President). Harding succeeded by promising to end the highly emotional debates of the Wilson years, and promising realism instead of idealism in foreign policy. Irish Catholics, angry at Wilson for not promoting the independence of Ireland as he had promised, were in control of the Democratic Party in most large cities. They sat out the election allowing the GOP to sweep all the major cities.

Morello (2001) shows that advertising genius Albert Lasker sold candidate Harding to the American people by using new advertising strategies and techniques, borrowed from business and from the wartime bond campaigns. Lasker used the three pillars of consumer advertising: "reason why" selling, which compared products directly—aided especially by Harding's photogenic image; testimonial advertising, using endorsements by famous people; and "preemptive advertising," which rushed to claim common characteristics as unique features of the advertised commodity. Lasker used new technology such as movies. He adjusted the front porch campaign style used by William McKinley in 1896 to shield his weak candidate from uncontrolled public scrutiny. Lasker launched a sharp, relentlessly negative campaign against the policy failures of incumbent Democrat Woodrow Wilson. The result, Morello concludes, was a triumph of modern advertising technique which propelled the Republicans back into the White House and furthered the commodification of candidates in modern electoral contests.

Presidency

Key Accomplishments

Harding speaking into recording apparatus, 1922.
  • Eliminated wartime controls
  • Slashed taxes
  • Established a Federal budget system,
  • Restored the high protective tariff
  • Imposed tight limitations upon immigration
  • Ended the Depression of 1921
  • Launched the Roaring Twenties
  • Fought the KKK.

Immigration Control

Mr. Harding signed into law the Emergency Quota Act[3] which sought to control immigration following World War I and preserve the distinctive American culture by ensuring the majority of immigrants came from the historically compatible cultures of Northern Europe. This law aimed to bring wages of hard working Americans under control by limiting immigration to 3% of the 1910 census. It was followed on by a similar act in 1924, after Mr. Harding's death.[4]


Justice

Harding pardoned the socialist Eugene Debs, who was imprisoned in 1918 for inciting resistance to the draft during World War I. Despite their political differences, Harding was cordial to him and met with him in the White House, "I have heard so damned much about you, Mr. Debs, that I am very glad to meet you personally."[5]

Harding defined the Supreme Court for two decades, appointing four solidly conservative justices. Harding's appointments included former President William Howard Taft to be Chief Justice (1921), George Sutherland (1922), Pierce Butler (1923) and Edward Terry Sanford (1923). Two of these justices (Taft and Sanford) served until 1930. The other two (Sutherland and Butler) served until the late 1930s and stood up to the liberal policies of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

In selecting Pierce for the bench, Harding broke with tradition by picking a conservative Democrat even though Harding was a Republican.

Harding sought to calm race relations during the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot.[6]

Economics

Harding cut federal spending, lowered taxes, and began paying off the wartime national debt. He restored prosperity by 1921, opening a decade of rapid growth known as the Roaring 20s.

Harding created the Bureau of the Budget to allow the White House to monitor all federal spending. Shortly after taking office, Harding also successfully passed promotion of US Agriculture, repeal of the wartime "excess profits" tax and reduction of rail rates.

Rader (1971) challenges the view that the tax policies of Harding's Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon reversed the progressive policies of the Wilson years and allowed the wealthy to become wealthier. A congressional coalition of Democrats and insurgent Republicans shared responsibilities with Mellon for the tax legislation of that period, which was written by civil servants in the Treasury. The new rates were very low for most people, and yet were high enough to retire the war debt and generate a budget surplus. The net effect of this legislation, Rader argues, was to "impose more progressivity on the federal income tax structure than has existed in any other peace-time period of American history."

Winters (1990) examines Harding's farm policies and those of Henry Cantwell Wallace, the Secretary of Agriculture (1921–24). Wallace's handling of the postwar collapse of land values and the weakening of the farm economy was inconsistent and largely ineffective because of conflicting views of the value of agriculture in society. On one hand, he saw farming as a business that needed to improve its efficiency; on the other hand, he saw farmers as "yeoman," a special group, embodying republican virtues of independence, which deserved to be subsidized. Programs based on one view often negated those based on the other. Hoover meanwhile argued that the long-term solution lay in modernizing agricultural machinery, seeds, animal breeding and, especially, business practices.

