Operation Anfal

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Operation Anfal (also known as al-Anfal Campaign) was the genocide of approximately 180,000 Iraqi minority Kurds,[1] planned and executed by Saddam Hussein and his cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid. From 1986 to 1988, Kurds were systematically murdered mainly with the help of Sunni Arab forces in the Iraqi Army.[2] Measures employed by Saddam's Iraq included gassing, disappearances, massacres, forced resettlement and destruction of villages.[3] Apart from the killing of civilians, over 4,000 villages,[4] 1,754 schools, 270 hospitals, 2,450 mosques and 27 churches were destroyed.[5]

The United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway and South Korea recognized the Operation Anfal as genocide.[6]


  1. Iraq to hang 'Chemical Ali' Associated Press, June 25, 2007
  2. Stuart Notholt (2008). Fields of Fire: An Atlas of Ethnic Conflict. Troubador Publishing Ltd, p4.10. ISBN 1906510474. 
  3. Jonathan Fox (2005). Religion, Civilization, and Civil War. Lexington Books, p261. ISBN 0739112775. 
  4. Michael Rubin, Are Kurds a pariah minority? Social Research, Spring, 2003
  5. List of the churches been demolished by Saddam Hussein’s regime
  6. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/04/iraq-kurds-press-states-recognise-genocide-anfal-201441371637191288.html