Last modified on September 26, 2018, at 14:51

Closed system

Closed system (Physics)

A closed system in Physics is a physical system that does not exchange matter with its surroundings, but may exchange energy.

Closed system (Biology)

A closed system in Biology may refer to:

  • A system of cyclic information-controlled processes observed in living cells such as Translation-Replication-Transcription. W.Gitt infers from simplified representation of such cyclic process that it must have been complete right from the start and could not have originated in a continuous process.[1][note 1]
  • A delicately balanced anatomical structure of mutually interdependent parts such as bones and various organs (locomotive, digestive, sense etc.) forming a whole of living organism.[3][note 2]


  1. cf. "What makes the origin of life and of the genetic code a disturbing riddle is this: the genetic code is without any biological function unless it is translated; that is, unless it leads to the synthesis of the proteins whose structure is laid down by the code. But … the machinery by which the cell (at least the non-primitive cell, which is the only one we know) translates the code consists of at least fifty macromolecular components which are themselves coded in the DNA. Thus the code can not be translated except by using certain products of its translation. This constitutes a baffling circle; a really vicious circle, it seems, for any attempt to form a model or theory of the genesis of the genetic code."[2]
  2. cf.Doctrine of the correlation of parts


  1. Werner Gitt (2007). In the beginning was information: A Scientist Explains the Incredible Design in Nature. Master Books, 97. ISBN 978-0890-514610. 
  2. F. J. Ayala, T. G. Dobzhansky (1974). Studies in the Philosophy of Biology: Reduction and Related Problems. University of California Press, 270. 
  3. Edward J. Larson (2006). Evolution: The remarkable History of a Scientific Theory. Modern Library Chronicles, 19. ISBN 978-0-812-968491. 

See also