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The Mafia is an Italian gang, part of organized crime. It started in Sicily and was a major force in the United States during the early to mid-20th century. A member of the Mafia is called a mafioso (plural mafiosi). They are also sometimes referred to as the mob.

The Mafia has been a popular subject for many American film directors, in particular the Italian-American directors Francis Ford Coppola and Martin Scorsese, who directed the films The Godfather (Parts I, II, and III) and Goodfellas, respectively.

There also exists mafias in countries such as Russia, Ukraine, Greece, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Albania, Armenia, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.