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Left-wing anti-Semitism

Although many leftists try to deny it, “modern, political anti-Semitism is a creature of the left as well as the right,” admits Warwick University Sociology Professor Robert Fine, a member of the Conference of Socialist Economists.[1] "[A]nti-Semitism that we might call populist or democratic.... is linked equally to the left and right," agrees George L. Mosse, professor of history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, "to the new nationalism, but also to certain tendencies in socialism."[2] Omer Bartov of Brown University comments:

[O]ne of the most frightening aspects of Hitler's book is not that he said what he said at the time, but that much of what he said can be found today in innumerable places ... As long as it does not have Hitler's name attached to it, this deranged discourse will be ignored or allowed to pass. The voices that express these opinions do not belong to a single political or ideological current ... They belong to the right and the left, to the religious and the secular, to the West and the East, to the rabble and the leaders, to terrorists and intellectuals, students and peasants, pacifists and militants, expansionists and anti-globalization activists.[3]

Twenty-five years ago in the heart of the Cold War debate, anti-Americanism, anti-Israeli sentiment, and anti-Semitism "were fringe phenomena while now they are more fashionable and mainstream ... [T]hese sentiments are no longer the monopoly of any particular part of the political spectrum. They are there on the European Left, Right, and in the center," agrees Jeffrey Gedman, president of London's Legatum Institute.[4]

Origins of left-wing anti-Semitism

There were “strong anti-Semitic currents on the European left in Marx’s time," writes Fine; "[T]here is a strong tradition of anti-Semitism on the Left.”[5] One "need not venture far into the pre-1930 literature of anti-economics before encountering conspicuous anti-Semitic effusions," observes William Coleman of the Australian National University. "One may say that, before about 1930, anti-economics and anti-Semitism existed in striking conjunction." He adds that "the conjunction was not accidental... [A]nti-economics and modern anti-Semitism shared some leading ideological contentions."[6]

From the outset, according to French historian Marc Crapez, European racism and socialism were closely affiliated.[7] In addition, "anti-capitalism and anti-Semitism were deeply intertwined," writes Mosse. "[I]n fact, they had been connected since the middle-ages."[8] "For centuries, Jewish economic success led anti-Semites to condemn capitalism as a form of Jewish domination and exploitation," writes Columbia University history professor Jerry Z. Muller, "or to attribute Jewish success to unsavory qualities of the Jews themselves."[9]

“The Marxist, postmodern and post-Zionist pseudo-liberal views on democracy lead back to the totalitarian democracy of the French Enlightenment, in which anti-Semitism formed an essential ingredient,” writes Shlomo Sharan of Tel Aviv University.[10] At that time, "the Jews symbolised the distressing symptoms of modernity ushered in by capitalism and political liberalism," writes Christian Wiese, professor of Jewish history at the University of Sussex.[11]

Dissatisfaction with the practical consequences of Liberalism was even stronger in economic than in political matters; anti-capitalism was, after all, one of the oldest and most natural forms of anti-Semitism. Liberal society was characterized by a high degree of social mobility with a premium on individual worth and ability. Perhaps this pill was the hardest to swallow. All those who had an assured place in an ordered hierarchy, even if it was a comparatively low one, looked with distaste on an order which allowed others to rise to positions of eminence and influence ... anti-Semitism is anti-capitalist since capitalism is one of the causes of social mobility.[12]

“[T]he sudden prominence of a few Jews who benefited from economic liberalisation provoked a backlash from the Left.”[13] In France, writes Göttingen historian Karlheinz Weissmann, many on the left saw the Jews "as the embodiment of capitalism."[14]

Some of the most prominent thinkers of the Enlightenment were virulent anti-Semites: Voltaire denounced the Jews as "the greatest scoundrels who have ever sullied the face of the globe".[15] The Jews, he wrote, "deserve to be punished," for it is their "destiny."[16] "The Jewish nation dares to display an irreconcilable hatred toward all nations, and revolts against all masters," wrote Voltaire, "always superstitious, always greedy for the well-being enjoyed by others, always barbarous—cringing in misfortune and insolent in prosperity."[17] Immanuel Kant expressed similar views: "'The Jews still cannot claim any true genius, any truly great man. All their talents and skills revolve around stratagems and low cunning ... They are a nation of swindlers."[18]

Early Socialist Anti-Semitism

"It was in those days that the complaint arose that Jews were 'unproductive middle men,' 'economic parasites,'" wrote Edward H. Flannery, a professor at the Institute of Judeo-Christian Studies at Seton Hall University.[19] "It was shaped for the most part by socialist writers and became a favorite theme with later racist antisemites of a socialist stripe."[20] "Certain anti-economists affiliated with the socialist movement held Jews to be potentates of an oppressive contemporary social order."[21] Among the French Left, observes Weissmann, were "numerous individuals and groups who considered class struggle and race struggle as one and the same thing—especially with reference to the Jews...."[22]

“Socialist anti-Semitism is indeed almost as old as modern Socialism,” writes historian Edmund Silberner of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.[23] Early socialism was inseparable from anti-Semitism, portraying Jews as exploiters, leeches and parasites.[24] "[V]irtually every major figure in the early history of socialism — including Friedrich Engels, Charles Fourier, Ferdinand Lassalle, Marx, and Joseph Proudhon — showed a marked antipathy to Jews," observes Daniel Pipes.[25] In his comprehensive survey of French socialist literature from 1820 to 1920, historian Zosa Szajkowski found not a single word on behalf of Jews.[26]

