Difference between revisions of "World War II"

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[[Image:Caen_sniper.jpg|right|thumb|300px|An allied soldier in the ruins of Caen, 9 July 1944]]
 
[[Image:Caen_sniper.jpg|right|thumb|300px|An allied soldier in the ruins of Caen, 9 July 1944]]
'''World War II''' was a global conflict fought between the [[Allies|Allied powers]] which eventually came to include the [[United States]], the [[Soviet Union]], the [[British Commonwealth]], the [[Republic of China]], and many other nations, and the [[Axis Powers]] (mainly [[Third Reich|Nazi Germany]], [[Fascism|Fascist]] [[Italy]], and Imperial [[Japan]]). Several conflicts involving some world major powers precipitated the general conflagration.  On September 1, 1939 [[Poland]] was invaded by Nazi Germany. On September 3, the [[United Kingdom]] and the [[French Third Republic]] with its allies entered the war.  
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'''World War II''' was a global conflict fought between the [[Allies|Allied powers]] which eventually came to include the [[United States]], the [[Soviet Union]], the [[British Commonwealth]], the [[Republic of China]], and many other nations, and the [[Axis Powers]] (mainly [[Third Reich|Nazi Germany]], [[Fascism|Fascist]] [[Italy]], and Imperial [[Japan]]). Several conflicts involving some world major powers precipitated the general conflagration.  On September 1, 1939 [[Poland]] was invaded by Nazi Germany. On September 3, the [[Great Britain]] and the [[French Third Republic]] with its allies entered the war.  
  
During the war, eight major world powers fought, along with several lesser states joining with one side or the other. On the side which lost were the Axis Powers Germany, [[Japan]], and [[Italy]]. Against them came to be the Allied Powers [[United States]], [[United Kingdom]] and the Commonwealth, the [[Soviet Union]] with its [[Comintern]] allies, and the [[Republic of China]]. The conflict was the deadliest in human history with estimated deaths ranging from 50 million to over 70 million depending on research methodology.<ref>http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat1.htm#Second</ref>   
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During the war, eight major world powers fought, along with several lesser states joining with one side or the other. On the side which lost were the Axis Powers Germany, [[Japan]], and [[Italy]]. Against them came to be the Allied Powers [[United States]], [[Great Britain]] and the Commonwealth, the [[Soviet Union]] with its [[Comintern]] allies, and the [[Republic of China]]. The conflict was the deadliest in human history with estimated deaths ranging from 50 million to over 70 million depending on research methodology.<ref>http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat1.htm#Second</ref>   
  
 
==Failure of the League treaty==
 
==Failure of the League treaty==
The causes of World War II are complicated. The immediate causes of World War II are generally held to be the Japanese attacks on China and the British and Dutch colonies, and the German invasion of Poland on the 1st September 1939. Following the two day deadline for the withdrawal of German forces, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand declared war on Germany, followed quickly by France, South Africa, Canada and Nepal.  
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The causes of World War II are complicated. The immediate causes of World War II are generally held to be the Japanese attacks on China and the British and Dutch colonies, and the German invasion of Poland on the 1st September 1939. Following the two day deadline for the withdrawal of German forces, Britain, Australia, and New Zealand declared war on Germany, followed quickly by France, South Africa, Canada and Nepal.  
  
 
The condition of Germany in the aftermath of [[World War I]] is also considered to be a contributing factor.  The [[Weimar Republic]] that was founded at the end of WWI, was struggling from the beginning. One reason were the harsh terms of [[Versailles]] treaty. Although the terms of the treaty were never fully enforced, the psychological damage was immense, since they were perceived as a grave injustice. The republic was also struggling with the rejection by monarchist, who were still occupying important position in the state. Many WWI veterans believed that the German forces in WWI were not defeated, but that the social democratic leaders, who founded the Weimar republic to thwart a communist revolution, surrendered to the allies for political gains. It was known as the "stab-in-the-back myth", and was used to discredit the republic. [http://www.germannotes.com/hist_weimar_dolch.shtml] Although the Weimar Republic enjoyed a time of economic resurgence after the early years of hyper-inflation it failed to gain deep public support. The Weimar Republic was famously called a ''democracy without democrats''.  
 
The condition of Germany in the aftermath of [[World War I]] is also considered to be a contributing factor.  The [[Weimar Republic]] that was founded at the end of WWI, was struggling from the beginning. One reason were the harsh terms of [[Versailles]] treaty. Although the terms of the treaty were never fully enforced, the psychological damage was immense, since they were perceived as a grave injustice. The republic was also struggling with the rejection by monarchist, who were still occupying important position in the state. Many WWI veterans believed that the German forces in WWI were not defeated, but that the social democratic leaders, who founded the Weimar republic to thwart a communist revolution, surrendered to the allies for political gains. It was known as the "stab-in-the-back myth", and was used to discredit the republic. [http://www.germannotes.com/hist_weimar_dolch.shtml] Although the Weimar Republic enjoyed a time of economic resurgence after the early years of hyper-inflation it failed to gain deep public support. The Weimar Republic was famously called a ''democracy without democrats''.  
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Following the completion of the invasion of Poland, German forces regrouped and Allied forces remained defensive, leading US commentators to dub it the [[Sitskreig|Phoney War]]. May 10 1940 marked the end of any accusation of a phony war, with the invasion of France by Germany, via the [[Netherlands]], [[Luxembourg]] and [[Belgium]]. Resistance by the British armies and French armies proved weak and the occupation of France began. British troops were routed and evacuated mainland Europe at Dunkirk. France was divided into the northern [[Occupied France]] and the collaborationist [[Vichy regime]] in the south of France, including [[Corsica]].
 
Following the completion of the invasion of Poland, German forces regrouped and Allied forces remained defensive, leading US commentators to dub it the [[Sitskreig|Phoney War]]. May 10 1940 marked the end of any accusation of a phony war, with the invasion of France by Germany, via the [[Netherlands]], [[Luxembourg]] and [[Belgium]]. Resistance by the British armies and French armies proved weak and the occupation of France began. British troops were routed and evacuated mainland Europe at Dunkirk. France was divided into the northern [[Occupied France]] and the collaborationist [[Vichy regime]] in the south of France, including [[Corsica]].
  
