Difference between revisions of "Wenatchee Larkspur"

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{{Taxonomy
 
{{Taxonomy
|name=Wenatchee larkspur
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|name=Wenatchee Larkspur
 
|image=Wenatchee-Larkspur.jpg
 
|image=Wenatchee-Larkspur.jpg
|caption=Wenatchee larkspur, located along Camas Creek Road in eastern [[Washington]]
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|caption=Wenatchee larkspur: located along Camas Creek Road in Wenatchee, [[Washington]]
 
|domain=
 
|domain=
 
|kingdom=Plantae
 
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|subkingdom=Tracheobionta
 
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|infraphylum=
 
|infraphylum=
 
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|microphylum=
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|superdivision=Spermatophyta
|division=
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|division=Magnoliophyta
 
|subdivision=
 
|subdivision=
 
|superclass=
 
|superclass=
|class=
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|class=Magnoliopsida
|subclass=
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|subclass=Magnoliidae
 
|infraclass=
 
|infraclass=
 
|superorder=
 
|superorder=
|order=
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|order=Ranunculales
 
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The '''Wenatchee larkspur''' (Delphinium viridescens) is a [[rare]] [[plant]] species native to the [[United States|U.S.]], located in the Wenatchee Mountains region, and is a part of the [[Ranunculaceae]] family, also known as the Buttercup family.<ref>http://www.cwnp.org/flora/listr.html</ref> The Wenatchee Larkspur is generally described as a [[perennial]] forb/[[herb]].<ref>USDA Plants. [http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=DEVI2 PLANTS Profile for Delphinium viridescens (Wenatchee larkspur)], Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Accessed July 2010.</ref> The scientific name of the Wenatchee larkspur is Delphinium viridescens, and in the United States it is a plant native to the mountains southwest of Wenatchee, [[Washington]].  
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The '''Wenatchee Larkspur''' (Delphinium viridescens) is a [[rare]] [[plant]] native to the [[United States|U.S.]], located in the Wenatchee Mountains region, and is a part of the [[Ranunculaceae]] family.<ref>http://www.cwnp.org/flora/listr.html</ref> The Wenatchee larkspur is generally described as a [[perennial]] forb/[[herb]].<ref>USDA Plants. [http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=DEVI2 PLANTS Profile for Delphinium viridescens (Wenatchee larkspur)], Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Accessed July 2010.</ref> The scientific name of the Wenatchee larkspur is Delphinium viridescens, which is a native plant to the United States, located in the mountains southwest of [[Wenatchee]], [[Washington]].  
  
Established in 1989, the Camas Meadows Natural Area Preserve contains the largest known populations of two rare plant species, the [[Wenatchee Mountains checkermallow]] and the Wenatchee larkspur. These plants grow only in the Wenatchee Mountains region, they are not found anywhere else in the world. The Wenatchee larkspur can be found on Camas Land, and along Camas Creek Road and the trails surrounding Camas Creek.
+
Established in 1989, the Nature Conservancy purchased land parcels located in central Washington to protect one of the "last best places" on earth.<ref name=DNR>[http://www.dnr.wa.gov/Publications/amp_na_brochure.pdf Washington State Natural Areas Brochure (PDF)], Washington State Natural Areas Brochure, (Accessed 2010).</ref> The ''Camas Meadows Natural Area Preserve'' contains the largest known populations of two rare plant species, the [[Wenatchee Mountains Checker-mallow]] (Sidalcea oregana var. calva) and the Wenatchee larkspur. These plants grow only in the Wenatchee Mountains region, they are not found anywhere else in the world.  
  
