|Conservation status||Least concern|
The short-toed eagle, or short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus) is a species of bird of prey of the family Accipitridae, and found over a large area of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa.
Short-toed eagles are large, with a body length of just over 2 feet, a wingspan of 5 feet, 7 inches to 6 feet 1 inch, and weigh from 2.6 to 5.1 pounds. Females are slightly larger than males. The upper parts are grayish-brown in color, with an tan-brown color on the chin to upper breast. The underside is mainly white, marked by brown streaks on the lower chest, and horizontal brown banding on the wings and tail, with the marks more random on the wing coverts. In appearance the bird has a disheveled look with an owl-like face.
- Circaetus gallicus gallicus; northwestern Africa and southern Europe, north to Estonia, south to Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, east to Kazakhstan; resident in Arabian Peninsula, northern China, Mongolia, Pakistan, Nepal, India. Winters in Africa (Senegal, southwestern Mauritania, east to Ethiopia, western Kenya) and southern Asia.
- Circaetus gallicus sacerdotis; Indonesia: Lesser Sunda islands; Java and Bali (possible non-breeding visitor).
The species has been classified as "least concern" by the ICUN, due primarily to its large range and stable population. Subspecies C. g. gallicus has been noted to have a decline in numbers, however. Human activities, such as farming and urbanization, have affected their numbers; farming for example has reduced prey availability, with a marked increase in pesticide use. De-forestation, road construction, and installation of wind turbines have taken their tolls as well. In addition, the birds are shot at on the island of Malta.