The collapse and occupation of France, together with Germany's non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union,<ref>[http://nobsopus.blogspot.com/2007/01/celebrations-marking-60-years-since-end.html Celebrations Marking 60 Years Since the End of World War II], Pavel Vitek, ''Russkii vopros - Studies'', No. 1 2005. Translation from Russian.</ref>, their alliances with fascist Italy, and an expansionist Japan,  benevolent neutrality of fascist Spain, with little of Europe outside of Axis hands led many to assume that the United Kingdom had been defeated. Indeed it would appear that the, seemingly foolish, decision of the relatively weak United Kingdom to continue the war took the Axis powers off guard. This decision ensured the remaining British Empire was still involved in the war, with Japan threatening many British possessions in Asia.
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The collapse and occupation of France, together with Germany's non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union,<ref>[http://nobsopus.blogspot.com/2007/01/celebrations-marking-60-years-since-end.html Celebrations Marking 60 Years Since the End of World War II], Pavel Vitek, ''Russkii vopros - Studies'', No. 1 2005. Translation from Russian.</ref>, their alliances with fascist Italy, and an expansionist Japan,  benevolent neutrality of fascist Spain, with little of Europe outside of Axis hands led many to assume that Britain had been defeated. Indeed it would appear that the, seemingly foolish, decision of the relatively weak Britain to continue the war took the Axis powers off guard. This decision ensured the remaining British Empire was still involved in the war, with Japan threatening many British possessions in Asia.
  
 
In 1940 [[Denmark]] and [[Norway]] were invaded by German forces, to preempt a British occupation of Norway and acquire Norway's coastline and ports for the German Navy. Norway also contained a source of [[Heavy water]], potentially crucial in the construction of an atomic weapon.  The operation was successful, but losses were heavy, especially to the [[Kriegsmarine]].  This was soon followed by the British invasion of neutral [[Iceland]] (the invasion of [[Denmark]] by German forces marks the start of an independent Iceland).
 
In 1940 [[Denmark]] and [[Norway]] were invaded by German forces, to preempt a British occupation of Norway and acquire Norway's coastline and ports for the German Navy. Norway also contained a source of [[Heavy water]], potentially crucial in the construction of an atomic weapon.  The operation was successful, but losses were heavy, especially to the [[Kriegsmarine]].  This was soon followed by the British invasion of neutral [[Iceland]] (the invasion of [[Denmark]] by German forces marks the start of an independent Iceland).
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1941 marked the major turning point in the war in Europe, when the Germans undertook [[Operation Barbarossa]] - the invasion of the Soviet Union. In a war of major turning points, this was the most significant in Europe. This miscalculation diminished the German army's capacity.  
 
1941 marked the major turning point in the war in Europe, when the Germans undertook [[Operation Barbarossa]] - the invasion of the Soviet Union. In a war of major turning points, this was the most significant in Europe. This miscalculation diminished the German army's capacity.  
  
Stalin was informed by his master spy in Japan, [[Richard Sorge]], of the Japanese Imperial Conference in Tokyo which decided on July 2 not to move against the Soviet Union from [[Manchuria]] through Siberia, but instead to prosecute a plan of advance to the south at the risk of war with the United States and United Kingdom.  The possibility of a Japanese attack and a two front war with both Germany and Japan was a specter that haunted Soviet officials. <ref>President Roosevelt followed the debate through the medium of "Magic" -- a name applied to intercepted and decoded Japanese messages. He described the Imperial Conference as "a real drag-down and knockout fight... to decide which way they were going to jump --attack Russia, attack the South Seas (or) sit on the fence and be more friendly with us." President Roosevelt to Secretary Ickes, July l, l941 cited in William L. Langer and S. Everett Gleason, ''The Undeclared War, 1940-41'', (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1953), p. 646.</ref><ref>Testimony of Major General Charles A. Willoughby, August 9, 1951, [[Institute of Pacific Relations]], Hearings, Part 2, pp. 363-364; p. 505.</ref>  Russia had over 200,000 men facing Japan in the Far East. These troops were desperately needed in the war against Germany.  [[Victor Kravchenko]] a high Soviet official and defector wrote, "Beginning with the nineteenth (October, 1941), the situation improved. The first seasoned Siberian and Far Eastern forces began to arrive... Far Eastern troops, hardened in border struggle with the Japanese, and Siberian forces inured to winter warfare were rushing westward across a continent to hold the invaders." <ref>Victor Kravchenko, ''I Chose Freedom'', New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1950, p. 377-378.</ref>
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Stalin was informed by his master spy in Japan, [[Richard Sorge]], of the Japanese Imperial Conference in Tokyo which decided on July 2 not to move against the Soviet Union from [[Manchuria]] through Siberia, but instead to prosecute a plan of advance to the south at the risk of war with the United States and Britain.  The possibility of a Japanese attack and a two front war with both Germany and Japan was a specter that haunted Soviet officials. <ref>President Roosevelt followed the debate through the medium of "Magic" -- a name applied to intercepted and decoded Japanese messages. He described the Imperial Conference as "a real drag-down and knockout fight... to decide which way they were going to jump --attack Russia, attack the South Seas (or) sit on the fence and be more friendly with us." President Roosevelt to Secretary Ickes, July l, l941 cited in William L. Langer and S. Everett Gleason, ''The Undeclared War, 1940-41'', (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1953), p. 646.</ref><ref>Testimony of Major General Charles A. Willoughby, August 9, 1951, [[Institute of Pacific Relations]], Hearings, Part 2, pp. 363-364; p. 505.</ref>  Russia had over 200,000 men facing Japan in the Far East. These troops were desperately needed in the war against Germany.  [[Victor Kravchenko]] a high Soviet official and defector wrote, "Beginning with the nineteenth (October, 1941), the situation improved. The first seasoned Siberian and Far Eastern forces began to arrive... Far Eastern troops, hardened in border struggle with the Japanese, and Siberian forces inured to winter warfare were rushing westward across a continent to hold the invaders." <ref>Victor Kravchenko, ''I Chose Freedom'', New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1950, p. 377-378.</ref>
  
 
The German war against the Soviet Union (known as the [[Great Patriotic War]] in the Soviet Union) demanded a huge dedication of resources and lengthy supply lines in need of defense later in the war permitted an invasion of mainland Europe by Allied Forces on [[D-Day]].
 
