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Afrikaans is the language of the Afrikaners (and Cape Coloureds) of South Africa, who form about 56% of that country's white population. It is derived from the South-Hollandic dialect of Dutch, brought to southern Africa in the 17th century. Its double negative structure is acquired from French, (the double negative was absent in both German and modern Dutch, but present in Middle Dutch).

It has also borrowed words from Malay.


In 1925, when Afrikaans replaced Dutch as one of the official languages of South Africa, a spelling system drafted by Roeland Anthonie Kollewijn was immediately adopted. De spelling Kollewijn did not get government approval in the Netherlands, but many of his recommendations were implemented in later spelling reforms.


  • [1]- The Christian Afrikaners. A lecture by Dr.Lee (a Professor of Calvinism)
  • [2] Negation in Middle Dutch (Universität Wien)