Codex Washingtonianus

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A leaf from Codex Washingtonianus
Codex Washingtonianus, or W, is a New Testament manuscript displayed at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington. It is the third oldest copy of the Bible, after Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus.[1] It is a modified Greek uncial text that includes all four gospels, as well as fragments of the epistles. It consists of 187 leaves and was produced around 400. It is believed to have been produced at a monastery near the Pyramids. It the only early gospel manuscript whose place of origin is known. It was purchased in Egypt by Charles Lang Freer in 1906, and it is owned by the Freer Gallery of Art.[2] The text of the manuscript was published in 1912. The text type is well regarded, but the poor condition of the document limits its usefulness.[3]

A unique feature of this manuscript is the "Freer Logion," an extended insert that follows Mark 16:14. Translated, the logion says, "And Christ replied to them, 'The term of years of Satan's power has been fulfilled, but other terrible things draw near.'"[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Codex Washingtonianus Contains A Passage Not Seen In Any Other Biblical Manuscript", Ancient Pages.
  2. "Biblical literature," Encyclopedia Britannica.
  3. "Bible (texts)," New Catholic Encyclopedia (2003)

External links