Life and Works
Gardner was born on July 21, 1933 in Batavia, New York. He attended Washington University and the University of Iowa, and became very famous for Grendel, a retelling of the story of Beowulf from the perspective of the monster Grendel, though he had published two novels beforehand. He was a poet skilled in the use of Old and Middle English, and in his 1978 On Moral Fiction, berated the modern propensity for pessimism. He died on September 14, 1982 in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania.
- The New York Public Library Student's Desk Reference. Prentice Hall, New York: 1991.
- "Gardner, John." Encyclopedia Britannica Online.