Hungarian scripts

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Hungarian scripts are used for representing the Hungarian (Magyar) language. The official script of Hungary is the Hungarian Latin-based script, shortly Hungarian alphabet.

There are other - not official - scripts, namely, the Szekely-Hungarian Rovas and the Carpathian Basin Rovas. Especially the Szekely-Hungarian Rovas script obtained large popularity in the last decades, there are books, city border limits, web sites and other printed and handwritten materials with this script.

The three Hungarian scripts

Hungarian (Latin-based) alphabet

  • Its first relic is from the 11th century.
  • Periods of use:
    • Old Hungarian orthography
      • Used from the 11th century to 1832
    • Modern Hungarian orthography
      • Used from 1832 to present-day

Szekely-Hungarian Rovas script

  • Its first relic is from around 900.
  • Period of use
    • Used from the 8th or 9th century.
  • Popular contemporary writing as part of cultural heritage activities

Carpathian Basin Rovas script

  • Its earliest relic is from the last third of the 8th century.
  • Periods of use:
    • Its alleged original use between the 8th century and the 11th century
    • Revitalized in 2009

Date line of the Hungarian scripts

Date Linguistic Periods of the Hungarian language Hungarian (Latin) alphabet Carpathian Basin Rovas Szekely-Hungarian Rovas
7th century Ancient Hungarian Period (1000 BC-896) There is no data for its existence. Silver mug of Kunágota (beg. 7th century),[1][2] Silver vessel of Ozora-Tótipuszta (last third of the 7th c.),[3] Needle case of Jánoshida (last third of the 7th c.),[4] Drinking cup of Kiskőrös-Vágóhíd (last third of the 7th c.),[5] Bow of Környe (end of the 7th c.)[6] There is no data for its existence.
8th century Needle case of Szarvas (8th c.)
9th century Rovas inscriptions of the Nagyszentmiklós Golden Treasure 9th-10th c. Clay twyer of Bodrog-Alsóbű (around 900)[7]
10th century Old Hungarian Period (896-1526) Founding charter of the Veszprém valley nun monastery (997–1018/1109), Founding charter of the Tihany abbey (1055)
11th century Pot fragment of Torja (11th c.)[8]
12th century Funeral Sermon and Prayer, Gesta Hungarorum (1196-1203) Extinct Rovas inscription of Vargyas, Homoródkarácsonyfalva (12th-13th century)
13th century Old Hungarian Laments of Mary, Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum (1282-1285) Korond
14th century Several books, etc. Székelydálya, Berekeresztúr (14th-15th century)
15th century Nikolsburg alphabet, Székelyderzs, Gelence (1497), Kilyén (15th-16th century), Bologna Rovas Calendar (17th century copy of a 15th century stick calendar)
16th century Middle Hungarian Period (1526-1772) Several books, etc. Csíkszentmiklós, Constantinople Rovas inscription, Dálnok, Bögöz, J. Telegdi: Rudimenta (1598, the first Rovas textbook), Berekeresztúr
17th century Poem of Szamosközy (1604), M. Bonyhai Moga (1627 & 1629), Rovas sentence of Gy. Komáromi Csipkés (1653), Developers of the Szekely-Hungarian Rovas EE: I. Miskolczi Csulyak (1575-1645) & G. Miskolczi Csulyak (1627-1699), Portsalmi's alphabet (1655), Rovas inscription of Énlaka(1668), Alphabets and sentences of Franciscan friar J. Kájoni (1673)
18th century Book of Mátyás Bél (1718), Hensel’s map with Rovas alphabet (1730), Sentences of Péter Bod (1739), Marosvásárhely Manuscript(1753), P. Bod’s Rovas inscription (1759 – 1769), Letter of K. G. (1770), Rovas text in the Patakfalvi Bible (1776-1785)
19th century New Hungarian Period (1772-1920) Several books, etc. Alphabet and ligatures of M. Révai (1803), Lord’s Prayer with Rovas in Nagybánya (prior to 1821), Book of Kova (1873), Rovas sentence of K. A. Fischer (1889), Numeral sticks (19th and 20th century)
20th century Latest Hungarian Period (1920–present-day) Several books, etc. Several documents, wood carvings, web pages, etc.
21th century Several books, etc. Revitalization (2009), short documents Several books, etc.

References

  • Erdélyi, István (1958b): Новая руническая надпись из Венгрии [New Rovas inscriptions from Hungary]. In: Эпиграпхика Востока [Epigraphyka Vostoka], pp. 55–56 (in Russian)
  • Erdélyi, István (1961): Új magyarországi rovásfelirat [New Rovas inscription of Hungary]. In: Archeológiai Értesítő [Acheological Communications], pp. 279–280 (in Hungarian)
  • É. Kiss Katalin – Kiefer Ferenc – Siptár Péter (2003): Új magyar nyelvtan [New Hungarian Grammar]. Budapest: Osiris Kiadó (in Hungarian)
  • Róna-Tas, András (1996): A honfoglaló magyar nép [The landtaking Hungarian nation]. Bevezetés a korai Magyar történelem ismeretébe [Introduction to the knowledge of the early Hungarian history]. Budapest: Balassi Kiadó, ISBN 963 506 106 4 (in Hungarian)
  • Rovas Writing Home Page: http://rovasirashonlap.fw.hu
  • Rovas Info (News Site): http://rovas.info

Notes

  1. Garam, Éva (1976): Adatok a későavarkor és az avar fejedelmi sírok régészeti és történeti kérdéseihez. In: Folia Archeologica XXVII. évf. (~), 1976, pp. 143-144
  2. Bóna, István (1982-83): Szolnok Megyei Múzeumi Évkönyv 1982-83. vol. 98, p. 140
  3. Erdélyi, István and Ráduly, János (2010): A Kárpát-medence rovásfeliratos emlékei a Kr. u. 17. századig [The relics of the Carpathian Basin with Rovas inscriptions up to the 17th century]. Ed. István Erdélyi. Budapest: Masszi Kiadó. ISBN 978-963-9851-28-3
  4. Erdélyi, István (1958b): Новая руническая надпись из Венгрии [New runic inscriptions from Hungary]. In: Эпиграпхика Востока [Epigraphyka Vostoka], pp. 55-56
  5. Garam, Éva (1976): Adatok a későavarkor és az avar fejedelmi sírok régészeti és történeti kérdéseihez. In: Folia Archeologica XXVII. évf. (~), 1976, pp. 143-144
  6. Erdélyi, István (1961): Új magyarországi rovásfelirat [New runic inscription of Hungary]. In: Archeológiai Értesítő [Acheological Communications], pp. 279-280
  7. Vékony, Gábor (2004): A székely rovásírás emlékei, kapcsolatai, története [The Relics, Relations and the History of the Szekely runic script]. Publisher: Nap Kiadó, Budapest
  8. Székely, Zoltán (1996): Árpád-kori rovásjelek a Székelyföldről [Arpadian age runic signs from Szekelyland]. In: Acta Vol. I., Székely Nemzeti Múzeum [Szekely National Museum], Sepsiszentgyörgy, 1996, pp. 171-174