Leroux

Pierre Leroux (1797-1871), who coined the word "socialism", “identified the Jews with the despised capitalism, and regarded them as the incarnation of mammon, who lived by exploiting others.”[27] He condemned what he called "the Jewish spirit, the spirit of profit, of lucre, of gain, the spirit of commerce, of speculation, in a word, the banker spirit."[28] "The true successor of Napoleon," wrote Leroux, "is the Jew."[29]

Fichte

"[T]hrough almost all countries of Europe there is spreading a powerful, hostile state, which is perpetually at war with all other States, and which in some of them oppresses the citizens with the utmost severity: it is Jewry."[30] wrote the early socialist Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814). "I see no other means of protecting ourselves against them, than by conquering their Promised Land and sending them all there."[31] Elsewhere, he suggested a more radical solution, in which Gentiles "chop off all their [Jews'] heads and replace them with new ones, in which there would not be a single Jewish idea."[32] In Fichte's text "we see the beginnings of the 'anticapitalist' impulse in modern antisemitism, which became central to revolutionist agendas for the redemption of humanity through the regeneration of Jewry," observes Guggenheim Fellow Anthony J. LaVopa.[33] Duquesne University professor Tom Rockmore comments that "available evidence points strongly to an early and perhaps enduring Marxian interest in Fichte's position."[34]

Fourier

Early socialist Charles Fourier (1768-1830) attacked (classical) "liberal retrogression" (i.e, laissez faire capitalism) for what he called "monstrous actions, such as the admission of the Jews to the rights of citizens" which, he wrote, introduce into society "parasites, unproductives." He added, "The Jewish nation is not civilised ... it devotes itself exclusively to traffic, to usury, and to mercantile depravity ... Every government having regard to good morals ought to repress the Jews," whom Fourier described as "all parasites, merchants, usurers, etc."[35] Fourier's disciple, Alphonse Toussenel, called Jews "the kings of the epoch," writing that "Europe is entailed to the domination of Israel. This universal domination, of which so many conquerors have dreamed, the Jews have in their hands."[36] "[I]ndustrial feudalism"—as Toussenel called capitalism—"is personified in the cosmopolitan Jew."[37]

Dühring

Marx's mentor Bruno Bauer published antisemitic articles by Marx's intellectual rival in the German Social Democratic Party, Eugen Dühring, "descibing Jews as idle usurers exploiting productive labor."[38]

Proudhon

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), one of the leading socialist theorists of his day (and a correspondent of Marx), called Jews “the race which poisons everything” and “the enemy of the human race”;[39] "The Jew is by temperament an anti-producer, neither a farmer nor an industrialist nor even a true merchant," wrote Prodhon. "He is an intermediary, always fraudulent and parasitic, who operates, in trade as in philosophy, by means of falsification, counterfeiting, and horse-trading."[40] He wrote, "This race must be sent back to Asia, or exterminated."[41] "By fire or fusion, or by expulsion the Jew must disappear."[42]

Bakhunin

Mikhail Bakunin, Marx's intellectual rival in the First International, called Jews “an exploiting sect, a bloodsucking people, a unique devouring parasite,”[43] Jews, he wrote, are disqualified from socialist leadership by "that mercantile passion which constitutes one of the principle traits of their national character."[44]

L'Affaire Dryfus/"J'Accuse"

When the bourgeois[45] Victor Hugo, a cultural Catholic,[46] defended Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer scapegoated by the French army, the French socialist press published a manifesto denouncing Hugo's crusade on the grounds that Jewish capitalists would use the rehabilitation of a single Jew to wash out "all the sins of Israel."[47]

Hyndman

Henry Hyndman, founder of Britain's atheistic, Marxist Social Democratic Federation (Britain's first socialist party) and National Socialist Party (now part of the Labour Party), "repeatedly invoked the stereotype of the 'rich capitalist Jew' in his anti-semitic remarks."[48] "Jew moneylenders," complained Hyndman's Justice, Organ of the Social Democracy (the first Marxist periodical in England),[49] "now control nearly every Foreign Office in Europe."[50] He blamed the Boer war on "Jew financial cliques" and the "Jew-jingo press."[51]

Sombart

Werner Sombart, a German economist, sociologist and self-proclaimed "convinced Marxist"[52] -- praised by Friedrich Engels as the only German professor who understood Das Kapital[53] -- wrote "modern capitalism is nothing more or less than an expression of the Jewish spirit."[54]

Dreiser

Theodore Dreiser, an atheist[55] as well as a Communist,"[56] was also a virulent anti-Semite[57] and defender of Hitler.[58] New York is a "kike's dream of a ghetto," he wrote; Jews are not "pure Americans" and "lack integrity."[59]

Organizations

Perhaps more important than the widespread anti-Semitism among socialist leaders was the anti-semitism of socialist groups such as the Socialist International and the Fabian Society.

Second International

After reference to the exploitation of workers by Jewish capitalists and denunciation of "philo-Semitic agitation," the Second International (the original Socialist International) adopted a resolution condemning not just antisemitic, but "philo-Semite outbursts as one of the means by which the capitalist class and the reactionary circles seek to divert the Socialist movement from its purpose and divide the workers."[60]

Fabian Society

Britain's Fabian Society (which "set up the banner of socialism militant")[61] hosted a number of anti-Semites, including Beatrice Webb, George Bernard Shaw, H.G. Wells, J.A. Hobson, and Oswald Mosley.

