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Plesiosaur owen.png
Scientific classification
Kingdom Information
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Information
Phylum Chordata
Class Information
Class Sauropsida
Order Information
Superorder Sauropterygia
Order Plesiosauria
Sub-order Plesiosauroidea
Family Information
Families Cimoliasauridae
Population statistics

Plesiosaurs are large reptiles characterized by long necks with small heads; stocky, finless tails; and a broad, turtle-like body with four flippered appendages. Based on their morphological design and fossilized feces,[1] paleontologists infer that they were sea-dwelling carnivores that dined on fish and shellfish.

Their fossil skeletons were first discovered in early 19th century in England by Mary Anning and were among the first large vertebrate fossils found. Since then, many more have been found and there are a number of complete specimens.

The name plesiosaur (or plesiosaurus) comes from the Greek for "near to lizard", and was named by William Conybeare to signify that it was more lizard-like than the fish-like ichthyosaurus, which was first found only a few years previously nearby.

According to evolutionary scientists, who use relative dating methods that rely on the strata fossils are found in, plesiosaurs lived in the Jurassic period before becoming extinct. According to creation scientists, who use the Bible, plesiosaurs were created on the fifth day of the creation week[2] and lived concurrently with Man. It is also widely held among creation researchers that the leviathan mentioned in the Bible[3] was a type of plesiosaur, specifically the kronosaurus.[4]

Like other aquatic animals, according to the Bible plesiosaurs were not taken aboard the Ark during the Great Flood.[5] Because of this, some creation researchers believe that not all of them perished in the Flood and that populations survive to this day,[2] hidden beneath the icy waters of seas and deep lakes. The most often cited evidences for this theory are the many modern sightings around the globe of creatures that fit the description of a plesiosaur, the most famous of which have been reported at Loch Ness, Scotland (the so-called "Loch Ness Monster" or "Nessie") and Lake Okanagan in British Columbia (known as "Ogopogo").

There was also a reputed plesiosaur carcass[2] dredged up by the Japanese fishing trawler Zuiyo Maru near New Zealand in 1977, but many researchers believe it was the remains of a basking shark.[6][7][8] Close inspection of the original Japanese scientific report reveals unanimous eyewitness testimony that the cryptid had a pair of upper fins. This observation, if not refuted, disproves a shark identification. [9] Malcom Bowden found additional evidence against the shark theory [10]

Not one of the Japanese ichthyologists examining the evidence thought the cryptid was a shark. Captain Tanaka and Prof. Yasuda discuss the creature in this clip [11]

Dr. Bill Cooper reexamined the evidence of the Zuiyo Maru cryptid in 2017, "The Japanese Plesiosaur Reconsidered by Dr. Bill Cooper at the Seventh European Creationist Conference", refuting the shark theory.[12] "The Japanese Plesiosaur Reconsidered by Dr. Bill Cooper at the Seventh European Creationist Conference"

Further Reading

The Japanese original scientific investigation "Collected Papers on the Carcass of an Unidentified Animal Trawled off New Zealand by the Zuiyo-maru, ed. T SASAKI - La mer, 1978" is available online.[13]


  1. "Plesiosaur bottom-feeding shown", BBC
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Live plesiosaurs: weighing the evidence", Journal of Creation 12(3):339–346, Dec. 1998
  3. Job 3:8, 41:1; Psalm 74:14, 104:26; Isaiah 27:1
  4. "The Great Dinosaur Mystery, Christian Answers
  5. "How did freshwater and saltwater fish survive the Flood?", Answers in Genesis
  6. Letting rotting sharks lie Journal of Creation 13(2) 83–87, Nov. 1999.
  7. A ‘tail’ of many monsters Journal of Creation 19(2) 74–75, Aug. 2005.
  8. Parkie: a new ‘pseudoplesiosaur’ washed up on the Nova Scotia coast Journal of Creation 19(2) 119–118, Aug. 2005.
  9. "New Zuiyo Maru Cryptid Observations", Creation Research Society Quarterly, John Goertzen, June 2001, CRSQ Vol 38 No 1 pp 19-29
  10. ["THE JAPANESE CARCASS: A PLESIOSAUR-TYPE ANIMAL!" Creation Science Movement pamphlet.