The German war against the Soviet Union (known as the [[Great Patriotic War]] in the Soviet Union) demanded a huge dedication of resources and lengthy supply lines in need of defense later in the war permitted an invasion of mainland Europe by Allied Forces on [[D-Day]].

Revision as of 18:39, 22 November 2008

An allied soldier in the ruins of Caen, 9 July 1944

World War II was a global conflict fought between the Allied powers which eventually came to include the United States, the Soviet Union, the British Commonwealth, the Republic of China, and many other nations, and the Axis Powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan). Several conflicts involving some world major powers precipitated the general conflagration. On September 1, 1939 Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany. On September 3, the Great Britain and the French Third Republic with its allies entered the war.

During the war, eight major world powers fought, along with several lesser states joining with one side or the other. On the side which lost were the Axis Powers Germany, Japan, and Italy. Against them came to be the Allied Powers United States, Great Britain and the Commonwealth, the Soviet Union with its Comintern allies, and the Republic of China. The conflict was the deadliest in human history with estimated deaths ranging from 50 million to over 70 million depending on research methodology.[1]

Failure of the League treaty

The causes of World War II are complicated. The immediate causes of World War II are generally held to be the Japanese attacks on China and the British and Dutch colonies, and the German invasion of Poland on the 1st September 1939. Following the two day deadline for the withdrawal of German forces, Britain, Australia, and New Zealand declared war on Germany, followed quickly by France, South Africa, Canada and Nepal.

The condition of Germany in the aftermath of World War I is also considered to be a contributing factor. The Weimar Republic that was founded at the end of WWI, was struggling from the beginning. One reason were the harsh terms of Versailles treaty. Although the terms of the treaty were never fully enforced, the psychological damage was immense, since they were perceived as a grave injustice. The republic was also struggling with the rejection by monarchist, who were still occupying important position in the state. Many WWI veterans believed that the German forces in WWI were not defeated, but that the social democratic leaders, who founded the Weimar republic to thwart a communist revolution, surrendered to the allies for political gains. It was known as the "stab-in-the-back myth", and was used to discredit the republic. [5] Although the Weimar Republic enjoyed a time of economic resurgence after the early years of hyper-inflation it failed to gain deep public support. The Weimar Republic was famously called a democracy without democrats.

Japanese Expansion in Asia, 1928 - 1941. [3]

In the early 1930 Germany was in a permanent political and constitutional crisis, caused by rising unemployment during the great depression. Germany was hit harder than most other countries. The National Socialists, known as the Hitler movement, promised to restore national pride and statue, by disbanding the Versailles treaty, and reverting the injustices imposed onto Germany by its international enemies. It was common to blame the "international Jewdom." Part of this ideology was that Germany deserved to be larger, and that in order to survive, it would have to conquer the East.

Chinese Civil War

China was engaged at the same time in two separate wars. One was with Japan and the other with the Comintern. The Soviet Union fought China with an army of Chinese revolutionaries, the CCP, directed and armed by the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union's ambitions in China were to transform all northern China — Sinkiang, Mongolia and Manchuria — into Soviet dependencies and to convert what remained of China into a Communist satellite state.

Edgar Snow wrote his 1937 book, Red Star Over China "the political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the Communist International, which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of Soviet Russia, under the leadership of Stalin."[2]

Mukden Incident

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 marked the beginning of World War II in Asia. In March 1932 the Japanese set up the puppet state of Manchukuo. On 24 February, 1933, the League of Nations adopted a resolution calling for the non-recognition of Manchukuo, however the Soviet Union nonetheless did recognize Manchukuo and sold Japan the Chinese Eastern Railway in 1935.[3]

The Ethiopian War

In 1935, fascist Italy under the leadership of Mussolini invaded Ethiopia, the only uncolonized nation in Africa and a member state of the League of Nations. While Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie tried to get the League to help his country, his pleas in Geneva went unheard. Italy's colonial occupation of Ethiopia was marked by the aerial bombardment and use of poison gas against civilian populations.

Reoccupation of the Rhineland

Spanish Civil War

Main article: Spanish Civil War

Second Sino-Japanese War

Main article:Second Sino-Japanese War

In 1937, when the Japanese invaded China, Soviet General Secretary Josef Stalin ordered the CCP to cease operations against China's government, the Kuomintang or KMT, and present a united front to the Japanese. This lasted until 1939.[4]

With the making of the Hitler-Stalin pact the Soviet Union was at war on the side of Germany. The KMT stopped major operations against the Japanese, instead, wasting its own men establishing an economic blockade of the communists at their capital of Ya'an, while the Japanese were overunning eastern portions of china and massacring people. The KMT quickly lost support as it was the commies who ran the guerrilla operations against the Japanese, while the KMT deliberately withheld troops to fight the communists

CCP Chairman Mao Zedong sent a secret directive to his followers IN 1944 which said:

"The Sino-Japanese war affords our party an excellent opportunity for expansion . . . the first stage is a compromising stage . . . but in reality this will serve as camouflage for the… development of our party. The second [stage]. . . should be spent in laying the foundation of our party's political and military powers . . . until we can match and break the Kuomintang. The third is an offensive stage . . . in which our forces. . . isolate and disperse…and wrest the leadership from the hands of the Kuomintang."[5]

Treaty of Munich

Main article Munich conference

The Locarno Pacts formed the background for the events of 1938 when Czechoslovakia was dismembered at Munich. When the guarantee of Locarno became due in 1936, Britain dishonored its agreement, the Rhineland was remilitarized and the way was open for Germany to move eastward. Poland protested vigorously at the refusal to guarantee her frontiers.[6]

At Munich, Hitler, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, Mussolini and French Premier Edouard Daladier carved up Czechoslovakia without consulting anyone, least of all the Czechs and Slovaks.[7] The outlawry of war was relatively meaningless without some sanctions that could compel the use of peaceful methods. Efforts in this direction were nullified by Britain.[8]

Polish Partition

By terms of a secret protocol to the Nazi-Soviet pact, Poland was partitioned with Germany and the USSR each occupying 200,000 square kilometers.
See also: Molotov-Ribbentrop pact

In the immediate run up to WWII, there were frequent reports of trespassing Polish troops. On August 31, 1939 German covert operatives staged a fake attack by Polish troops on a German radio station. WWII started on September 1, 1939, when German troops invaded Poland. Hitler justified this as a defensive act, pointing to the frequent border incidents, and said famously that from this moment on Germany would strike back.

