The Ptolemaic Dynasty

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The Ptolemaic dynasty (305 B.C. - 30 B.C.) of the Greeks would successfully rule Egypt for nearly 300 years, mingling Hellenic traditions with the mighty legacy of the Pharaohs. It was one of a number of smaller dynasties that came out of the conquests of Alexander the Great. It would continue until Roman conquest would make Egypt a province of Rome in 30 B.C. and thus end the great dynasty.

Following Alexander's death, his generals divided the Empire, each setting up their own kingdoms. One of them, Ptolemy, took Egypt as his share and made Alexandria his capital, ruling as Ptolemy I Soter and thus established the last dynasty that would rule Egypt with the title of Pharaoh. [1]

Ptolemaic Dynasty (Second Greek dynasty, 305-30 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Ptolemy I Soter One of Alexander III's generals; Abdicated in 285 BC 305-285 BC
Berenice I Wife of Ptolemy I  ?-285 BC
Ptolemy II Philadelphos - 288-246 BC
Arsinoe I Wife of Ptolemy II 284-274 BC
Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II 277-270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I - 246-222 BC
Berenice II Wife of Ptolemy III 244-222
Ptolemy IV Philopator - 222-204 BC
Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV 220-204 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes - 204-180
Cleopatra I Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193-176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor - 180-164 BC
Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VI 173-164
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II (169 to 164) 171-163
Ptolemy VI Philometor Second rule; restored Egypt from Ptolemy VIII in 163 BC 163-145
Cleopatra II Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against her husband in 131 BC; became sole ruler of Egypt. 163-127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 144-144
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Second rule 145-131
Cleopatra III Second wife of Ptolemy VIII 142-131 BC
Ptolemy Memphitis Proclaimed king by Cleopatra II; killed by Ptolemy VIII 131
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Second rule 127-116
Cleopatra III Second rule; restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. 127-107 BC
Cleopatra II Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. 124-116
Ptolemy IX Soter II Died 80 BC 116-110
Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, removed by Cleopatra III 116-115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Died 88 BC 110-109 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Second rule 109-107 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Second rule 107-88 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Second rule 88-81 BC
Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered 19 days later on his orders 81-80
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Set on throne by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being hung by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC 80-58 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV  ?-57 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII  ?-58 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII 58-55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Second rule; reigned briefly with daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 55-51
Cleopatra VII [[Philopator] The Cleopatra of legend; last ruler of Egypt before Roman conquest 51-30
Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 51-47 BC
Arsinoe IV Opposed Cleopatra VII 48-47
Ptolemy XIV Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 47-44 BC
Ptolemy XV Caesarion Young son of Cleopatra VII by Julius Caesar; killed on orders of Octavian (future Roman emperor Augustus) 44-30

See also

External links


  1. The Ptolemaic Dynasty