Paul v. Davis
In Paul v. Davis, 424 U.S. 693, 701-02 (1976), then-Justice William Rehnquist wrote for a divided U.S. Supreme Court that "[d]amage to reputation alone is not actionable under § 1983 unless accompanied by injury to "some more tangible interests."
This holding has frequently been distinguished and questioned by lower courts.
In another case, a demoted employee was awarded a quarter of million dollars after Southwestern Bell Yellow Pages pressured customers to sign false statements that hurt the employee's reputation. 
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