Autonomic division

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The Autonomic division or Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is a subdivision of the nervous system composed of efferent nerves leading to cardiac and smooth muscle, glands and other viscera. It is further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which typically have opposing and sometimes complementary functions on a particular organ.


  • Martin, JH (2003). Neuroanatomy text and atlas 3rd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Kandel, ER; Schwartz JH, Jessell TM (2000). Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8385-7701-6.