Beatrice Webb, who played a crucial role in the founding of the Fabian Society, wrote that “the strongest impelling motive of the Jewish race” was “the love of profit as distinct from other forms of money-earning.” (Italics in original.)[62] H.G. Wells wrote, "A careful study of anti-Semitism, prejudice and accusations might be of great value to many Jews," he wrote, "who do not adequately realize the irritation they inflict."[63] George Bernard Shaw once exhorted Jews to "stop being Jews and start being human beings."[64]

J.A. Hobson blamed London poverty on "the foreign Jew," whom he described as "a terrible competitor. He is ... almost void of social morality. No compunction or consideration for his fellow-worker will keep him from underselling and overreaching them; he acquires a thorough mastery of all the dishonourable tricks of trade which are difficult to restrain by law; the superior calculating intellect, which is a national heritage, is used unsparingly to enable him to take advantage of every weakness, folly, and vice of the society in which he lives."[65] "He craves the position of a sweating-master, the lowest step in a ladder that may lead to a life of magnificence, supported out of usury."[66] In his 1898 book Imperialism: A Study -- which would profoundly influence Lenin's Imperialism, the Higherst Stage of Capitalism (1917) -- Hobson blamed the Boer War on "Jew power."[67] That war, he wrote, was fought for the benefit of "a small group of international financiers, chiefly German in origin and Jewish in race."[68]

One Fabian socialist from the 1920s and '30s, Oswald Mosley,[69] went on to found and lead the British Union of Fascists (which "at first was modeled after Mussolini’s example but later became patterned after Hitler"),[70] in which role he was lauded by Shaw.[71]

Anti-capitalist anti-semitism in Germany

During the 19th century, the center of left-wing anti-Semitism gradually shifted from Paris to Vienna, where the "radical-democratic and nationalist left wing" was headed by German Liberal Party leader Georg von Schönerer,[72] one of a group of "left-wing German liberals" who demanded "the exclusion of Jews from the new movement and as far as possible from public life";[73] Hitler would later ascribe to Schönerer "the wisdom of a prophet."[74] Wilhelm Marr, who coined the term "antisemitism," wrote that "anti-Semitism is a Socialist movement, only in nobler and purer forms than Social Democracy."[75] In late 19th century Germany, a popular critical view held that capitalism was a product of Jewish culture.[76] Adolf Stöcker, leader of the left-wing Christian Social Party, wrote, "I see in unrestrained capitalism the evil of our epoch and am naturally also an opponent of modern Judaism on account of my socio-political views."[77] Meanwhile, anti-capitalist leader Adam Müller said, “The Jewish messiah, the Antichrist, has come to earth in the guise of the steam engine, and this in order to speed up the end of the world.”[78] "The doctrine of egalitarian free economics and of corresponding human rights in economics, as they were formulated in a humanely well-meaning way by the Scotsmen Hume and Smith, were used by the Jews in order to derive from them their monopoly," according to the anti-semitic Die Judenfrage.[79] According to Tyler Cowen, professor of economics at George Mason University:

German writers picked up on earlier anti-Enlightenment theories of a Judeo-Masonic conspiracy to rule the world. During the French Revolution, the Jews, along with the Masons, were identified as forces for liberalism, secularism, and capitalism. German writers quickly found the Jews to be a more popular target than the Masons, perhaps because they were more visible or more different. The originally Judeo-Masonic theories eventually discarded the other conspirators, such as the Templars and the Illuminati, and focused on the Jews.[80]

20th century: Stalinist anti-Semitism

According to Henry L. Feingold, director of the Jewish Resource Center at Baruch College, "socialism contained the seeds to become the anti-Semitism of the intellectuals of the Left."[81] In the 20th century, those seeds took root and grew into a forest bearing poisonous fruit. For example, in the former Soviet Union, even after the death of the anti-Semite Stalin,[82] Soviet anti-Semitism persisted:

Since World War II Jews and Judaism have been liberated in every country and territory where capitalism has been restored to vigorous growth—and this includes Germany. By contrast, wherever anticapitalism or precapitalism has prevailed the status of Jews and Judaism has either undergone deterioration or is highly precarious. Thus at this very moment the country where developing global capitalism is most advanced, the United States, accords Jews and Judaism a freedom that is known nowhere else in the world and that was never known in the past. It is a freedom that is not matched even in Israel ... By contrast, in the Soviet Union, the citadel of anticapitalism, the Jews are cowed by anti-Semitism, threatened by extinction, and barred from access to their God.[83]

Likewise, according to Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal, during the Six Day War on Israel in 1967, the East German Communist regime employed former Nazi propagandists to write anti-Israeli propaganda, with the substitution of a few words such as “Israeli” for “Jew” and “progressive forces” for “National Socialism.”[84] Also in Germany, the Tupamoros-West Berlin, a Communist group headed by Dieter Kunzelmann (who would later become a leader of the Green Party),[85] attempted to bomb Berlin's Jewish Community Center during a commemoration of the anniversary of Kristallnacht in 1969.[86] Meanwhile, Berlin's Red Army Faction (RAF), another Communist group, was led by Ulrike Meinhof, who stated, "Auschwitz means that six million Jews were murdered and carted on to the rubbish dumps of Europe for being that which was maintained of them—Money-Jews."[87] Another founder of this Communist group, Horst Mahler, an anti-Semite and Holocaust denier[88] was sentenced to six years in prison for incitement to racial hatred in 2005.[89] Despite being categorized as “right-wing” in the media, this Communist revolutionary insisted in a 2007 interview that his beliefs had not changed ("The enemy is the same")[90] since his days as an informant for the Stasi,[91] the secret police of Communist East Germany. (After the fall of East German Communism in 1990, it was revealed that the Stasi had been supplying the RAF with funds and logistic support, including false identities and network of safehouses in West Belin.)[92] The Revolutionary Cells (Revolutionäre Zellen), yet another German Communist group, joined with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (a hard-line Marxist[93] terrorist group) to hijack an Air France flight to Entebbe, Uganda, where they singled out the Jewish passengers in a plot to murder them.[94]

Historian Susan Urban of the Jersusalem Center for Public Affairs writes, "Germany has seen a growth of leftist anti-Semitism along with anti-imperialist, antiglobalization, and anti-Zionist attitudes."[95] "Outside of the Western communist parties, which were mostly oriented solidly towards Moscow’s anti-Zionism, a fully articulated anti-Zionism appeared only in the early 1970s with the formation of the so-called New Left, which interpreted the Middle-East conflict in terms of its anti-imperialist and anti-colonialist rhetoric," reports the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia. "As many authors have shown since, the anti-Zionism of the 1970s was largely not just ideological criticism of Israel, but a form of secondary anti-Semitism. The rhetoric of these organizations, whose remnants survive into the present day, often indicates the antisemitic nature of their criticism."

