Scientific fraud has always been a problem. People claiming to have discovered something, when they know they really haven't, have fooled many people many times. (See history of science). Scientific fraud differs from scientific error, since in the case of fraud the researcher knows his findings aren't actually supported by the available evidence. Types of scientific fraud today include statistical analyses until a statistically significant result is generated (“P-hacking”) and hypothesizing after results are known (“HARK”), as well as the more traditional cherry-picking of data.
China and scientific fraud
The atheist PZ Myers wrote in his blog post entitled China: a major polluter of the scientific literature wrote: "China has surpassed the US in the number of scientific publications. Unfortunately for China, it has achieved that landmark accomplishment by streamlining the process of publishing garbage. They have institutions dedicated to making up data, forging results, and writing up formulaic papers."
Major organizations which promote or protect fraud
An American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) report defines scientific fraud as "including falsification, fabrications, selective use of data, and manipulation of graphs and figures."  Ironically, the AAAS is itself guilty of selective use of data and of censoring papers which contradict its public policy positions.
- Over half of psychology studies fail reproducibility test, Nature, August 27, 2015
- Psychology is not science - Discusses lack of transparency of Dutch psychologists in terms of their data for their experiments