==Origin and History==
+
==Flower description==
The Wenatchee larkspur and the delphinium are close relatives; both are named for the shape of their [[flowers]].<ref>[http://www.wenatcheeflowers.com/about-flowers/larkspur/display About Flowers : Larkspur Floral Designs By The Tumbleweed], (Accessed 2010).</ref> The delphinium flower resembles the bottle-like nose of a [[dolphin]]; as a result, delphinium comes from the [[Greek]] word delphis, meaning "dolphin." The spur, on the other hand, reminded some people of parts of the lark; hence "larkspur," "lark's heel," and "lark's claw." Its more delicate foliage differentiates it from the delphinium.
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The Wenatchee larkspur is a plant [[native]] to the mountains southwest of Wenatchee, Washington. Common locations where the Wenatchee larkspur is found are in moist meadows, moist micro-sites in open coniferous forest, springs, seeps, and riparian areas. All known habitats of the Wenatchee larkspur are characterized by surface water or saturated upper soil into early summer, with poorly drained and silty to clayey-loam soil (WNHP 1999).<ref>WNHP. 1999. Field Guide to Selected Rare Vascular Plants of Washington. Produced as part of a cooperative project between the Washington Department of Natural Resources, Washington Natural Heritage Program, and the U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, Spokane District.</ref> Flowering season is in the summer, most notably in July; peak anthesis occurs during mid-summer. The flowers are protandrous, meaning that the anthers on an individual flower mature before the stigmas do.<ref>[http://www1.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/fguide/pdf/devi.pdf Delphinium viridescens : Wenatchee Larkspur (PDF)], dnr.wa.gov, (Accessed 2010).</ref><ref>[[University of Washington]]. [http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?ID=3709 WTU Herbarium Image Collection], Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, (2010).</ref> Little else is known about the reproductive [[biology]], [[pollen]] and [[seed]] dispersal, [[demography]] or life history of the Wenatchee larkspur (Richter et al. 1994).<ref>Richter, T.S.; Soltis, P.S.; Soltis, D.E. 1994. Genetic variation within and among populations of the narrow endemic, Delphinium viridescens (Ranunculaceae). American Journal of Botany. 81, 8: 1070-1060.</ref>
  
The delphinium is the birth flower for the month of [[July]], and was used by West Coast [[Native Americans]] to make blue dye. [[European]] settlers used ground delphinium flowers to make [[ink]]. The most ancient use of the delphinium was as a strong external [[medicine]] thought to drive away [[scorpion|scorpions]].
+
==Camas Meadows Natural Area Preserves==
 +
In parts of Washington, almost all of the landscape has been altered. As central Washington's population is growing, its natural landscape is rapidly disappearing. Through Natural Area Preserves the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) protects remnants of Washington's natural heritage, reconstructs habitat and contributes to a healthy environment for future generations. Natural Area Preserves are set aside for research and provide opportunities for education. Many require a DNR guide, but others have interpretive trails where anyone can learn about Washington's unique natural heritage on their own.<ref>''Department of Natural Resources'', Southeast Region office at (509) 952-8510.</ref>
  
According to Greek legend, [[Achilles]]' mother requested that her son's armor be given to the most heroic Greek warrior during the Battle of Troy. To the dismay of the brave warrior Ajax, the armor was awarded to Ulysses. Dejected, Ajax threw himself on his sword, and small blue delphiniums sprung from the blood that fell to the ground. Delphinium petals are marked with the Greek letters AI, the Greek cry of mourning.
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The Natural Area designation at Camas Meadows was purchased primarily to protect two endangered plants that live there: the Wenatchee larkspur and the Wenatchee Mountain checker-mallow. The Preserve at Camas Meadows contains 75% of the global population of the Wenatchee Mountain checker-mallow and 40% of the Wenatchee larkspur. There are a few other nearby places that have smaller populations of these two plants, but Camas Meadows is their primary home.<ref>Vladimir Steblina. [http://camasmeadows.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.html Nowhere else but Camas Meadows], ''Camas Meadows'', July 05, 2008.</ref>
  
Delphiniums signify an open heart and ardent attachment; larkspurs generally symbolize lightness and swiftness.
+
===Endagered Species===
 
+
The Wenatchee larkspur is confined to a small total range and apparently a very specific set of habitat conditions, located in eastern/central Washington. Washington's state Department of Natural Resources has suggested that appropriate habitats within the range of this species should continue to be inventoried.
==Species Description==
+
Wenatchee larkspur, a Delphinium viridescens, is a plant [[native]] to the mountains southwest of Wenatchee, Washington. Flowering season is in the summer, most notably in July. Peak anthesis occurs during mid-summer (July). Fruits mature and begin dispersal by late September.<ref>Delphinium viridescens : Wenatchee Larkspur, [http://www1.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/fguide/pdf/devi.pdf PDF] (Accessed 2010).</ref> Delphinium viridescens can be located mostly in wet meadows and stream sides in coniferous forest, heavy clay soils.<ref>[[University of Washington]]. [http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?ID=3709 WTU Herbarium Image Collection], Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, (2010).</ref>
+
 