Foreign and military affairs

Grant (1995) shows that during World War I, the U.S. loaned over $4 billion to Britain. This British war debt was not part of the agenda of the Paris Peace Conference or the 1921 settlement of the Reparation Commission. In response to an appeal by President Harding in his 1921 state of the union address, Congress passed the World War Foreign Debt Commission Act in 1922. The commission was mandated to determine each European nation's debt and negotiate payment over a period up to 25 years. In 1923 the British government agreed to pay $4.6 billion, with an initial payment of $4.1 million, the remainder to be paid over 62 years at 3% interest for the first ten years, 3.5% thereafter. Britain was able to pay because it received large war reparations annually from Germany. Germany in turn borrowed the money from the U.S. During the Great Depression President Herbert Hoover suspended all payments, and they were never resumed.

Irwin (2003) shows that the Harding Navy department oversaw or initiated the development of fleets of aircraft carriers, the strengthening of submarine forces and naval aviation, and the Marine Corps' adoption of amphibious assault strategies, all of which contributed significantly to US naval success in World War II.

Labor and economic issues

Labor unions were very weak in the Harding years. Under Andrew Mellon the Treasury systematically reduced federal income taxes, which had soared during the war, and simultaneously paid off most of the wartime debt. Harding today has come under criticism by both liberal economists and free trade advocates for protectionist policies—high tariffs.

Scandals

Teapot Dome Scandal

For a more detailed treatment, see Teapot Dome Scandal.

Harding appointed a close friend and drinking partner, Senator Albert B. Fall of New Mexico, as his Secretary of the Interior. Fall had charge of valuable oil lands known as "Teapot Dome" and Elk Hills that were meant for the long-term use of the Navy.

Fall secretly leased oil rights to an old friend, who paid bribes to Fall of over $400,000. Fall had entangled other businessmen and politicians into his wrongdoing, which led to other indictments of both Democrats and Republicans, and which continued into the Coolidge administration.

Harding did not know about these dealings until shortly before his death. The scandal was discovered after Harding's death by Harding's enemies in Congress in late 1923.

Interpretation

Fine (1990) explains why Harding's reputation took a nosedive, as the new president Calvin Coolidge blamed the troubles of the day on his dead predecessor. "Reputational entrepreneurs" attempt to control the memory of historical figures through motivation, narrative facility, and institutional placement, says Fine. Men remembered as great heroes or great villains or evil are explained by the Durkheimian theory of consensus and cohesion, but this does not explain the memory of the "incompetent" like Harding. Reputational politics is an arena in which forces compete to control memory. Reputations are grounded in a social construction of character, subsequently generalized to policy and the character of the society. In the case of Harding, the president rated lowest by historians and the public, political opponents set the agenda, while potential supporters did not defend him, given their political interests, structural positions, and a lack of credible narrative.

Strange Death

Harding appeared to be in good health until his collapse and death. The surprise soon gave rise to a savage case of character assassination by insinuations of murder, all thoroughly unfounded.[7]

Shaken by the talk of corruption among the friends he had appointed to office, he began a tour on June 20, 1923 of the West and Alaska. Although suffering from high blood pressure and an enlarged heart, he seemed to enjoy himself and the food — especially the seafood in Alaska. On his return journey, he became ill with food poisoning. The presidential train rushed to San Francisco, where his condition worsened. He developed pneumonia, and complicated by his heart ailment, died suddenly on August 23. He suffered a heart attack in the evening while his wife was reading to him. He died quietly and instantaneously.

After Harding’s death, the reputation of his administration was ruined by revelations of scandal, primarily the Teapot Dome scandal and a scandal in the Veteran’s Administration which was particularly distasteful in that post World War I period. The scandals were pushed forward by congressional hearings, but were greeted by the public with what historian Frederick Lewis Allen concedes was brief resentment at both scandals and scandalmongers, followed by apathy.[8]

In 1926, author Samuel Hopkins Adams published the novel “Revelry”, with characters which appeared to be thinly disguised members of the Harding administration. The president in the novel, “Willis Markham” poisons himself by accident, but does not take an available antidote, because he realizes that his death “will wipe out the whole score” of soon to be revealed scandals involving oil and the Veteran’s Administration. The novel was later dramatized .[9]

In 1928, Nan Britton published a book entitled "The President's Daughter" claiming that she and Harding had been lovers and had conceived a child in 1919. According to her, the affair continued for six years, and the lovers' meeting places included a coat closet in the executive offices of the White House. Historians generally agree she was indeed his lover.

