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Jingoism is a term used to describe extreme patriotism, especially in the form of a militarist or warlike foreign policy.[1][2] The term is often derogatory. An example of jingoism is the history of Nazi Germany. They were so convinced that they were superior in every way, that they moved to spread this across Europe by subjugating the continent under their tyrannical rule.

The term was first used in America to criticize the foreign policy of President Theodore Roosevelt's handling of the Spanish-American War. After the seizure of the Philippines in 1898 the foreign policy of the United States was described as jingoist, and more recently in criticism of the Liberal World Order, NATO expansion, and neoconservative warmongering in the Iraq, Afghan, Syrian, Libyan, and Ukraine wars.


The word “jingo” is a British English form of “golly”, “gosh”, “gee” etc. and is always part of the term “by jingo!”. The term found its way into a music halls as McDermott's War Song during the Turko-Russian War in the late 1870s when British anti-Russian sentiment was still strong after the Crimean War less than a generation before.[3] The chorus went:

"We don't want to fight but by Jingo if we do
We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money too,
We've fought the Bear before, and while we're Britons true
The Russians shall not have Constantinople!"

"Jingoism" was coined from the song. During that time, aggressive American foreign policy was popularly known in the United States as spread-eagleism.[4]

In Russian, the term is rarely used, as a rule, when translating original English texts. Instead, it is often referred to as "leavened patriotism", xenophobia or chauvinistic nationalism. "Leavened patriotism" denotes the unconditional praise of everything domestic. It is contrasted with genuine patriotism, which allows for the recognition and rejection of the negative features of one's society, culture, or government, as well as the fight against them.

See also


  1. History of Western Civilization II, Ch. 26 World War I, Militarism and Jingoism. courses.lumenlearning.com
  2. http://www.bartleby.com/cgi-bin/texis/webinator/sitesearch?FILTER=col61&query=jingoism&x=0&y=0
  3. https://youtu.be/42AgsaNHbKs
  4. i.e. to spread the wings of the American eagle beyond the territories of the United States. A common contemporary meaning is "pretentious, boastful, exaggerated style; defiantly or extravagantly bombastic."