Project MKUltra (also called Project MK-Ultra) was a top-secret illegal CIA program during the Cold War, from the early 1950s until 1973, in an effort to develop mind-control technology. MKUltra research took place at 80 institutions across the United States and Canada, including colleges, universities, hospitals, and prisons. It made use of several forms of psychological torture, including abuse, drugs, isolation, and hypnotism, sometimes using unwitting subjects. When the Church Committee began investigations, CIA director Richard Helms ordered all files destroyed. All currently known information on MKUltra is based on eyewitness interviews and the relatively small number of files that survived, due to being accidentally filed in the wrong location.
Some allege that a successful branch of MKUltra is still active today, in a secret project called Project Monarch.
- Jo Thomas (3 Sep 1977). "C.I.A Says It Found More Secret Papers on Behavior Control: Senate Panel Puts Off Hearing to Study Data Dozen Witnesses Said To Have Misled Inquiry C.I.A. Tells Of Finding Secret Data". New York Times.
- Horrock, Nicholas M. (4 Aug 1977). "80 Institutions Used in C.I.A. Mind Studies: Admiral Turner Tells Senators of Behavior Control Research Bars Drug Testing Now". New York Times.
- "An Interview with Richard Helms". Central Intelligence Agency. 2007-05-08. Retrieved 2008-0