Citric acid cycle

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The citric acid cycle is an ingenious series of reactions that oxidizes the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA to two molecules of CO2 in a manner that conserves the liberated free energy for utilization in ATP generation.

Reactions of the Cycle

Historical Perspective

Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Multienzyme Complex

Control of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle

Citrate Synthase


NAD+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase

α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase

Succinyl-CoA Synthetase

Succinate Dehydrogenase


Malate Dehydrogenase

Integration of the Citric Acid Cycle

Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle

The Amphibolic Nature of the Citric Acid Cycle