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Alkylation is a refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene). This process uses the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid.

The product is alkylate, an isoparaffin, which has high octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to improve the antiknock value of the fuel.