Gagliardi v. Village of Pawling

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In Gagliardi v. Village of Pawling, 18 F.3d 188, 194 (2d Cir. 1994), the Courts of Appeals for the Second Circuit held that "[t]he rights to complain to public officials and to seek administrative and judicial relief are protected by the First Amendment."

The Court upheld a Section 1983 claim against local officials for retaliation against the exercise of First Amendment rights. A claim for inaction by the local officials for enforcing the zoning code was included.

This precedent is cited, somewhat tenuously, for the proposition that Congress may not completely withdraw jurisdiction from the courts. See City of New York v. Beretta U.S.A. Corp. (2d Cir. 2008).