In 1985, the Palestine Liberation Front, then a Communist group, which had hijacked an Italian cruise ship, the MS Achille Lauro, murdered 69-year-old passenger Leon Klinghoffer, an American, shooting him to death and rolling his wheelchair off the deck, dumping his body into the ocean. The PLF singled out Klinghoffer for murder because he was Jewish. Finally, the Sandinistas, a Marxist-Leninist group that seized control of the government of Nicaragua in 1979, supported a newspaper that proclaimed that "the world's money, banking and finance are in the hands of descendants of Jews ... [C]ontrolling economic power, they control political power as now happens in the United States."[96]

In 1979 many of the country's approximately 250 Jews fled abroad in the face of persecution and imprisonment by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN). The FSLN bombed and partially destroyed the country's only synagogue, then confiscated the property shortly afterward and converted it into a youth training camp.[97]

21st-century anti-Semitism: the union of leftism and Islamism

In the 21st century these seeds have festered into full flower, with the embrace of Islamist anti-Semitism by the Left:

Although traditional Trotskyite ideology is in no way close to radical Islamic teachings and the shariah, since the radical Islamists also subscribed to anticapitalism, antiglobalism, and anti-Americanism, there seemed to be sufficient common ground for an alliance. Thus, the militants of the far left began to march side by side with the radical Islamists in demonstrations, denouncing American aggression and Israeli crimes. In Britain a new political party named Respect was established, uniting Trotskyites, Stalinists, Muslim Brotherhood militants, and similar groups.[98]

For example, the European Union's European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia decided not to publish its comprehensive study of the causes of anti-Semitism in Europe in 2003, a source familiar with the report told London's Financial Times, after the report uncovered "a trend towards Muslim anti-Semitism," and that "on the left there is also mobilization against Israel that is not always free of prejudice."[99] That year, one academic, Michael Neumann, Professor of Philosophy at Canada's Trent University, wrote that he wants to

help the Palestinians.... I am not interested in the truth, or justice, or understanding, or anything else, except so far as it serves that purpose. If an effective strategy means that some truths about the Jews don’t come to light, I don’t care. If an effective strategy means encouraging reasonable anti-Semitism, or reasonable hostility to Jews, I also don’t care. If it means encouraging vicious racist anti-Semitism, or the destruction of the State of Israel, I still don’t care.[100]

According to the progressive magazine Tikkun, "A.N.S.W.E.R. refuses to acknowledge or support the right of the Jewish people to national self-determination—though it supports that right for every other group with a history of oppression. When Jews are denied the rights of others, it is a tell-tale sign of anti-Semitism."[101]

[L]eftists who despise their own capitalist societies inevitably come to sympathize with militants—communists, Tier-mondistes, Islamists, it doesn't make any difference—who attack those societies from without. Right now, the only corner of the world putting up any sort of serious ideological fight against Western-style capitalism and liberalism is the Muslim Middle East. So, just as the left uncritically swallowed Stalin's propaganda in the 1930s, expect the left to increasingly swallow Arabist propaganda in our own era. And since one of the key elements of Arabist propaganda is a hatred of Israel and a suspicion of Jews, these building blocks of anti-Semitism will become more and more a part of mainstream leftist discourse.[102]

Thus in 2009, the "progressive" webzine Counterpunch.org, edited by Alexander Cockburn, son of Soviet agent[103] Claud Cockburn, could publish a revival of the "Blood Libel," alleging that Israeli Jews were killing Palestinian Muslims to harvest their organs.[104] By 2011, the Anti-Defamation League had documented the growing list of anti-semitic incidents at rallies of the left-wing "Occupy" movement. A 2012 survey of 5,847 Jews in the European Union found that more than three out of four said anti-Semitism had increased over the preceding five years, and more respondents blamed perpetrators of the most serious incidents on the political left than the right, according to the EU's Fundamental Rights Agency.[105] "[T]he left's anti-Semitism—which, of course, it never acknowledges and fervently denies—rather than the right's conventional version of this hatred comprises the key ingredient of anti-Semitism's current European existence."[106] Antisemitism may be found within much contemporary "antihegemonic, radical, liberal and socialist" discourse, admits David Hirsh of the University of London, who concedes that "antisemitism is a live and virulent threat."[107] "[T]he locus of anti-Semitism has moved from the right side of the political spectrum to the left ... These days, the hatemongers targeting Jews’ right to live peacefully spout the mantras of 'social justice' and 'peace studies,' not racial purity."[108]

The resurgence of anti-Semitism in Europe "hails much more from the left than the right. The latter—mainly because of the continued illegitimacy and unacceptability of Nazism and fascism in European public opinion—has had a much more circumspect influence on how Jews and Israel are depicted than the left has had. Because classical anti-Semitism—certainly in its praxis—was mostly associated with the European right, the left enjoyed a certain bonus when it came to discussing all matters relating to Jews and Israel. The left could take liberties with being anti-Israeli and anti-Semitic that the right could never have. This legitimacy bonus enabled the left to employ anti-Israeli discourse that—in the meantime—has become completely common and acceptable parlance in Europe. Because of this general acceptability and overall legitimacy, left-wing anti-Semitism is much more relevant and disturbing than right-wing anti-Semitism.[109]

As Urban concludes: "The extreme leftist trend in Germany contains elements that envision a world cleansed of the Jewish state."