The major tactical innovation of the war was the use of combined arms warfare, typified by the German doctrine of blitzkrieg. In this style of warfare armor, infantry, artillery and air power (see Luftwaffe) all coordinate to achieve overwhelming superiority at point on the enemy lines. Armor and fast-moving infantry units then exploit the gap and penetrate deep behind enemy lines. The objective is to cause a widespread collapse of the enemy's ability to fight. It was particularly effective during the early stages of the war, before the Allies developed effective countermeasures.

Partition of Poland.
Source: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, NY; Time magazine [4].

On September 17, 1939, Poland was invaded from the east by Hitler’s ally, Josef Stalin.

In 1939-1940, eastern Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Bessarabia were invaded and annexed into the Soviet Union proper. The Soviets lowered the local standard of living and disrupted and destroyed the prevailing socioeconomic structure. Local currencies were still legal tender but so was the Russian ruble. The occupying Russian soldiers were paid in rubles and the established exchange rate inflated the ruble by as much as 2000 to 3000 per cent. Overvaluing made the average Russian soldier extremely rich. This huge influx of rubles started a wave of inflation that natives did not notice at first. Eventually shortages were caused by Soviet purchasing agents that fanned out through the newly occupied nations, buying up wholesale goods in warehouses and the production of local factories.

Goods produced locally were shipped to Russia instead of resupplying the local market. Russian propaganda stated the goal was to raise the ordinary working person's standard of living. Prices were frozen, and wages raised by as much as ten times. Merchants and factory owners declared bankruptcy and went out of business. Shortages of food and other necessities introduced growing inflation, a black market, and discontent among the population. These deliberate Soviet policies raised the cost of living but not the actual standard of living. Once annexation was complete, local stores and industries were nationalized, their former owners arrested, stripped of their possessions, including their accumulated rubles, and shipped to the gulags of Siberia. Workers still employed were then paid in rubles. [9]

Soviet and German troops meet up in the town of Brześć on September 18, 1939.[10]

The French and British were initially reluctant to honor promises to the Polish government, avoiding serious consideration of an invasion of Germany. The British failed to send land forces in time to support the Poles (see Western betrayal). The French mobilized slowly and then launched a token offensive in the Saar. The Meanwhile, on September 8, the Germans reached Warsaw, having slashed through the Polish defenses. On September 17, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the East.

War in the West

Following the completion of the invasion of Poland, German forces regrouped and Allied forces remained defensive, leading US commentators to dub it the Phoney War. May 10 1940 marked the end of any accusation of a phony war, with the invasion of France by Germany, via the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium. Resistance by the British armies and French armies proved weak and the occupation of France began. British troops were routed and evacuated mainland Europe at Dunkirk. France was divided into the northern Occupied France and the collaborationist Vichy regime in the south of France, including Corsica.

The collapse and occupation of France, together with Germany's non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union,[11], their alliances with fascist Italy, and an expansionist Japan, benevolent neutrality of fascist Spain, with little of Europe outside of Axis hands led many to assume that Britain had been defeated. Indeed it would appear that the, seemingly foolish, decision of the relatively weak Britain to continue the war took the Axis powers off guard. This decision ensured the remaining British Empire was still involved in the war, with Japan threatening many British possessions in Asia.

In 1940 Denmark and Norway were invaded by German forces, to preempt a British occupation of Norway and acquire Norway's coastline and ports for the German Navy. Norway also contained a source of Heavy water, potentially crucial in the construction of an atomic weapon. The operation was successful, but losses were heavy, especially to the Kriegsmarine. This was soon followed by the British invasion of neutral Iceland (the invasion of Denmark by German forces marks the start of an independent Iceland).

With Britain the sole opposing European nation, the Battle of Britain commenced. The Luftwaffe attempted to achieve aerial dominance over the south of Britain, in order to allow a sea based invasion of Britain to proceed. For many months the Royal Air Force and Luftwaffe fought for dominance, with the resilience of the RAF, with British, Canadian and London Polish exile pilots forced a rethink of German tactics. The period that followed is known as the Blitz, where the RAF and Luftwaffe attempted to undermine the infrastructure of the opposing country. This was a period of great economic devastation, which took both countries a considerable period to recover from. More seriously it led to huge numbers of civilian deaths.

Finnish War

The Soviet Union invaded Finland, a member of the neutral Oslo Group of States on November 30 1939. This conflict came to be known as the Winter War. Despite the overwhelming numbers of the Red Army, the Finnish resistance was strong and the battle was hard fought before the Soviet army took control. The Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations on December 12, 1939 for violations of the League treaty.[12] The League of Nations found the Soviet Union conducting "a war of aggression [which] constitutes a violation of this solidarity and an international crime."[13]

Soviet-German War

Soviet map of offense plans in the West. The map is dated May 15, 1941.[14]

1941 marked the major turning point in the war in Europe, when the Germans undertook Operation Barbarossa - the invasion of the Soviet Union. In a war of major turning points, this was the most significant in Europe. This miscalculation diminished the German army's capacity.

Stalin was informed by his master spy in Japan, Richard Sorge, of the Japanese Imperial Conference in Tokyo which decided on July 2 not to move against the Soviet Union from Manchuria through Siberia, but instead to prosecute a plan of advance to the south at the risk of war with the United States and Britain. The possibility of a Japanese attack and a two front war with both Germany and Japan was a specter that haunted Soviet officials. [15][16] Russia had over 200,000 men facing Japan in the Far East. These troops were desperately needed in the war against Germany. Victor Kravchenko a high Soviet official and defector wrote, "Beginning with the nineteenth (October, 1941), the situation improved. The first seasoned Siberian and Far Eastern forces began to arrive... Far Eastern troops, hardened in border struggle with the Japanese, and Siberian forces inured to winter warfare were rushing westward across a continent to hold the invaders." [17]

The German war against the Soviet Union (known as the Great Patriotic War in the Soviet Union) demanded a huge dedication of resources and lengthy supply lines in need of defense later in the war permitted an invasion of mainland Europe by Allied Forces on D-Day.

Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Matsuoka pact. Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka is to his immediate left, Joseph Stalin is seen standing between the two.[18]

United States enters the War

American naval escort of British convoys carrying Lend-Lease aid lead to a shooting war with Germany. On October 17, 1941, the U.S. destroyer Kearney was torpedoed; two weeks later, the destroyer Rueben James was blown to pieces with the loss of 115 lives.[19] On November 10, an American escort of 11 vessels picked up a convoy of six vessels including America's three largest ocean liners with 20,000 British troops and guarded them from Halifax to India and Singapore. Many of the activities of the American Navy in the summer of 1941 were not known at all to the American public. In September, Roosevelt sought to repeal the Neutrality Act forbidding the arming of merchant vessels which was done on October 17. Two weeks later, all the essential points of the Neutrality Act were repealed. [20]

The attack on Pearl Harbor officially brought the United States into World War Two. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto of the Japanese Imperial Navy was against engaging with the United States, due to fear of "waking a sleeping giant". The United States recovered from the shell shock of the initial attack and plunged into the war with the slogan "Remember Pearl Harbor!".

Yugoslav and Chinese Partisans

Hitler invaded Yugoslavia in April 1941. The Yugoslavian government fled to London and joined the Allied governments-in-exile of Belgium, Czechoslovak, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and the French National Committee. At the Inter-Allied Meeting held of September 24, 1941 in London, the Yugoslavian government along with the other governments-in-exile and the Soviet Union, pledged their "adherence to the common principles of policy set forth" in the Atlantic Charter, to "respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live."[21] On January 1, 1942, the Yugoslavian government and the other signatories of the Atlantic Charter, along with most other Powers of the British Commonwealth and the Pan American Union of States, put forward the Declaration by United Nations, "being convinced that complete victory over their enemies is essen­tial to defend life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and to preserve human rights and justice in their own lands as well as in other lands, and that they are now engaged in a common struggle against savage and brutal forces seeking to subjugate the world.... each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Gov­ernments signatory hereto."[22]

Within Yugoslavia, Colonel Draja Mikhailovitch, a Serb, organized a resistance army on behalf of the Yugoslavian government known in the press as the Chetniks.[23] Yet Mikhailovitch soon found it more important to fight communism than the occupater and at the end of 1941 started colaborating with Germans. Interestingly, despite both being collaborators, there were still fights between the chetniks and the Croatian ustashe movement.

Josip Broz Tito, a member of the Comintern, led the communist Yugoslav Partisans. In the United States, Louis Adamic had access to the First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt. Adamic was invited to the White House and pressed upon U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt support for the subversion of Colonel Mikhailovitch in favor of Tito. The U.S. Office of War Information (OWI) began a campaign against Mikhailovitch which was repeated in mainstream media sources, with a call for unity with the partisans.

The Yugoslav government-in-exile in London continued to support Mikhailovitch. President Roosevelt in 1942 paid tribute to Mikhailovitch and his men. But at the Teheran conference, as part of the policy of appeasing Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill abandoned Mikhailovitch completely and yielded to Soviet Union’s choice of Tito. The U.S. withheld arms and aid from the United Nations ally and gave them to Tito and thus delivered Yugoslavia to communism, but also shortened the war as partisans were by then a strong force at fighting the occupator.

At the Cairo conference the same program was launched against Chiang Kai-shek and the Kuomintang. OWI and the American press began referring to the CCP as "partisans." The propaganda campaign originated in the Soviet Union. War and the Working Class, a Bolshevik publication, in March 1943 printed the following:

"The Eighth Route and the New Fourth Army in China consist of the most progressive, steadfast and self-sacrificing people of China. They are led by the Communist Party. . . . China has every possibility over the enemy."[24]

And it added, "national unity is necessary." This began to appear in the United States. The Chinese Communists and Mao were referred to as "partisans," and the call for "unity in China." Edgar Snow in the Saturday Evening Post wrote that the situation in China was much like that in Yugoslavia, with the Chinese partisans led by General Chu Teh, and Mao Zedong corresponding to Marshal Tito and his following.[25]

Shortly after the Teheran conference, Churchill in a speech in February 1944 indicated that the allies were no longer sending supplies to Mikhailovitch. Two months later King Peter, the Yugoslavian Head of State was forced to dismiss Premier Purich, which meant the entire cabinet in which Mikhailovitch was Minister of War. A delegate of the partisans Subasich was made Prime Minister. With the subsequent Russian invasion and the aid of American supplies, the Communists with Tito took control. Mikhailovitch, an ally of the Atlantic Charter, was sentenced by Tito after the war as a traitor.

War in Europe 1944

"The time of liberation is at hand. Poles, to arms! There is not a moment to lose!" This was broadcast on the Polish language radio station from Moscow on July 29, 1944, at 8:15 in the evening. A force of 40,000 responded. [26] But the Red Army, for sixty-three days, denying they knew anything about it, refused to drop weapons and food to assist the Polish fighters for whose liberty the British government had gone to war in September 1939. The Polish resistance fighters were massacred methodically by the Germans. At the very time at which Prime Minister Mikolajczyk from the legitimate Polish Government in exile in London flew to Moscow, the Kremlin "recognized" the Comintern puppet regime, the Lublin Committee, as the new Polish "people's government." [27]

While Romania was frantically imploring the West for assistance, the U.S. Office of War Information (OWI) praised the Soviet Unions’ "new democracy" and the "innocent nature of Communism." [28] By November, Andrey Vyshinsky, the legal mastermind who presided at the major show trials of Stalin's Great Purge, arrived to "restore internal order."

