Last modified on October 18, 2021, at 14:08


Ontario is a Canadian province, the second largest province by size, and the largest by population. Ontario rests between Manitoba and Québec. It is bordered by the American states of Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Minnesota, in all cases a river or waterway is the border. It also borders on Nunavut to the north (via Hudson's Bay). It contains the southernmost point in Canada, Middle Island, which is further south than some points of California. The vast north of Ontario has many mineral deposits and large forests.

Throughout the twentieth century Ontario had the highest GDP in Canada and was the center of Canada's manufacturing industry. Its wealth has now been surpassed by Alberta, and the heavy manufacturing base has been weakened by the decline of the automobile industry and competition from East Asia.

Toronto is the capital of Ontario, and is the largest city in Canada. Ottawa, the capital of Canada, is located on the Ontario-Quebec border. The province's population is 13,983,000 in 2016 accounting for 38.5% of the national population.[1]

Ontario's current Premier is Doug Ford, of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party.

Further reading

  • The Dictionary of Canadian Biography (1966-2006), thousands of scholarly biographies of notables who died by 1930
  • Canadian Encyclopedia (2008) reliable detailed encyclopedia, on-line free
  • Baskerville, Peter A. Sites of Power: A Concise History of Ontario. Oxford U. Press., 2005. 296 pp. (first edition was Ontario: Image, Identity and Power, 2002). online review
  • Craig, Gerald. Upper Canada. The Formative Years 1784-1841 (1968), the standard scholarly history of Ontario before 1841
  • Hall, Roger; Westfall, William; and MacDowell, Laurel Sefton, eds. Patterns of the Past: Interpreting Ontario's History. Dundurn Press, 1988. 406 pp.
  • Halpern, Monda. And on that Farm He Had a Wife: Ontario Farm Women and Feminism, 1900-1970. (2001). 234 pp.
  • Johnson, J. K. and Wilson, Bruce G., eds. Historical Essays on Upper Canada: New Perspectives. (1975). . 604 pp.
  • Kilbourn, William.; The Firebrand: William Lyon Mackenzie and the Rebellion in Upper Canada (1956) online edition
  • Landon, Fred, and J.E. Middleton. Province of Ontario: A History (1937) 4 vol. with 2 vol of biographies
  • Mays, John Bentley. Arrivals: Stories from the History of Ontario. (2002). 418 pp.
  • Montigny, Edgar-Andre, and Lori Chambers, eds. Ontario since Confederation: A Reader (2000).
  • Moss, Mark. Manliness and Militarism: Educating Young Boys in Ontario for War. (2001). 216 pp.
  • Noël, Françoise. Family Life and Sociability in Upper and Lower Canada, 1780-1870. (2003) 384pp
  • Noël, Françoise. Family and Community Life in Northeastern Ontario: The Interwar Years (2009)
  • Noel, S. J. R. Patrons, Clients, Brokers: Ontario Society and Politics, 1791-1896. (1990).
  • Ontario Bureau of Statistics and Research. A Conspectus of the Province of Ontario (1947) online edition
  • Parr, Joy, ed. A Diversity of Women: Ontario, 1945-1980. (1996). 335 pp.
  • Rawlings-Way, Charles, and Natalie Karneef. Toronto (2007), guide book
  • Rogers, Edward S. and Smith, Donald B., eds. Aboriginal Ontario: Historical Perspectives on the First Nations. Dundurn, 1994. 448 pp.
  • Schull, Joseph. Ontario since 1867 (1978), narrative history
  • White, Graham, ed. The Government and Politics of Ontario. 5th ed. (1997). 458 pp. university textbook
  • White, Randall. Ontario since 1985. Eastendbooks, 1998. 320 pp.

External links