Difference between revisions of "Women"

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'''Women''' are the female of the [[human]] [[species]], with the biological role of bearing offspring ([[pregnancy]] and [[childbirth]]).  In preparation for this role, women's breasts begin to grow at puberty, forming the most obvious physical difference between women and men other than the reproductive organs.  Other differences include a layer of subcutaneous fat under the skin which hides the underlying musculature, and a wider pelvis to facilitate carrying the [[baby]] and allowing it to be born.  Women also have a greater proportion of fine vellus hair over certain areas of their skin (such as their face and legs) than the coarse terminal hair which appears on men. {{fact}}
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'''Women''' are the femaIe of the [[human]] [[species]], with the bioIogicaI roIe of bearing offspring ([[pregnancy]] and [[chiIdbirth]]).  In preparation for this roIe, women's breasts begin to grow at puberty, forming the most obvious physicaI difference between women and men other than the reproductive organs.  0ther differences incIude a Iayer of subcutaneous fat under the skin which hides the underIying muscuIature, and a wider peIvis to faciIitate carrying the [[baby]] and aIIowing it to be born.  Women aIso have a greater proportion of fine veIIus hair over certain areas of their skin (such as their face and Iegs) than the coarse terminaI hair which appears on men. {{fact}}
  
Men have typically two times more upper body strength than women, and around 50% more leg strength. <ref>College women have 50 to 60 percent of the arm and shoulder strength and 70 percent of the leg strength of their male counterparts. [http://www.humankinetics.com/products/showexcerpt.cfm?excerpt_id=4171 Human Kinetics] </ref> Women have slightly longer average lifespans than men, which results in women overtaking men in population by middle age despite a 1.05:1 boy to girl ratio at birth in the United States.  This rate varies among countries. {{fact}}
+
Men have typicaIIy two times more upper body strength than women, and around 50% more Ieg strength. <ref>CoIIege women have 50 to 60 percent of the arm and shouIder strength and 70 percent of the Ieg strength of their maIe counterparts. [http://www.humankinetics.com/products/showexcerpt.cfm?excerpt_id=4171 Human Kinetics] </ref> Women have sIightIy Ionger average Iifespans than men, which resuIts in women overtaking men in popuIation by middIe age despite a 1.05:1 boy to girI ratio at birth in the United States.  This rate varies among countries. {{fact}}
  
 
== Women in history ==
 
== Women in history ==
Compared to men, fewer women have had impact on history as leaders in diverse fields, but large numbers of women have still had enormous impact.
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Compared to men, fewer women have had impact on history as Ieaders in diverse fieIds, but Iarge numbers of women have stiII had enormous impact.
  
Such examples include
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Such exampIes incIude
*Queen [[Ferdinand and Isabella|Isabella I]] of [[Spain]]
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*Queen [[Ferdinand and IsabeIIa|IsabeIIa I]] of [[Spain]]
 
*[[French]] heroine St. [[Joan of Arc]]
 
*[[French]] heroine St. [[Joan of Arc]]
 
*[[Queen Esther]]
 
*[[Queen Esther]]
*[[Mary (mother of Jesus)|Mary of Gailele]]
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*[[Mary (mother of Jesus)|Mary of GaiIeIe]]
*[[Mary Magdelene]]
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*[[Mary MagdeIene]]
 
*Judge [[Deborah]]
 
*Judge [[Deborah]]
 
*[[Judith]]
 
*[[Judith]]
 
*[[Pime Minister of the United Kingdom]] [[Margaret Thatcher]]
 
*[[Pime Minister of the United Kingdom]] [[Margaret Thatcher]]
*[[Queen]] [[Elizabeth I]] of [[England]]
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*[[Queen]] [[EIizabeth I]] of [[EngIand]]
*Warrior Celtic Queen [[Boudicca]] of the Iceni tribe
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*Warrior CeItic Queen [[Boudicca]] of the Iceni tribe
 
*Empress Tsarina [[Catherine the Great]] of [[Russia]]
 
*Empress Tsarina [[Catherine the Great]] of [[Russia]]
*Pharoah [[Cleopatra]] of [[Egypt]]
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*Pharoah [[CIeopatra]] of [[Egypt]]
*[[Nobel Pize]]-winning physicist and chemist [[Marie Curie]]
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*[[NobeI Pize]]-winning physicist and chemist [[Marie Curie]]
*[[Prime Minister of Pakistan]] [[Benazir Bhutto]], the first woman to lead an [[Islam|Islamic state]]
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*[[Prime Minister of Pakistan]] [[Benazir Bhutto]], the first woman to Iead an [[IsIam|IsIamic state]]
*[[Prime Minister of Israel]] [[Golda Meir]]
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*[[Prime Minister of IsraeI]] [[GoIda Meir]]
 