Anti-capitalism, Anti-Americanism and anti-Semitism

"[I]n North America," wrote Marx, the "practical domination of Judaism over the Christian world" had achieved what he called "its unambiguous and normal expression."[110] According to Sombart, “what we call Americanism is nothing else, if we may say so, than the Jewish spirit distilled.”[111]

“The anti-American left... is at least as anti-Jewish as the clerical conservative right, especially among those who have embraced a pronounced 'antifascist' and 'antiracist' credo.”[112] "Anti-Americanism in the Islamic world and Anti-Americanism in Europe are in fact linked, and both bear an uncanny resemblance to anti-Semitism."[113]

"America and Jews are seen by many Europeans as paragons of a modernity they dislike and distrust: money-driven, profit-hungry, urban, universalistic, individualistic, mobile, rootless, inauthentic, and thus hostile to established traditions and values."[114] "Jews were blamed for the evils of capitalism in earlier centuries. Americans are blamed for globalization, that is, technological and economic change to the max, in our days."[115] "America today has become the world's market-dominant minority," while "Jews are a market-dominant mionority in the Middle East."[116]

Thus post-unification Germany, observed a journalist in 2005, is marked by "a poisonous cocktail of the three big As: anti-Americanism, anti-Semitism and anti-capitalism."[117] This association of Jews with America was illustrated in 2006, when German Neo-Nazis burned a copy of Anne Frank: Diary of a Young Girl along with an American flag.