War in Europe 1945

See also Warsaw Uprising

On January 5, 1945, the Soviet Union announced that the Comintern affiliated Lublin Committee, with which it had dealt de facto ever since its birth, was now officially recognized as provisional government of Poland. "The Yalta Declaration," Soviet Deputy Commissar of Defense Nikolai Bulganin told the Lublin Committee on February 17, 1945 "is a scrap of paper.... You will be the Government of Poland, no matter how those elections turn out and whatever might happen in the meantime. Be steadfast and have faith in Stalin!" [29]

On February 24, 1945, in violation of the Yalta pact -- which had been signed on February 11 -- the U.S.S.R. indicated her unwillingness to co-operate in the Allied Control Councils in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania, and on February 27, Andrey Vyshinsky, in another violation of the Yalta pact, insisted by an official demarche that King Michael of Romania substitute Communists and Communist tools for certain members of his cabinet. Despite these Soviet manifestations of contempt for the agreements which had been signed at the Crimea Conference, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, on March 1, 1945, told a joint session of Congress that "more than ever before, the major Allies are closely united."

On May 26 presidential adviser Harry Hopkins met Stalin at the Kremlin to discuss the fundamental relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. Hopkins told Stalin that two months earlier there had been overwhelming sympathy among the American people for the Soviet Union and complete support for President Roosevelt's policies but now this body of American public opinion was seriously disturbed. Hopkins noted the deterioration of public opinion the previous six weeks had been so serious as to affect adversely the relations between the two countries.

Hopkins stated public opinion was alarmed and worried at the present trend of events and did not quite understand why, but it was obvious to them that if present trends continued unchecked the entire structure of world cooperation and relations with the Soviet Union would be destroyed. President Truman asked Hopkins to relay his great anxiety at the present situation and his desire to continue Roosevelt's policy, and intention to carry out all arrangements, formal and informal, which Roosevelt and Stalin made together. Hopkins said he wished to state as clearly and as forcibly as possible, the question of Poland had become a symbol of the U.S ability to resolve problems with the Soviet Union.

Stalin replied that at the Yalta conference it had been agreed that the existing Polish government was to be reconstructed and that anyone with common sense could see that this meant the Lublin Committee was to form the basis of the new government. Stalin said no other understanding of the Yalta Agreement was possible.

Stalin went on to declare that at Yalta it had been agreed that the three powers would sit on the Reparation Commission. Now the United States Government was insisting that France should be represented on the same basis as the Soviet Union. This, Stalin said, was an insult to the Soviet Union in view of the fact that France had concluded a separate peace with Germany and had opened the frontier to the Germans. To attempt to place France on the same footing as the Soviet Union looked like an attempt to humiliate the Russians. [30]


Far Eastern Theater

After Pearl Harbor, the Japanese juggernaut seemed unstoppable. In the south, they conquered the Philippines, the oil-rich Dutch East Indies, Malaysia, and extended their reach as far as the Solomon Islands. In the west, they seized Burma and the vital port at Rangoon, and even attacked British forces at Ceylon. The Japanese empire now reached as far as Wake Island in the east and the Aleutian Islands to the north. Attacks on Japanese targets, including the Doolittle raid, boasted American morale, but did little material damage. In May 1942, Japanese forces were finally halted at the Battle of the Coral Sea, which cost the Americans a precious aircraft carrier, but saved southern New Guinea. At the Battle of Midway a month later, the Japanese lost four of their best carriers, suffering a blow to their sea power from which they never recovered.

The Americans took the offensive in August with a landing on the island of Guadalcanal. The overall American offensive strategy was two-pronged. Forces in the south advanced up the Solomon island chain and New Guinea, while in the central Pacific, Marines took island after island, including Tarawa, Eniwetok, Saipan, and Guam. The two lines of attack came together at the Philippines.

Integral to the strategy was the policy of island hopping. Many Japanese strongholds were bypassed, allowing the American forces to concentrate on more strategically significant islands. For example, Truk and Rabaul were home to major Japanese air and naval bases, but once the bases were neutralized, there was no reason to take on the troops there. This policy not only saved thousands of American (and Japanese) lives, it shortened the war by at least several months.

The American invasion of the Philippines took place in late October of 1944 when Marines landed on Leyte Island. A few days later, the US Navy shattered what was left of Japanese naval power in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Japanese fought hard, however, and Leyte took two months to secure. When the Americans landed on the other islands, they found the troops there equally unwilling to retreat, but with American superiority in almost every area, the outcome was never really in doubt. Manila was captured by March, and the American position had become solid enough that leaders could start preparing for the final stage: the invasion of Japan. The first step was taken when the island of Okinawa was captured in June after two months of heavy fighting. Operation Olympic, the invasion of Kyushu, was scheduled for November 1945, followed by Operation Coronet, the invasion of Honshu, in March of 1946.

The Japanese, soldiers and civilians alike, were expected to put up a fierce defense. Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall believed that Japan would fight to the last man, and insisted on preparing for a land invasion of Japan with an army of 2,000,000 men anticipating a tremendous number of casualties. Some analysts estimated the number of projected casualties from Operation Olympic alone at 250,000 dead and wounded.[31] For this reason, many considered Soviet assistance necessary to the success of the invasion.

Time Line of Pacific War

Soviet Involvement

The Soviet Union was allied with Japan through the Matsuoka pact while giving aid and direction to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its Comintern ally, to subvert the Kuomintang (KMT) government. This duplicity of motives and actions bore out tragic and disastrous events -- most specifically the eventual enslavement of 550 million Chinese people and a deeply partisan crisis in American domestic politics. The Soviet Union agreed to President Roosevelt's "Great Design" for a United Nations with "Four Policeman" to enforce the peace, the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the Chinese Nationalist Government avowed in the Joint Four Power Declaration of United Nations at the Moscow conference of October 1943[32] But Stalinist agents in several countries, including subversive infiltrators in key U.S. Government positions, were able to subvert American foreign policy.