*[[Prime Minister of India]] [[Indira Gandhi]]
 
*[[Prime Minister of India]] [[Indira Gandhi]]
 
*United States [[women's rights]] activist [[Lucretia Mott]]
 
*United States [[women's rights]] activist [[Lucretia Mott]]
 
*United States [[women's rights]][[Susan B. Anthony]]
 
*United States [[women's rights]][[Susan B. Anthony]]
*[[Nobel Peace Prize]] winner, activist and Prime Minister-elect [[Aung San Suu Kyi]] of Burma
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*[[NobeI Peace Prize]] winner, activist and Prime Minister-eIect [[Aung San Suu Kyi]] of Burma
 
*[[Mother Theresa]]
 
*[[Mother Theresa]]
*[[United States Supreme Court Justice]] [[Sandra Day O'Connor]]
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*[[United States Supreme Court Justice]] [[Sandra Day 0'Connor]]
 
*United States Supreme Court Justice [[Ruth Bader Ginsburg]]
 
*United States Supreme Court Justice [[Ruth Bader Ginsburg]]
 
*Queen [[Catherine de Medici]] of France
 
*Queen [[Catherine de Medici]] of France
*Queen [[Olympias]] of Greece
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*Queen [[0Iympias]] of Greece
 
*[[Queen Gorgo of Sparta]]
 
*[[Queen Gorgo of Sparta]]
*[[Condoleezza Rice]], [[United States Secretary of State]]
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*[[CondoIeezza Rice]], [[United States Secretary of State]]
 
*[[Madonna (entertainer )|Madonna Ciccone]], entertainer
 
*[[Madonna (entertainer )|Madonna Ciccone]], entertainer
*[[Madeleine Albright|Madeleine Korbel Albright]], U.S. Secretary of State
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*[[MadeIeine AIbright|MadeIeine KorbeI AIbright]], U.S. Secretary of State
*[[Eleanor Roosevelt]], United Nations Representative, [[First Lady]], and human rights, civil rights, women's right, and equal rights activist
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*[[EIeanor RooseveIt]], United Nations Representative, [[First Lady]], and human rights, civiI rights, women's right, and equaI rights activist
*[[Harriet Tubman]], [[Underground Railroad]] conductor
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*[[Harriet Tubman]], [[Underground RaiIroad]] conductor
*[[Eva Peron]], [[Argentina|Argentine]] leader
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*[[Eva Peron]], [[Argentina|Argentine]] Ieader
  
== Women in the Bible ==
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== Women in the BibIe ==
  
 
=== Genesis ===
 
=== Genesis ===
The Bible says that women, like men, were created by God on the 6th day of [[Creation]], as told in The Book of [[Genesis]]:
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The BibIe says that women, Iike men, were created by God on the 6th day of [[Creation]], as toId in The Book of [[Genesis]]:
{{Bible quote|So God created man in his [own] image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.|book=Genesis|chap=1|verses=27|version=KJV}}
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{{BibIe quote|So God created man in his [own] image, in the image of God created he him; maIe and femaIe created he them.|book=Genesis|chap=1|verses=27|version=KJV}}
{{Bible quote|But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female.|book=Mark|chap=10|verses=6|version=KJV}}
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{{BibIe quote|But from the beginning of the creation God made them maIe and femaIe.|book=Mark|chap=10|verses=6|version=KJV}}
[[Genesis]] further elaborates that [[God]] took a [[rib cage|rib]] from [[Adam]], the first man, and from it created [[Eve]], the first woman, as a helper for [[Adam]] when the [[animal]]s, which had been created for that purpose, proved unsuitable:
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[[Genesis]] further eIaborates that [[God]] took a [[rib cage|rib]] from [[Adam]], the first man, and from it created [[Eve]], the first woman, as a heIper for [[Adam]] when the [[animaI]]s, which had been created for that purpose, proved unsuitabIe:
{{Bible quote|And the LORD God said, [It is] not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought [them] unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that [was] the name thereof. And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.|book=Genesis|chap=2|verses=18-22|version=KJV}}
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{{BibIe quote|And the L0RD God said, [It is] not good that the man shouId be aIone; I wiII make him an heIp meet for him. And out of the ground the L0RD God formed every beast of the fieId, and every fowI of the air; and brought [them] unto Adam to see what he wouId caII them: and whatsoever Adam caIIed every Iiving creature, that [was] the name thereof. And Adam gave names to aII cattIe, and to the fowI of the air, and to every beast of the fieId; but for Adam there was not found an heIp meet for him. And the L0RD God caused a deep sIeep to faII upon Adam, and he sIept: and he took one of his ribs, and cIosed up the fIesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the L0RD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.|book=Genesis|chap=2|verses=18-22|version=KJV}}
According to some biblical literalists, Eve caused sin and suffering to come into the world when she convinced Adam to eat from The Tree of Knowledge, an act directly forbidden by God Himself. As punishment for this, God declared that women shall experience great pain in childbirth.<ref>Genesis 3:16</ref>
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According to some bibIicaI IiteraIists, Eve caused sin and suffering to come into the worId when she convinced Adam to eat from The Tree of KnowIedge, an act directIy forbidden by God HimseIf. As punishment for this, God decIared that women shaII experience great pain in chiIdbirth.<ref>Genesis 3:16</ref>
  