+
* [[Leaves]]: Basal and lower cauline leaves long-petiolate, the blades up to 10 cm. broad, divided into three main wedge-shaped lobes, these once or twice cleft into oblong-rounded segments; mid-cauline leaves short-petiolate and overlapping, nearly erect, divided into narrow, acute segments, abruptly transitional to the lower leaves, but gradually transitional to the linear, entire, bract-like upper leaves.
+
 
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* [[Flowers]]: Inflorescence usually a simple, narrow raceme, the pedicels shorter than the flowers; sepals 5, purplish, but strongly streaked with yellow or greenish-yellow, oblanceolate, glandular, 7-11 mm. long; spur thick, straight, 7-10 mm. long; petals 4, yellowish or purple, the lower pair densely soft-hairy, equaling the sepals; stamens numerous; pistils 3.
+
 
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* [[Fruit]]: Follicles 6-8 mm. long, erect, densely glandular-pubescent.
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Stout [[perennial]] from a short rhizome, 2-4 feet fall, glabrous below but with copious stalked, yellow glands above and throughout the inflorescence, the stem of a Delphinium viridescens is hollow. The lower leaves are approximately four inches broad and are divided into 3-5 main lobes, each further dissected.  The upper leaves on the Wenatchee larkspur are [[linear]] and entire or linearly lobed. The diagnostic features include dense yellow hairs on the upper stem and flower cluster and yellowish to purple petals, and purplish sepals that are predominantly streaked with yellow.<ref>http://www.conservapedia.com/File:Wenatchee_Larkspur.jpg</ref>  The long spur of the Wenatchee larkspur flowers is generally reddish-purple, although some are pale greenish-yellow.
+
 
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===Identification=== 
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Delphinium viridescens is one of a group of tall Delphinium species that occur in the Wenatchee Mountains. Delphinium viridescens most closely resembles Delphinium multiplex, but may be distinguished using the following characters: Delphinium viridescens is typically 3-5 feet tall; sepals are iridescent purplish-yellow or greenish-yellow; and in some instances, the degree of basal and cauline leaf dissection has been observed to be greater in Delphinium viridescens, although immature specimens of Delphinium viridescens and Delphinium multiplex cannot readily be distinguished on this character. 
+
 
+
===Ecology===
+
The species most commonly occurs in seasonally wet openings, aspen groves and hardwood thickets associated with such openings. Larger sites were probably maintained by a relatively high water table.  Fire may have played a role in creating, enlarging and maintaining these openings.
+
 
+
===Technical data===
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Delphinium viridescens stems 90-150 cm; base usually green, glabrous. Leaves cauline, 17-30 at anthesis; petiole 0.2-8 cm. Leaf blade cuneate to semicircular, 2-5 × 3-12 cm, nearly glabrous; ultimate lobes 3-21, width 1-8 mm. Inflorescences 25-80-flowered, dense; pedicel 0.5-2 cm, glandular-pubescent; bracteoles 1-4 mm from flowers, green, lanceolate, 3.5-6 mm, glandular-pubescent. Flowers: sepals yellowish green, nearly glabrous, lateral sepals forward pointing, 7-9 × 3-4 mm, spurs decurved, 30-45° below horizontal, often hooked apically, 8-11 mm; lower petal blades ± covering stamens, 4-6 mm, clefts 0.5-1.5 mm; hairs centered, mostly near junction of blade and claw, yellow. Fruits 8-11 mm, 2.5-3 times longer than wide, puberulent. Seeds ± wing-margined; seed coat cells with surfaces ± roughened.
+
 
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==Washington State Status== 
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The Wenatchee larkspur is confined to a small total range and apparently a very specific set of habitat conditions. It is suggested that appropriate habitats within the range of this species should continue to be inventoried.  
+
 
+
===Natural Area Preserves===
+
In parts of Washington, almost all of the landscape has been altered. As eastern Washington's population is growing, its natural landscape is rapidly disappearing. Through Natural Area Preserves the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) protects remnants of Washington's natural heritage, reconstructs habitat and contributes to a healthy environment for future generations. Natural Area Preserves are set aside for research and provide opportunities for education. Many require a DNR guide, but others have interpretive trails where anyone can learn about Washington's unique natural heritage on their own.<ref name=DNR>''Department of Natural Resources'', Southeast Region office at (509) 952-8510.</ref>
+
  
