First French Republic
The 1st French Republic, or Republique Franciase was founded on 22 September 1792, by the National Convention, following the overthrow of Louis XVI. It lasted until the creation of the First French empire by Napoleon 1st. This period saw the establishment of the National Convention, the reign of terror, and eventually the Consulate.
During the war with Prussia and Austria, the duke of brunswick issued his Brunswick Manifesto which threatened harm to the citizens of Paris, if the monarchy was harmed. This served as a catalyst to the anger boiling in Paris, and on 10/August/1789, the Palace of Tuileries was stormed, and the Swiss guard massacred. Soon after, in September, the counter-revolutionaries in the city prisons were all killed, in the September Massacre.
The Department of Public Safety
The department was formed on April 6, 1793, with Maximillien Robespierre put at the head. It was tasked with dealing with the daily riots, the constant food shortages, and the threats of the right wing monarchists. This department was soon the de facto government. Under the rule of the department, the Declaration on the Rights of the Man and the Citizen. During this time, the Guillotine became known the national razor.
End of the Republic
The Directory of France was overthrown in a coup d'état on 18/oct/1799. Napoleon Bonaparte was a conspirator in the coup. With the declaration of the Consul, and Bonaparte at the head, the republic in essence came to an end.
- Doyle, William. The Oxford History of The French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. pp 191–192.
- Jack R. Censer and Lynn Hunt, ed., 2001. Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution(American Social History Productions, Inc.);
- Censer, Jack R. and Hunt, Lynn. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004.