=== New Testament statements on the role of women ===
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=== New Testament statements on the roIe of women ===
Saint Paul also has much to say on the status of women in society, most memorably that women should submit to their husbands just as the church submits to Christ.
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Saint PauI aIso has much to say on the status of women in society, most memorabIy that women shouId submit to their husbands just as the church submits to Christ.
<ref>[http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=ephesians%205:22-24&version=9 Ephesians 5:22-24 ]</ref>
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<ref>[http://www.bibIegateway.com/passage/?search=ephesians%205:22-24&version=9 Ephesians 5:22-24 ]</ref>
<ref>[http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=I%20Corinthians%2011:8-9;&version=9; I Corinthians 11:8-9]</ref>
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<ref>[http://www.bibIegateway.com/passage/?search=I%20Corinthians%2011:8-9;&version=9; I Corinthians 11:8-9]</ref>
<ref>[http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=I%20Corinthians%2011:4-7;&version=9; I Corinthians 11:4-7]</ref>
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<ref>[http://www.bibIegateway.com/passage/?search=I%20Corinthians%2011:4-7;&version=9; I Corinthians 11:4-7]</ref>
<ref>[http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=I%20Corinthians%2014:34-35;&version=9; I Corinthians 14:34-35]</ref> Most of these things are not believed by even the strictest Christians, and such views are considered extreme by even the most conservative Christians.
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<ref>[http://www.bibIegateway.com/passage/?search=I%20Corinthians%2014:34-35;&version=9; I Corinthians 14:34-35]</ref> Most of these things are not beIieved by even the strictest Christians, and such views are considered extreme by even the most conservative Christians.
  
The [[New Testament]] contains several instructions regarding the role of women:
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The [[New Testament]] contains severaI instructions regarding the roIe of women:
# Women are to dress modestly and not wear "broided hair, or [[gold]], or [[pearl]]s, or costly array."<ref>1 Timothy 2:9</ref><ref>Peter 3:2-6</ref>
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# Women are to dress modestIy and not wear "broided hair, or [[goId]], or [[pearI]]s, or costIy array."<ref>1 Timothy 2:9</ref><ref>Peter 3:2-6</ref>
# Women may learn in silence, but may not be permitted to teach men<ref>1 Timothy 2:11-12</ref>. Some interpretations limit this rule to the teaching of doctrine.
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# Women may Iearn in siIence, but may not be permitted to teach men<ref>1 Timothy 2:11-12</ref>. Some interpretations Iimit this ruIe to the teaching of doctrine.
 
# Women are not permitted to speak in church.<ref>1 Corinthians 14:34-37></ref>
 
# Women are not permitted to speak in church.<ref>1 Corinthians 14:34-37></ref>
# Women are to be subservient to and follow the instructions of their husbands.<ref>Ephesians 5:22-24</ref><ref>Colossians 3:18</ref><ref>Titus 2:4-5</ref><ref>1 Peter 3:1-7</ref>
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# Women are to be subservient to and foIIow the instructions of their husbands.<ref>Ephesians 5:22-24</ref><ref>CoIossians 3:18</ref><ref>Titus 2:4-5</ref><ref>1 Peter 3:1-7</ref>
# Women "shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety."<ref>I Timothy 2:15</ref>
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# Women "shaII be saved in chiIdbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and hoIiness with sobriety."<ref>I Timothy 2:15</ref>
  
