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An invertebrate (in contrast to a vertebrate), is an animal with no spine.[1]

Most living animals are invertebrates, including arthropods, molluscs, and annelids.

The phyla contained in Invertebrata are:


  1. Wile, Dr. Jay L. Exploring Creation With Biology. Apologia Educational Ministries, Inc. 1998
  2. Invertebrate Paleontology, Henry Woods, Cambridge University Press, 8th Edition (1946)