Stalin, throughout the war, had assured the United States through Ambassadors Averell Harriman,[33] Pat Hurley,[34] and Secretary of State Cordell Hull[35] that he would enter the war against Japan. In 1943, to Hull, the promise had been made "without any strings to it." In 1944, when the matter was again discussed with Harriman, Stalin specified his conditions: "provided that the United States would assist in building up sixty divisions in Siberia" and "provided the political aspects of Russia's participation had been clarified."[36] On the eve of Yalta conference the Japanese Foreign Minister asked the Russian Ambassador in Tokyo about the possibility of arranging for a settlement. Stalin did not communicate this to either Roosevelt of Churchill.[37]

Soviet involvement was controversial. Admiral Chester Nimitz and General Douglas MacArthur assured Roosevelt on his way to the Yalta conference at a stopover in Hawaii that as soon as they took the Philippines and the Marianas, Japan would be hopelessly cut off from supplies and that she would have to surrender.[38] (It should be noted, however, that this assessment was given before the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.) General George Marshall insisted that the Soviet Union becoming involved in the war was necessary to fight the Kwantung army Japan had in Manchuria, although this army was deteriorated by levies for use in other parts of the Pacific. In his biography, Admiral Leahy says that Marshall didn't seem to realize that the Navy had beaten Japan.[39] In 1943, the Joint Chiefs of Staff had taken the position that Russian entry into the war against Japan was essential, and this was the prevailing view as late as February 1945, as evidenced by the concessions that Stalin won at Yalta. But by June, the Americans, shocked by Soviet behavior in Eastern Europe and no longer interested in establishing B-29 bases in Siberia, were not so desirous of ensuring Russian participation at any cost. They still wanted Stalin to attack the Japanese forces in Manchuria, but Stalin hardly needed any encouragement in this regard.[40]

Japanese capitulation

On August 6, 1945, a B-29 Superfortress, the Enola Gay piloted by Paul Tibbet, dropped a nuclear bomb on Hiroshima. Then, on August 9, Bocks Car, a B-29 piloted by Frederick C. Bock dropped the second atomic bomb. On August 20 the Japanese government told the United States it was ready to accept the terms which the Allies proposed. The next day, the Allies replied, saying the authority of the emperor would be "subject to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers." On August 14 the Japanese government agreed to this.

The Soviet Union declared war on Japan on August 8, 1945, in breach of the Matsuoka pact which was supposed to remain in force until April 1946.[41] Five days later, Soviet armies were in Korea with an force of 250,000 and weapons taken from the Japanese. An armed militia of 150,000 men was quickly organized.[42] Dr. Syngman Rhee who served as head of the Korean Provisional Government-in-Exile for many years, returned and set out to organize a republic in South Korea. He envisioned a unified republic, with a constitution and elections. But there was no wish for election or unity in the occupation zone of North Korea.

Then, September 2, 1945, the Japanese government, along with all its military forces, formally surrendered to the United States. This happened in a ceremony aboard a United States battleship, the Missouri, on Tokyo Bay, where the Japanese Instrument of Surrender was signed. This was the ending of World War II, after six years almost to the day.

Greek Civil War

Greece sided with the Allies in World War II after Mussolini's demands for surrender were met with the famous "Okhi" (Greek for "no") statement of Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas. Italy invaded in October of 1940, and were repulsed by Greek troops in the Greco-Italian War. German and Bulgarian troops joined their Italian allies in the fight, and overran the Greek, British, Australian, and New Zealand forces. The Nazi invasion during the Battle of Crete was delayed by fierce Cretan resistance, delaying the German invasion of the Soviet Union for over a month. Despite their efforts, the Nazi war machine was able to annex Greece. After liberation, Greece fell into civil war between communists and royalists. Lasting until 1949, the conflict resulted in a Royalist victory, preserving the Greek state, but at the cost of 40,000 lives.

Chinese Civil War resumes

When the Japanese surrendered, the Chinese Nationalist army far outnumbered the Red revolutionary army. The Chines nationalist army was full of corruption, and forces defected by the thousands to the communists because the KMT was very corrupt, and greedy. Then appeared Stalin's army of 1,250,000 men armed with American guns, planes, tanks and munitions and other supplies and the balance began to alter. And the Maoists had immense quantities of munitions laid down by the Japanese in the Manchuria.

General George C. Marshall was sent by President Truman as his personal representative to China, arriving on December 20, 1945. His specific instructions from Secretary of State James Byrnes were to insist on a coalition government of "unity" as a condition for continued aid to the Nationalists.[43] CCP leader Mao Zedong already said publicly in April 1945 that a coalition government with the Chinese Nationalists would result in the defeat of "reactionary American imperialism."[44]

Marshall held several meetings with Chiang Kai-shek or his delegates and with Mao's representative, Zhou Enlai, and twice arranged ceasefires, in January and June of 1946. When the ceasefires was ordered the Communists held 57 counties. A year later they had 310—a violation of the truce. The Bolton Congressional report compiled a catalogue of the bridges, railway stations and other installations destroyed by the Communists during the ceasefire.[45][46][47] Marshall however imposed an embargo on the Chinese Nationalist government. All aid of all sorts to the Kuomintang was discontinued until the summer of 1947 by which time the balance had shifted. Even then what the U.S. sent was insufficient to stem the Communist tide.

Gen. Douglas MacArthur's Chief of Intelligence told the U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in 1951, "The real cause for the Communization of China is the long-range subversive operation, over the last two decades, conducted by professional Communists under orders of the Kremlin-controlled Third Comintern."[48]

Ukrainian Resistance

Fallout From World War II

The war effectively bankrupted Britain, which started the process of dismantling its empire. It was not until 2007 Britain finished paying off the loans to the USA which it had taken to fight Nazi Germany.

  • the Netherlands and Indonesia

After the defeat of the Japanese empire, their army retired from the Dutch East Indies and the land was returned back to the Dutch. Quickly after that, the people of the islands revolted against the government on 17 August 1945 and declared themselves independent. The Dutch sent their “new” army to the colonies to restore order. The Dutch scored a number of victories, but after the political pressure from the USA and Australia the Dutch acknowledged in 27 December 1949 the sovereignty of Indonesia

  • Supremacy of the USA in the Western World

Whilst most countries had seen their economies demolished by the war, the USA had industrialized heavily and made financial gains from sales of arms to other Allied countries. Prior to the war, one-third of Americans were employed in agriculture. The socioeconomic changes brought by returning soldiers, many of whom took advantage of a generous GI education benefits, precipitated the rise of the great American middle class.

  • Supremacy of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe.

During the war the French lost their colony of Vietnam to the Japanese. At the end of the war they decided to reassert their colonial mastery, but the Vietnamese now had other ideas. The battle with the French would eventually lead into the Vietnam war after the French defeat and American intervention ensued to prevent the spread of Communism.