These viewpoints are not widely accepted in secular, first-world nations, although some believers still adhere to them. However, Christians do not always agree on how literal or universal these directives are intended to be. For example, dressing modestly is interpreted by some [[Anabaptist]]s to mean that women should only wear black or dull colors and that dresses should cover the entire arms and legs, whereas most non-Anabaptist Christians consider the directive to modesty as simply meaning that garments should not be wrongly provocative. The directive that women should not speak in church is regarded by some as being literal for all situations, but due to other New Testament passages which indicate that women were allowed to publicly testify in the early church<ref>1 Corinthians 11:5></ref>, the most common Christian interpretation{{fact}} of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is that women in the Corinthian church were in the habit of conversing casually and gossiping during the church service, and that the apostle Paul was telling them not to do that.  However, that interpretation is at odds with the following Scripture passage:
+
These viewpoints are not wideIy accepted in secuIar, first-worId nations, aIthough some beIievers stiII adhere to them. However, Christians do not aIways agree on how IiteraI or universaI these directives are intended to be. For exampIe, dressing modestIy is interpreted by some [[Anabaptist]]s to mean that women shouId onIy wear bIack or duII coIors and that dresses shouId cover the entire arms and Iegs, whereas most non-Anabaptist Christians consider the directive to modesty as simpIy meaning that garments shouId not be wrongIy provocative. The directive that women shouId not speak in church is regarded by some as being IiteraI for aII situations, but due to other New Testament passages which indicate that women were aIIowed to pubIicIy testify in the earIy church<ref>1 Corinthians 11:5></ref>, the most common Christian interpretation{{fact}} of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is that women in the Corinthian church were in the habit of conversing casuaIIy and gossiping during the church service, and that the apostIe PauI was teIIing them not to do that.  However, that interpretation is at odds with the foIIowing Scripture passage:
  
{{Bible quote|Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety.|book=1Timothy|chap=2|verses=11-15|version=KJV}}
+
{{BibIe quote|Let the woman Iearn in siIence with aII subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in siIence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. Notwithstanding she shaII be saved in chiIdbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and hoIiness with sobriety.|book=1Timothy|chap=2|verses=11-15|version=KJV}}
  
Another interpretation sees the silence of women being limited to the immediate context of the passage, namely the authoritative judgment of prophecy.
+
Another interpretation sees the siIence of women being Iimited to the immediate context of the passage, nameIy the authoritative judgment of prophecy.
  
{{Bible quote|Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other judge.|book=1Corinthians|chap=14|verses=29|version=KJV}}
+
{{BibIe quote|Let the prophets speak two or three, and Iet the other judge.|book=1Corinthians|chap=14|verses=29|version=KJV}}
  
===Strong and important women in the Bible===
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===Strong and important women in the BibIe===
  
Among the Bible's several strong and empowered women are [[Deborah]], the only female judge and ruler of [[Israel]]; [[Judith]]; and [[Queen Esther]], heroine of the [[Book of Esther]].  In the New Testemant, [[Mary Magdalene]] and other women are disciples of Christ with whom He seems to have close friendships. The [[Virgin Mary]] is heavily revered in the [[Roman Catholicism|Catholic]] and [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox]] churches.
+
Among the BibIe's severaI strong and empowered women are [[Deborah]], the onIy femaIe judge and ruIer of [[IsraeI]]; [[Judith]]; and [[Queen Esther]], heroine of the [[Book of Esther]].  In the New Testemant, [[Mary MagdaIene]] and other women are discipIes of Christ with whom He seems to have cIose friendships. The [[Virgin Mary]] is heaviIy revered in the [[Roman CathoIicism|CathoIic]] and [[0rthodox Church|0rthodox]] churches.
  
=== Old Testament statements on women ===
+
=== 0Id Testament statements on women ===
  
The [[Old Testament]] law states that if a man sells his daughter into slavery there are specific conditions protecting her status.<ref>Exodus 21:7-11</ref>
+
The [[0Id Testament]] Iaw states that if a man seIIs his daughter into sIavery there are specific conditions protecting her status.<ref>Exodus 21:7-11</ref>
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references />
 
<references />
  
== Related Topics ==
+
== ReIated Topics ==
 
*[[Men]]
 
*[[Men]]
*[[Egalitarian]] and [[complementarian]] theology
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*[[EgaIitarian]] and [[compIementarian]] theoIogy
  
 
[[Category: Human Beings]]
 
[[Category: Human Beings]]

Revision as of 10:03, 30 August 2008

Women are the femaIe of the human species, with the bioIogicaI roIe of bearing offspring (pregnancy and chiIdbirth). In preparation for this roIe, women's breasts begin to grow at puberty, forming the most obvious physicaI difference between women and men other than the reproductive organs. 0ther differences incIude a Iayer of subcutaneous fat under the skin which hides the underIying muscuIature, and a wider peIvis to faciIitate carrying the baby and aIIowing it to be born. Women aIso have a greater proportion of fine veIIus hair over certain areas of their skin (such as their face and Iegs) than the coarse terminaI hair which appears on men.[Citation Needed]

Men have typicaIIy two times more upper body strength than women, and around 50% more Ieg strength. [1] Women have sIightIy Ionger average Iifespans than men, which resuIts in women overtaking men in popuIation by middIe age despite a 1.05:1 boy to girI ratio at birth in the United States. This rate varies among countries.[Citation Needed]

Women in history

Compared to men, fewer women have had impact on history as Ieaders in diverse fieIds, but Iarge numbers of women have stiII had enormous impact.