Notes

  1. Robert Fine, “Karl Marx and the Radical Critique of Anti-Semitism,” Engage, No. 2 (May 2006).
  2. George L. Mosse, Modern Jewish History - Summary: Lecture #7, March 1, 1971, George L. Mosse Program in History, Department of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  3. Omer Bartov, "He Meant What He Said," The New Republic, February 2, 2004
  4. Jeffrey Gedmin, "Experiencing European Anti-Americanism and Anti-Israelism," Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, No. 27 (December 2004), Institute for Global Jewish Affairs
  5. Robert Fine, “Karl Marx and the Radical Critique of Anti-Semitism,” Engage, No. 2 (May 2006)
  6. William Coleman, "Anti-Semitism in Anti-economics," History of Political Economy, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Winter 2003), pp. 759-777
  7. Marc Crapez, L'antisémitisme de gauche au XIXe siècle (Paris: Berg international, 2002) ISBN 2-911289-43-9
  8. George L. Mosse, Modern Jewish History - Summary: Lecture #7, March 1, 1971, George L. Mosse Program in History, Department of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  9. Jerry Z. Muller, Capitalism and the Jews (Princeton University Press, 2010) ISBN 0691144788, p. 2
  10. Shlomo Sharan, Israel and the Post-Zionists: A Nation at Risk (Sussex Academic Press, 2003) ISBN 1903900522 , p. 125
  11. Christian Wiese, "Modern Antisemitism and Jewish Responses in Germany and France," in Michael Brenner, Vicki Caron and Uri R. Kaufmann, eds., Jewish emancipation reconsidered: the French and German models (Mohr Siebeck, 2003) ISBN 316148018X, p. 136
  12. Peter G. J. Pulzer, The Rise of Political Anti-semitism in Germany & Austria (Harvard University Press, 1988) ISBN 0674771664, pp. 42-43
  13. David Cesarani, The Jews and the Left (Labour Friends of Israel 2004) ISBN 0 9500536-5-1, p. 3 (PDF p.9)
  14. Karlheinz Weissmann, "The Epoch of National Socialism," The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Fall 1996), pp. 257–294, citing Edmund Silberner, Sozialisten zur Judenfrage: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Sozialismus vom Anfang des 19.Jahrhunderts bis 1914 (Berlin, 1962), pp. 65–82
  15. Arthur Hertzberg and Aron Hirt-Manheimer, Jews: the essence and character of a people (HarperCollins, 1998) ISBN 0060638354, p. 164
  16. Avner Falk, Anti-semitism: a history and psychoanalysis of contemporary hatred (ABC-CLIO, 2008) ISBN 0313353840, p. 9
  17. Voltaire, Essai sur les Moeurs et l'Esprit des Nations, Introduction, XLII: Des Juifs depuis Saül, 1753
  18. Alan M. Dershowitz, Chutzpah (Simon and Schuster, 1992) ISBN 0671760890, p. 113
  19. Eric Pace, "The Rev. Edward Flannery, 86, Priest Who Fought Anti-Semitism," The New York Times, October 22, 1998
  20. Edward H. Flannery, The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-three Centuries of Antisemitism (Paulist Press, 2004) ISBN 0809143240, p. 168
  21. William Oliver Coleman, "Anti-Semitism in Anti-economics," History of Political Economy (Duke University Press), Vol. 35, No. 4 (Winter 2003), p. 764
  22. Karlheinz Weissmann, "The Epoch of National Socialism," The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Fall 1996), pp. 257–294, citing Edmund Silberner, Sozialisten zur Judenfrage: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Sozialismus vom Anfang des 19.Jahrhunderts bis 1914 (Berlin, 1962), pp. 65–82
  23. Edmund Silberner, “The Anti-Semitic Tradition in Modern Socialism,” Scripta Hierosolymitana, vol. III (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1956), pp.378-379
  24. Edmund Silberner, “The Anti-Semitic Tradition in Modern Socialism,” Scripta Hierosolymitana, vol. III (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1956), pp.378-379
  25. Daniel Pipes, Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From (Simon and Schuster, 1999) ISBN 0684871114, p. 88
  26. Zosa Szajkowski, The Jewish Saint-Simonians and Socialist Antisemites in France, Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1 (January, 1947), pp. 33-60
  27. Dennis Prager and Joseph Telushkin, Why the Jews?: the reason for antisemitism (Simon and Schuster, 2003) ISBN 0743246209, p. 127
  28. Lewis S. Feuer and Irving Horowitz, Ideology and the Ideologists (Transaction Publishers, 2010) ISBN 1412814421, p. 141
  29. William Oliver Coleman, "Anti-Semitism in Anti-economics," History of Political Economy (Duke University Press), Vol. 35, No. 4 (Winter 2003), p. 764
  30. Moshe Leshem, Balaam's curse: how Israel lost its way, and how it can find it again (Simon and Schuster, 1989) ISBN 067167918X, p. 53
  31. Bernard Lewis, Semites and anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice (W. W. Norton & Company, 1999) ISBN 0393318397, p. 112
  32. Jon Stratton, Jewish identity in Western pop culture: the Holocaust and trauma through modernity (Macmillan, 2008), ISBN 0230604749, p. 24
  33. Anthony J. LaVopa, Fichte: the self and the calling of philosophy, 1762-1799 (Cambridge University Press, 2001), ISBN 052179145, p. 135
  34. Tom Rockmore, Fichte, Marx, and the German philosophical tradition (Southern Illinois University Press, 1980), ISBN 0809309556, p. 126
  35. Charles Fourier (Tr. Julian H. Franklin), Selections from the Works of Fourier (Allen & Unwin, 1901), p. 96. Cf. Bernard Lewis, Semites and anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice [W. W. Norton & Company, 1999] ISBN 0393318397, p. 111
  36. George Lichtheim, "Socialism and the Jews," Dissent, Vol. 15, No. 4 (July 1968), p. 320
  37. Jacob Katz, From prejudice to destruction: anti-Semitism, 1700-1933 (Harvard University Press, 1980) ISBN 0674325079, p. 125
  38. Richard S. Levy, Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia Of Prejudice And Persecution, Volume 1 (ABC-CLIO, 2005) ISBN 1851094393, pp. 61-62
  39. Norman Podhoretz, Why are Jews Liberals? (Random House, Inc., 2009) ISBN 0385529198, p. 62
  40. Bernard Lewis, Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry Into Conflict and Prejudice (W. W. Norton & Company, 1999) ISBN 0393318397, p. 111
  41. Daniel Halévy and Pierre Haubtmann, eds., Carnets de P.J. Proudhon (Paris: Marcel Rivière, 1961), Vol. II, p. 337; Vol. VI, p. 178
  42. Richard L. Rubenstein and John K. Roth, Approaches to Auschwitz: The Holocaust and Its Legacy (Westminster John Knox Press, 2003) ISBN 0664223532, p. 77
  43. Robert S. Wistrich, “Socialism and Judeophobia: Antisemitism in Europe before 1914,” Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook, Vol. 37, No. 1 (January 1992), pp. 111-145