See also

Further reading

  • Gerhard L. Weinberg, Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany: Starting World War II, 1937-1939, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
  • Gerhard L. Weinberg, A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, Cambridge: University Press, 1994.
  • Kursk: The Turning Point on the Eastern Front in World War II, by Roberto R. Padilla II

References

  1. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat1.htm#Second
  2. Red Star Over China by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.
  3. While You Slept : Our Tragedy in Asia and Who Made It, John T. Flynn, New York : The Devin - Adair Company, 1951, pgs. 18, 36, 65 pdf.
  4. While You Slept : Our Tragedy in Asia and Who Made It, John T. Flynn, New York : The Devin - Adair Company, 1951, pg. 46 pdf.
  5. Documents on the Problem of the Chinese Communist Party (Chungking, 1944).
  6. Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time, Carroll Quigley, Collier-Macmillan, 1966, pg. 293.ISBN 0-945001-10-X
  7. Tragedy and Hope, Quigley, pg. 638.
  8. Tragedy and Hope, Quigley, pg. 296.
  9. Vladimir Petrov, Money and Conquest: Allied Occupation Currencies in World War II, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1967, pgs. 173 -175.
  10. September 17, 1939 - Soviet aggression on Poland, The Institute of National Remembrance - Commission of the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation.
  11. Celebrations Marking 60 Years Since the End of World War II, Pavel Vitek, Russkii vopros - Studies, No. 1 2005. Translation from Russian.
  12. League of Nations' Expulsion of the USSR, December 12, 1939.
  13. The League of Nations Protocol for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, 2 October, 1920.
  14. Stalin's chance. Soviet Union and struggle for the Europe: 1939-1941. 2000. (In Russian) [1] Index to Maps and Illustrations [2]
  15. President Roosevelt followed the debate through the medium of "Magic" -- a name applied to intercepted and decoded Japanese messages. He described the Imperial Conference as "a real drag-down and knockout fight... to decide which way they were going to jump --attack Russia, attack the South Seas (or) sit on the fence and be more friendly with us." President Roosevelt to Secretary Ickes, July l, l941 cited in William L. Langer and S. Everett Gleason, The Undeclared War, 1940-41, (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1953), p. 646.
  16. Testimony of Major General Charles A. Willoughby, August 9, 1951, Institute of Pacific Relations, Hearings, Part 2, pp. 363-364; p. 505.
  17. Victor Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom, New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1950, p. 377-378.
  18. Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact April 13, 1941, The Department of State Bulletin Vol. XII, No. 305, April 29, 1945. Retrieved from the Avalon Project 11 August 2007.
  19. Oxford Guide to World War II, ed. by I.C.B. Dear, Oxford University Press, 1995
  20. Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time, Collier-Macmillan, 1966, pg. 720. ISBN 0-945001-10-X
  21. The Atlantic Conference : Resolution of September 24, 1941.
  22. Declaration by United Nations, January 1, 1942, U.S. Department of State Bulletin, vol. VI, p. 3.
  23. While You Slept : Our Tragedy in Asia and Who Made It, John T. Flynn, New York : The Devin - Adair Company, 1951, pg. 46 pdf.
  24. Quoted in While You Slept, Flynn, pg. 47.
  25. "Sixty Million Lost Allies", by Edgar Snow, Saturday Evening Post, June 10, 1944.
  26. Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time, Carroll Quigley, Collier-Macmillan, 1966, pg. 795. ISBN 0-945001-10-X
  27. Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, The Rape of Poland; Pattern of Soviet Aggression, (NY: Whittlesey House, 1948), p. 70.
  28. Reuben M. Markham, Rumania Under the Soviet Yoke (Boston: Meader, 1949), p. 169.
  29. Rear Admiral Ellis M. Zacharias and Ladislas Farago, Behind Closed Doors; the Secret History of the Cold War, (NY:Putnam, 1950), p. 58.
  30. Roosevelt and Hopkins : An Intimate History, Robert E. Sherwood, New York Harper and Brothers, 1948. Full record of meeting, pgs. 920 - 934 pdf. Those in attendance were Stalin, Molotov and Pavlov and Hopkins, Harriman and Bohlen.
  31. Historical Atlas of the U.S. Navy, by Craig L. Symonds, the Naval Institute, 1995
  32. Joint Four Power Declaration, Moscow Conference, October, 1943.
  33. John R. Deane, The Strange Alliance: The Story of Our Efforts at Wartime Co-operation with Russia (NY:Viking, 1947) p. 226.
  34. William D. Leahy, I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Truman and Roosevelt; Based on his Notes and Diaries Made at the Time; (NY:Whittlesey House, 1950), p. 147.
  35. Cordell Hull, Memoirs (NY:Macmillian, 1948), Chapter 90, p. 1398.
  36. John R. Deane, The Strange Alliance: The Story of Our Efforts at Wartime Co-operation with Russia (NY:Viking, 1947) p. 247.
  37. While You Slept: Our Tragedy in Asia and Who Made It, John T. Flynn, New York: The Devin-Adair Company, 1951, pg. 168 pdf.
  38. I Was There, Admiral William D. Leahy, New York, 1950, pgs. 245-259.
  39. I Was There, Leahy, New York, pgs. 245-259.
  40. The West Point Atlas of War, World War II: The Pacific, ed. by Brig. Gen. Vincent J. Esposito, Tess Press, 1959
  41. The Japanese-Soviet Neutrality Pact: A Diplomatic History 1941-1945, Boris Slavinsky, Nissan Institute Routledge Japanese Studies Series, 2003, pg. 1.
  42. Korea Today, by George M. McCune, Cambridge, 1950, pgs. 178-179.
  43. George C. Marshall, Statesman, 1945-1959, Forrest C. Pogue, New York, 1987, pg. 61.
  44. "On Coalition Government," address to the April 1945 Seventh National Convention of the Chinese Communist Party, quoted in Anthony Kubek, How the Far East Was Lost, Chicago 1963, pg. 238.
  45. Bolton Report, House Committee on Foreign Affairs (Sub-Committee No. 5) on Communism in China, 1948.
  46. History of the Chinese Communist Party, Jacques Guillermaz, London, 1972, pg. 445.
  47. China: A Political History, 1917-1980, Richard C. Thornton, Boulder, CO, 1982, pg. 192.
  48. The Case Against I.P.R., Time magazine, September 03, 1951.

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