 
===Threats and Management Concerns===
 
===Threats and Management Concerns===
Subdivision and subsequent development of rural residences represent a major threat to this species.  Hydrologic changes resulting from development and associated road construction also pose a significant threat.  Timber harvesting and grazing pose localized threats for some populations.  
+
Subdivision and subsequent development of rural residences represent a major threat to this species.  Hydrologic changes resulting from development and associated road construction also pose a significant threat.  Timber harvesting and grazing pose localized threats for some populations.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
  
==Further Reading==
+
==Further reading==
 
<small>
 
<small>
 
* Croft, L.K., W.R. Owen and J.S. Shelly.  1997.  Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project Analysis of Vascular Plants.  
 
* Croft, L.K., W.R. Owen and J.S. Shelly.  1997.  Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project Analysis of Vascular Plants.  
 
* Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J.W. Thompson. 1964.  ''Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae.''  University of Washington Press, Seattle.  597 pp.
 
* Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J.W. Thompson. 1964.  ''Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae.''  University of Washington Press, Seattle.  597 pp.
 
* Robson, K.A. 1992. A comparative study of the rare Wenatchee larkspur (''Delphinium viridescens'') and its sympatric relative, Western monkshood (''Aconitum columbianum''). USDA-USFS, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland.
 
* Robson, K.A. 1992. A comparative study of the rare Wenatchee larkspur (''Delphinium viridescens'') and its sympatric relative, Western monkshood (''Aconitum columbianum''). USDA-USFS, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland.
 +
* (2002). Rare Plants in Washington, and Research. The Rare Plant Care and Conservation Program at the University of Washington's Center for Urban Horticulture. [http://depts.washington.edu/rarecare/index.htm http://depts.washington.edu/rarecare/index.htm]. Accessed: 2002.
 +
* Loomis, K.M. 1985. An ecological survey of the Wenatchee larkspur Delphinium viridescens. [M.S. Thesis]: Central Washington University. Ellensburg, Washington.
 +
* Varney, D.M. Reproductive biology of four species of Delphinium endemic to the Wenatchee Mountains. [M.S. Thesis]: [[University of Washington]]. Seattle, Washington.
 
</small>
 
</small>
 +
 +
==External links==
 +
* [http://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2009/09/delphinium_viridescens.php Botany Photo of the Day: Delphinium viridescens]
 +
* [http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/collection/cpc_viewprofile.asp?CPCNum=1390 CPC National Collection Plant Profile] - ''Delphinium viridescens''
  
 
[[Category:Biology]]
 
[[Category:Biology]]
 
[[Category:Botany]]
 
[[Category:Botany]]
[[category:Flowers]]
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[[Category:Flowers]]
 
[[Category:Ecology]]  
 
[[Category:Ecology]]  
 
[[Category:Herbs]]
 
[[Category:Herbs]]

Latest revision as of 12:56, 23 June 2016

Wenatchee Larkspur
Wenatchee-Larkspur.jpg
Wenatchee larkspur: located along Camas Creek Road in Wenatchee, Washington
Scientific classification
Kingdom Information
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Division Information
Superdivision Spermatophyta
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Information
Class Magnoliopsida
Sub-class Magnoliidae
Order Information
Order Ranunculales
Family Information
Family Ranunculaceae
Genus Information
Genus Delphinium
Species Information
Species Delphinium viridescens
Population statistics

The Wenatchee Larkspur (Delphinium viridescens) is a rare plant native to the U.S., located in the Wenatchee Mountains region, and is a part of the Ranunculaceae family.[1] The Wenatchee larkspur is generally described as a perennial forb/herb.[2] The scientific name of the Wenatchee larkspur is Delphinium viridescens, which is a native plant to the United States, located in the mountains southwest of Wenatchee, Washington.

Established in 1989, the Nature Conservancy purchased land parcels located in central Washington to protect one of the "last best places" on earth.[3] The Camas Meadows Natural Area Preserve contains the largest known populations of two rare plant species, the Wenatchee Mountains Checker-mallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva) and the Wenatchee larkspur. These plants grow only in the Wenatchee Mountains region, they are not found anywhere else in the world.

