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Cramp is a painful contraction of the muscles.[1][2][3] It can be triggered by physiological factors such as cold, poor blood flow (such as swimming after eating) or by psychological factors (such as Wernicke's cramp).

Stomach cramps may often be caused by food poisoning or gastro-enteritis. Cramps may often be symptomatic of other diseases or conditions such as renal failure or pregnancy.

Muscle cramps can often be relieved through soft massage of the cramped muscle, stretching or application of heat or cold. Cramps from lack of water and/or salt can be treated, by drinking water and/or increasing salt (sodium or potassium) intake respectively.

Notes & references

  1. BBC Health
  2. What is cramp?
  3. Patient UK