  44. Bernard Lewis, Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry Into Conflict and Prejudice (W. W. Norton & Company, 1999) ISBN 0393318397, p. 113
  45. "M. Doumic on Victor Hugo as a Bourgeois," Boston Transcript (reprinted in Theodore Stanton, "M. René Doumic," New York Evening Post, March 24, 1898, as cited in Public Opinion, Vol. XXIV, No. 12 (January-June, 1898), p. 374
  46. John Andrew Frey, A Victor Hugo encyclopedia (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999) ISBN 0313298963, p. 222
  47. Joseph Telushkin, Jewish Literacy: The Most Important Things to Know About the Jewish Religion, Its People, and Its History (HarperCollins, 2008) ISBN 0061374989, p. 275
  48. Karin Hofmeester, Jewish Workers and the Labour Movement: A Comparative Study of Amsterdam, London and Paris, 1870-1914 (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004) ISBN 0754609073, p. 304
  49. Laurel Brake and Marysa Demoor, Dictionary of nineteenth-century journalism in Great Britain and Ireland [Academia Press, 2009] ISBN 9038213409, p. 328
  50. Guido Kisch, Historia judaica: a journal of studies in Jewish history, especially in legal and economic history of the Jews, Volumes 13-14 (Historia Judaica, 1951), p. 44
  51. Martin Crick, The History of the Social-Democratic Federation (Edinburgh University Press, 1994) ISBN 1853310913, p. 159
  52. Hermynia Zur Mühlen (Tr. Lionel Gossman), The End and the Beginning: The Book of My Life, Volume 1 (Open Book Publishers, 2010) ISBN 1906924279, p. 241
  53. Frederick Engels, Introduction, Capital Volume III (Supplement), 1894. Cf. Engels To W. Sombart in Breslaun, London, March 11, 1895, in Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutscher Arbeiterbewegung No. 3, 1961, reprinted in Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Volume 3, pp. 504-506. Marxists Internet Archive (marxists.org)
  54. Werner Sombart, The Jews and Modern Capitalism (E. P. Dutton, 1913), p. 38
  55. "Religion: Atheist's Oath," Time, August 20, 1928
  56. Theodore Dreiser, "Request to Become a Communist," The Daily Worker, July 30, 1945, reprinted in Albert Fried, Communism in America: A History in Documents (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997) ISBN 0231102356, pp. 348-350
  57. "the Jew ... has been in America all of two hundred years, and he has not faded into a pure American by any means, and he will not. As I said before, he maintains his religious dogmas and his racial sympathies, race characteristics, and race cohesion as against all the types or nationalities surrounding him wheresoever." Lee Bernstein, "The Avengers of Christie: Street Racism and Jewish Working-Class Rebellion in Mike Gold’s 'Jews Without Money," in Janet Galligani Casey, The Novel and the American Left: Critical Essays on Depression-Era Fiction (University of Iowa Press, 2004) 1587294753, p. 118
  58. Dreiser excused the Holocaust, saying that British rule in India " "makes Germany's cruelties seem like a pipe dream," and "If Germany can beat England at the game of mass human torture ... it will have to go some." The editor explains in a footnote that Dreiser was parroting the Communist Party line during the Nazi-Soviet pact "by portraying Britain as a greater threat to world democracy and peace than Germany." (Frederic E. Rusch and Donald Pizer, eds., Theodore Dreiser: Interviews (University of Illinois Press, 2004) ISBN 0252029437, p. 305) Cf. H. Elias, ed., Letters of Theodore Dreiser: A Selection, vol. 2 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1959), pp. 405, 650–52; Richard Tuerk, “The American Spectator Symposium Controversy: Was Dreiser Anti-Semitic?” Prospects 16 (1991), pp. 367–89; Louis Harap, Creative Awakening: The Jewish Presence in Twentieth-Century American Literature, 1900-1940s, (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1987) ISBN 0313253862, pp. 128-132.
  59. Alan M. Dershowitz, Chutzpah (Simon and Schuster, 1992) ISBN 0671760890, p. 113
  60. Socialism, Encyclopaedia Judaica (The Gale Group, 2008), via The Jewish Virtual Library
  61. G. Bernard Shaw, "Fabian Tract No. 41: The Fabian Society, Its Early History," (Fabian Society Reprint, 1899)
  62. Beatrice Webb, “East London Labour,” The Nineteenth Century, Vol. XXIV (July-December 1888), p. 176.
  63. Alan M. Dershowitz, Chutzpah (Simon and Schuster, 1992) ISBN 0671760890, p. 112
  64. Shaw Society of America, The Shaw review, Volumes 3-4 (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1960), p. 13
  65. John A. Hobson, Problems of Poverty: An Inquiry into the Industrial Condition of The Poor (1891), Project Gutenberg
  66. Anthony Julius, Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England (Oxford University Press, 2010) ISBN 0199297053, p. 405
  67. Anthony Julius, Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England (Oxford University Press, 2010) ISBN 0199297053, pp. 201-202
  68. Bryan Cheyette, Constructions of "the Jew" in English Literature and Society: Racial Representations, 1875-1945 (Cambridge University Press, 1995) ISBN 0521558778, p. 156
  69. Rose L. Martin, Fabian Freeway: High Road to Socialism in the U.S.A., 1884-1966 (Fidelis, 1968), p. 62
  70. Zygmund Dobbs, Keynes at Harvard: economic deception as a political credo, (New York: Veritas Foundation, 1960), pp. 88-90
  71. Gareth Griffith, Socialism and Superior Brains: The Political Thought of Bernard Shaw (CRC Press, 2002) ISBN 0203210832, p. 263
  72. Viktor Karády, The Jews of Europe in the modern era: a socio-historical outline (Central European University Press, 2004) ISBN 9639241520, p. 360
  73. Robert A. Kann, A history of the Habsburg Empire, 1526-1918 (University of California Press, 1980) ISBN 0520042069, p. 433
  74. Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf: zwei Bände in einem Band, Vol. 1, 40th ed., (Bottom of the Hill, 1938) ISBN 1935785079, p. 93
  75. Peter G. J. Pulzer, The rise of political anti-semitism in Germany & Austria (Harvard University Press, 1988) ISBN 0674771664, p. 45
  76. Cristobal Young, "Christianity, Judaism, and the Spirit of Capitalism: The Weber-Sombart Debates," Department of Sociology, Princeton University, p. 1
  77. Peter G. J. Pulzer, The rise of political anti-semitism in Germany & Austria (Harvard University Press, 1988) ISBN 0674771664, p. 95.
  78. George L. Mosse, Modern Jewish History - Summary: Lecture #7, March 1, 1971, George L. Mosse Program in History, Department of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  79. Peter G. J. Pulzer, The rise of political anti-semitism in Germany & Austria (Harvard University Press, 1988) ISBN 0674771664, p. 51