Flower description

The Wenatchee larkspur is a plant native to the mountains southwest of Wenatchee, Washington. Common locations where the Wenatchee larkspur is found are in moist meadows, moist micro-sites in open coniferous forest, springs, seeps, and riparian areas. All known habitats of the Wenatchee larkspur are characterized by surface water or saturated upper soil into early summer, with poorly drained and silty to clayey-loam soil (WNHP 1999).[4] Flowering season is in the summer, most notably in July; peak anthesis occurs during mid-summer. The flowers are protandrous, meaning that the anthers on an individual flower mature before the stigmas do.[5][6] Little else is known about the reproductive biology, pollen and seed dispersal, demography or life history of the Wenatchee larkspur (Richter et al. 1994).[7]

Camas Meadows Natural Area Preserves

In parts of Washington, almost all of the landscape has been altered. As central Washington's population is growing, its natural landscape is rapidly disappearing. Through Natural Area Preserves the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) protects remnants of Washington's natural heritage, reconstructs habitat and contributes to a healthy environment for future generations. Natural Area Preserves are set aside for research and provide opportunities for education. Many require a DNR guide, but others have interpretive trails where anyone can learn about Washington's unique natural heritage on their own.[8]

The Natural Area designation at Camas Meadows was purchased primarily to protect two endangered plants that live there: the Wenatchee larkspur and the Wenatchee Mountain checker-mallow. The Preserve at Camas Meadows contains 75% of the global population of the Wenatchee Mountain checker-mallow and 40% of the Wenatchee larkspur. There are a few other nearby places that have smaller populations of these two plants, but Camas Meadows is their primary home.[9]

Endagered Species

The Wenatchee larkspur is confined to a small total range and apparently a very specific set of habitat conditions, located in eastern/central Washington. Washington's state Department of Natural Resources has suggested that appropriate habitats within the range of this species should continue to be inventoried.

Threats and Management Concerns

Subdivision and subsequent development of rural residences represent a major threat to this species. Hydrologic changes resulting from development and associated road construction also pose a significant threat. Timber harvesting and grazing pose localized threats for some populations.

References

  1. http://www.cwnp.org/flora/listr.html
  2. USDA Plants. PLANTS Profile for Delphinium viridescens (Wenatchee larkspur), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Accessed July 2010.
  3. Washington State Natural Areas Brochure (PDF), Washington State Natural Areas Brochure, (Accessed 2010).
  4. WNHP. 1999. Field Guide to Selected Rare Vascular Plants of Washington. Produced as part of a cooperative project between the Washington Department of Natural Resources, Washington Natural Heritage Program, and the U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, Spokane District.
  5. Delphinium viridescens : Wenatchee Larkspur (PDF), dnr.wa.gov, (Accessed 2010).
  6. University of Washington. WTU Herbarium Image Collection, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, (2010).
  7. Richter, T.S.; Soltis, P.S.; Soltis, D.E. 1994. Genetic variation within and among populations of the narrow endemic, Delphinium viridescens (Ranunculaceae). American Journal of Botany. 81, 8: 1070-1060.
  8. Department of Natural Resources, Southeast Region office at (509) 952-8510.
  9. Vladimir Steblina. Nowhere else but Camas Meadows, Camas Meadows, July 05, 2008.

Further reading

  • Croft, L.K., W.R. Owen and J.S. Shelly. 1997. Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project Analysis of Vascular Plants.
  • Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J.W. Thompson. 1964. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 597 pp.
  • Robson, K.A. 1992. A comparative study of the rare Wenatchee larkspur (Delphinium viridescens) and its sympatric relative, Western monkshood (Aconitum columbianum). USDA-USFS, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland.
  • (2002). Rare Plants in Washington, and Research. The Rare Plant Care and Conservation Program at the University of Washington's Center for Urban Horticulture. http://depts.washington.edu/rarecare/index.htm. Accessed: 2002.
  • Loomis, K.M. 1985. An ecological survey of the Wenatchee larkspur Delphinium viridescens. [M.S. Thesis]: Central Washington University. Ellensburg, Washington.
  • Varney, D.M. Reproductive biology of four species of Delphinium endemic to the Wenatchee Mountains. [M.S. Thesis]: University of Washington. Seattle, Washington.

External links