In 1930, Gaston B. Means, who served briefly as an FBI agent during the Harding administration, published The Strange Death of President Harding, by Gaston B. Means as told to May Dixon Thacker, in which he alleged that Mrs. Harding murdered her husband out of jealousy of Ms. Britton, and out of fear of the soon-to-be-revealed Teapot Dome and Veteran’s Administration scandals. Means, who had a long criminal record, provided no evidence and historians dismiss his claims.

No evidence has ever been found to suggest that Harding had been poisoned by anyone, let alone his wife. The suggestion that she had a motivation to kill the president because of Florence Harding’s jealousy over an affair with Nan Britton makes little sense since she had long known her husband was a womanizer. The suggestion that she would murder the president to somehow deflect scandals that would be met by public apathy is similarly unlikely. Yet despite the source of these charges, their utter lack of factual support, and the unlikeliness of the alleged motives of the First Lady, Frederick Lewis Allen repeated these charges in his very successful book Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920s in 1931. Coming as it did in the deepest part of the Great Depression, Allen’s book, which depicted all of the Republican presidents of the 1920s as bumbling incompetents, was eagerly accepted by a public looking for someone to blame.

Trivia

  • Out of all of the Presidents of the U.S. he had the largest feet.
  • He was the first president to visit Alaska.
  • He was the first president to speak on the radio, and the first to have a radio in the White House.
  • Harding, John F. Kennedy and Barack Obama are the only three sitting United States Senators elected to the presidency.

Bibliography

  • Anthony, Carl S. Florence Harding: The First Lady, the Jazz Age, and the Death of America's Most Scandalous President. (1998)
  • Downes Randolph C. The Rise of Warren Gamaliel Harding, 1865-1920. (1970), standard biograpohy to 1920
  • Fine, Gary Alan. "Reputational Entrepreneurs and the Memory of Incompetence: Melting Supporters, Partisan Warriors, and Images of President Harding." American Journal of Sociology 1996 101(5): 1159-1193. Issn: 0002-9602 Fulltext: in Jstor and Ebsco
  • Grant, Philip A., Jr. "President Warren G. Harding and the British War Debt Question, 1921-1923." Presidential Studies Quarterly 1995 25(3): 479-487. Issn: 0360-4918
  • Grieb, Kenneth J. The Latin American Policy of Warren G. Harding 1976 online
  • Irwin, Manley R. "Harding Policies Foster Future Naval Success." Naval History 2003 17(4): 28-31. Issn: 1042-1920 Fulltext: at Ebsco
  • Malin, James C. The United States after the World War 1930. online detailed analysis of foreign and economic policies by a conservative historian
  • Morello, John A. Selling the President, 1920: Albert D. Lasker, Advertising, and the Election of Warren G. Harding. Praeger, 2001. online review
  • Murray, Robert K. The Harding Era 1921-1923: Warren G. Harding and his Administration. (1969), the standard academic study; by a conservative historian
  • Payne, Phillip. "Instant History and the Legacy of Scandal: the Tangled Memory of Warren G. Harding, Richard Nixon, and William Jefferson Clinton." Prospects 2003 28: 597-625. Issn: 0361-2333
  • Pietrusza, David 1920: The Year of the Six Presidents New York: Carroll & Graf, 2007.
  • Rader, Benjamin G. "Federal Taxation in the 1920s: a Re-examination." Historian 1971 33(3): 415-435. Issn: 0018-2370
  • Russell, Francis. The Shadow of Blooming Grove , 1968. biography
  • Sinclair, Andrew. The Available Man: The Life behind the Masks of Warren Gamaliel Harding (1965) online full-scale biography
  • Winters, Donald L. "Ambiguity and Agricultural Policy: Henry Cantwell Wallace as Secretary of Agriculture." Agricultural History 1990 64(2): 191-198. Issn: 0002-1482

Primary sources

  • Warren G. Harding, Our Common Country: Mutual Good Will in America. 2003; essays written in late 1920; online edition

References

  1. http://home.comcast.net/~sharonday7/Presidents/AP060301.htm
  2. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/wh29.html
  3. http://tucnak.fsv.cuni.cz/~calda/Documents/1920s/QuotaAct1918.html
  4. http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/faculty/hodgson/Courses/so11/Race/quota_acts.htm
  5. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/vodebs.htm
  6. see online
  7. Ferrell, Robert H. (1996), The Strange Deaths of President Harding, University of Missouri Press p.31
  8. see Allen, Only Yesterday
  9. Ferrell, The Strange Deaths of President Harding, p.33

External links