  80. Tyler Cowen, "The Socialist Roots of Modern Anti-Semitism," The Freeman (Foundation for Economic Education), January 1997
  81. Henry L. Feingold, Lest memory cease: finding meaning in the American Jewish past (Syracuse University Press, 1996) ISBN 0815604009, p. 81
  82. See Konstantin Azadovskii and Boris Egorov, "From Anti-Westernism to Anti-Semitism," Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Winter 2002), pp. 66-80. Cf. Louis Rapoport, Stalin's war against the Jews: the doctors' plot and the Soviet solution (Free Press, 1990) ISBN 0029258219
  83. Ellis Rivkin, The shaping of Jewish history: A radical new interpretation, (C. Scribner's Sons, 1971) ISBN 0684132362, p. 240
  84. Simon Wiesenthal, The Same Language: First for Hitler—Now for Ulbricht (Bonn: Rolf Vogel, Deutschland Berichte, 1968), as cited in Jeffrey Herf, Divided memory: the Nazi past in the two Germanys (Harvard University Press, 1997) ISBN 0674213033, p. 189
  85. Aribert Reimann, Dieter Kunzelmann: Avantgardist, Protestler, Radikaler, (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009), ISBN 3525370105, pp. 274-286
  86. Walter Laqueur, The changing face of antisemitism: from ancient times to the present day (Oxford University Press US, 2006) ISBN 0195304292, p. 147
  87. "Auschwitz heisst, das sechs Millionen Juden ermordet und auf die Müllkippen Europas gekarrt wurden als das, als was man sie ausgab — als Geldjuden.") Robert S. Wistrich, Hitler's apocalypse: Jews and the Nazi legacy (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1985) ISBN 0297787195, p. 230
  88. One-Man Right-Wing Circus Act: German Sentenced to 10 Months for Hitler Greeting,” Der Speigel Online International
  89. Neo-Nazi Horst Mahler transferred to prison in Bavaria,” European Jewish Press, December 29, 2006
  90. “Der Feind ist derselbe.” Hoerst Mahler in Michael Friedman, “So spricht man mit Nazis,” Vanity Fair (German edition), November, 2007, p. 17
  91. Helen Pidd, "einhof-gang-founder-stasi Baader-Meinhof terrorist may have worked for the Stasi," The Guardian, August 1, 2011
  92. John Schmeidel "My Enemy's Enemy: Twenty Years of Co-operation between West Germany's Red Army Faction and the GDR Ministry for State Security," Intelligence and National Security Vol. 8, No. 4 (October 1993), pp. 59–72.
  93. Edmund L. Andrews and John Kifner, George Habash, 82, founder of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, The New York Times, January 27, 2008
  94. Stephen E. Atkins, Encyclopedia of modern worldwide extremists and extremist groups (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004) ISBN 0313324859, p. 277
  95. Susanne Urban, "Anti-Semitism In Germany Today: Its Roots And Tendencies1," Jewish Political Studies Review Vol. 16 (Fall 2004), pp. 3-4
  96. El Nuevo Diario, July 17, 1982, as cited in Porfirio R. Solórzano, The Nirex Collection: Nicaraguan Revolution Extracts, Twelve Years, 1978-1990, Vol VII: Of War and Peace [Litex, 1993] ISBN 1877970018)
  97. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Nicaragua, Annual Report on International Religious Freedom (U.S. Department of State, 2001). Cf. Elliott Abrams, "Persecution and Restrictions of Religion in Nicaragua," (Transcript), Department of State bulletin, October-December 1984, pp. 49-50
  98. Walter Laquer, The changing face of antisemitism: from ancient times to the present day [Oxford University Press US, 2006] ISBN 0195304292, p. 186
  99. Reuters, "EU racism watchdog shelves anti-Semitism report," Haaretz, November 22, 2003
  100. Yoni Petel, "Antisemitism on Campus: A Student's Perspective," League for Human Rights, B'nai B'rith of Canada, Submission to the Special Rapporteur on Racism, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, September 25, 2003
  101. "Authoritarianism and Anti-Semitism in the Anti-War Movement?," Tikkun, May-June 2003
  102. Johnathan Kay, quoted in Jamie Glazov, Symposium: "Anti-Semitism - the New Call of the Left," FrontPageMagazine.com, March 14, 2003
  103. Chapman Pincher, Treachery: Betrayals, Blunders, and Cover-ups: Six Decades of Espionage against America and Great Britain (Random House, Inc., 2009) ISBN 140006807X, pp. 43-47
  104. Alison Weir, "Israeli Organ Harvesting," Counterpunch.org, August 28-30, 2009) Cf. David Horowitz, Unholy alliance: radical Islam and the American left (Regnery Publishing, 2004) ISBN 089526076X, p. 148
  105. European Union Fundamental Rights Agency, Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: experiences and perceptions of anti-Semitism (Vienna: EU-FRA, 2013) ISBN 978-92-9239-262-8, p. 13
  106. Andrei S. Markovits, "'Twin Brothers': European Anti-Semitism and Anti-Americanism," Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, No. 6 [January 2006] Institute for Global Jewish Affairs
  107. David Hirsh, Book Review: "Perry and Schweitzer, Antisemitic myths: a historical and contemporary anthology," Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 32, No. 4 (May 2009), pp. 749-750
  108. Jonathan Kay, "The lesson from Israel Apartheid Week: Anti-Semitism is now a creature of the left," National Post, March 2, 2009
  109. Andrei S. Markovits, "European Anti-Americanism (and Anti-Semitism): Ever Present Though Always Denied," Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, No. 2 [August 2005], Institute for Global Jewish Affairs
  110. Karl Marx, "On The Jewish Question," Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, February 1844, reprinted in Karl Marx, Early writings (Penguin, 1992) ISBN 0140445749, p. 232
  111. Werner Sombart, The Jews and Modern Capitalism (E. P. Dutton, 1913), p. 44
  112. Robert S. Wistrich, European Anti-Semitism Reinvents Itself, [The American Jewish Committee, 2002], p. 11
  113. Natan Sharansky, "On Hating Jews: The inextricable link between anti-Semitism and anti-Americanism," The Wall Street Journal, November 17, 2003
  114. "European Anti-Americanism and Anti-Semitism: Similarities and Differences," An Interview with Andrei S. Markovits, Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism [Institute for Global Jewish Affairs], No. 16 [January 1, 2004]
  115. Josef Joffe, quoted in Mark O'Keefe, "Anti-Semitism and Anti-Americanism," Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, May 5, 2006
  116. Amy Chua, World on fire: how exporting free market democracy breeds ethnic hatred and global instability [Random House, Inc., 2004] ISBN 0385721862, pp. 218, 229
  117. Wolfgang Munchau, "Anti-Americanism, anti-Semitism, anti-capitalism," The Spectator, May 21, 2005
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