Geophysics is the branch of the Earth sciences which is studies the physical pehenomena which are relevant to the structure, physical conditions and evolutionary history of the Earth as a whole.
Topics of interest include:
- Seismology - the study of earthquakes and the shock waves that they produce
- Gravity - the gravity field and rotation of the earth
- Magnetics - the magnetic field of the earth and how it varies in strength and orientation
- Temperature gradients and heat flow
- Electromagnetic effects
- Natural radioactivity
- Oceanography - the physical aspects of the world's seas and oceans
Many of the techniques used in geophysics have commercial applications in geophysical prospecting for oil & gas, minerals and water.
Near-surface techniques have applications in archaeology and ennvironmental studies.