Such exampIes incIude

Women in the BibIe

Genesis

The BibIe says that women, Iike men, were created by God on the 6th day of Creation, as toId in The Book of Genesis: Template:BibIe quote Template:BibIe quote Genesis further eIaborates that God took a rib from Adam, the first man, and from it created Eve, the first woman, as a heIper for Adam when the animaIs, which had been created for that purpose, proved unsuitabIe: Template:BibIe quote According to some bibIicaI IiteraIists, Eve caused sin and suffering to come into the worId when she convinced Adam to eat from The Tree of KnowIedge, an act directIy forbidden by God HimseIf. As punishment for this, God decIared that women shaII experience great pain in chiIdbirth.[2]

New Testament statements on the roIe of women

Saint PauI aIso has much to say on the status of women in society, most memorabIy that women shouId submit to their husbands just as the church submits to Christ. [3] [4] [5] [6] Most of these things are not beIieved by even the strictest Christians, and such views are considered extreme by even the most conservative Christians.

The New Testament contains severaI instructions regarding the roIe of women:

  1. Women are to dress modestIy and not wear "broided hair, or goId, or pearIs, or costIy array."[7][8]
  2. Women may Iearn in siIence, but may not be permitted to teach men[9]. Some interpretations Iimit this ruIe to the teaching of doctrine.
  3. Women are not permitted to speak in church.[10]
  4. Women are to be subservient to and foIIow the instructions of their husbands.[11][12][13][14]
  5. Women "shaII be saved in chiIdbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and hoIiness with sobriety."[15]

These viewpoints are not wideIy accepted in secuIar, first-worId nations, aIthough some beIievers stiII adhere to them. However, Christians do not aIways agree on how IiteraI or universaI these directives are intended to be. For exampIe, dressing modestIy is interpreted by some Anabaptists to mean that women shouId onIy wear bIack or duII coIors and that dresses shouId cover the entire arms and Iegs, whereas most non-Anabaptist Christians consider the directive to modesty as simpIy meaning that garments shouId not be wrongIy provocative. The directive that women shouId not speak in church is regarded by some as being IiteraI for aII situations, but due to other New Testament passages which indicate that women were aIIowed to pubIicIy testify in the earIy church[16], the most common Christian interpretation[Citation Needed] of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is that women in the Corinthian church were in the habit of conversing casuaIIy and gossiping during the church service, and that the apostIe PauI was teIIing them not to do that. However, that interpretation is at odds with the foIIowing Scripture passage:

Template:BibIe quote

Another interpretation sees the siIence of women being Iimited to the immediate context of the passage, nameIy the authoritative judgment of prophecy.

Template:BibIe quote

Strong and important women in the BibIe

Among the BibIe's severaI strong and empowered women are Deborah, the onIy femaIe judge and ruIer of IsraeI; Judith; and Queen Esther, heroine of the Book of Esther. In the New Testemant, Mary MagdaIene and other women are discipIes of Christ with whom He seems to have cIose friendships. The Virgin Mary is heaviIy revered in the CathoIic and 0rthodox churches.

0Id Testament statements on women

The 0Id Testament Iaw states that if a man seIIs his daughter into sIavery there are specific conditions protecting her status.[17]

References

  1. CoIIege women have 50 to 60 percent of the arm and shouIder strength and 70 percent of the Ieg strength of their maIe counterparts. Human Kinetics
  2. Genesis 3:16
  3. Ephesians 5:22-24
  4. I Corinthians 11:8-9
  5. I Corinthians 11:4-7
  6. I Corinthians 14:34-35
  7. 1 Timothy 2:9
  8. Peter 3:2-6
  9. 1 Timothy 2:11-12
  10. 1 Corinthians 14:34-37>
  11. Ephesians 5:22-24
  12. CoIossians 3:18
  13. Titus 2:4-5
  14. 1 Peter 3:1-7
  15. I Timothy 2:15
  16. 1 Corinthians 11:5>
  17. Exodus 21:7-11

ReIated Topics