The community has been in existence since the late 1870s, developing after the laying out of the Cottonbelt Railroad nearby and the construction of a sawmill to cut timber in the area. It was initially known as May's Switch, then as Little River Station, but after the establishment of a post office in 1895, it was named for W. C. Catron, one of the early settlers.
The Catron area is characterized by the flat, low-lying terrain of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. It has a total area of 0.37 square miles, and an average elevation of 282 feet.
At the 2010 census, Catron had a total of 67 inhabitants, grouped into 28 households, with a population density of 181.1 people per square mile. This figure was essentially unchanged from the 2000 census, when Catron had a population of 68. 83.58% of the inhabitants were White, 14.93% were African-American, and 1.49% were from two or more races.
The median age in Catron was 46.5 years, with 25.4% of inhabitants under the age of 18, 6.1% between 18 and 24 years old, 18.0% between 25 and 44, 35.9% between 45 and 64, and 14.9% 65 years old or older. The sex ratio was 55.2% male, 44.8% female.
According to the 2017 American Community Survey, the median household income in Catron was $21,875, and the median family income was $22,917. The unemployment rate was 0.0%. The per capita income was $15,702. About 16.3% of the population lived below the poverty line, including 28.0% of people 65 years old or older.