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Sketch of a magma reservoir beneath a volcano and a conduit leading up to a lava dome at the surface. Arrow indicates direction of magma movement from a deeper source.
Magma is molten or partially molten rock beneath the Earth's surface. When magma erupts onto the surface, it is called lava. Magma typically consists of a liquid portion (often referred to as the melt), a solid portion made of minerals that crystallized directly from the melt, solid rocks incorporated into the magma from along the conduit or reservoir, called xenoliths or inclusions, and dissolved gases.