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Sexually Transmitted Disease

4,327 bytes added, 06:20, 5 August 2018
New information; symptoms and treatments. Sourced.
'''Sexually transmitted diseases''' (STDs) , or '''sexually tansmitted infections''' (STIs), are illnesses [[illness]]es transmitted by sexual contact. STDs comprise a large and diverse set of disease entities which include [[virus]]es, bacteria, protozoa, and arthropods. Many of these diseases can cause great harm before symptoms are detected.
[[Chlamydia]], the most common STD, can cause infertility in both men and women, making it impossible ever to have children. [[Gonorrhea]], another very common STD, may also have this risk. A majority of US teenagers who admit to having sex are infected with an STD.<ref>4 out of 10 teenagers are sexually active; over half of this 40% (25% of all teenagers) have an STD.[http://host.madison.com/ct/news/local/health_med_fit/article_96d0ee57-e3dc-59d7-a5ec-e5cbc5b71ffc.html]</ref> The incidence of [[gonorrhea]] in the United States peaked during the [[Carter administration]], but began dropping during the [[Reagan administration|Reagan years]]. The [[chlamydia]] rate overtook gonorrhea during the [[Bill Clinton|Clinton years]].<ref>http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/tables/table1.htm</ref> == List of STDs and their Signs and Symptoms==
This list is not complete, and many of these disease agents can be transmitted by non-sexual means. Because there are so many different infections, symptoms can vary greatly. Your doctor can give you a great deal of information and should be consulted early to prevent permanent health problems.
===Viruses===
'''====Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)====In the early stages, [[HIV]]can cause fevers, rashes, joint pains, and other non-specific symptoms. These usually occur within weeks after exposure. If untreated, HIV infection usually leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) within eight to ten years. The symptoms of AIDS can be anything, but common presentations include weight loss, night sweats, unusual skin lesions, and diarrhea. There are 41,400 new cases each year in the U.S.<ref name="piyl"></ref>=====Symptoms=====*<u>Primary HIV infection</u> (two weeks after infection): Flulike symptoms occur as the virus attacks the immune system.*<u>Asymptomatic HIV infection</u> (several years): Infected people can go years with no symptoms.*<u>Symptomatic HIV infection</u> (several years)''': As the immune system weakens, the person experiences fatigue, persistent headaches, loss of appetite and body weight, diarrhea, fever, and repeated symptoms that seem like colds and flus.*<u>AIDS</u>: Once the immune system is so damaged, the infected person becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections such as pneumonia, plus a decline in mental abilities.=====Treatment=====*There is no cure for the virus.*Long-term treatment with highly active retroviral therapy uses a combination of drugs to combat the virus, allowing for a longer, healthier life.*Without treatment, about half of infected individuals will reach the life-threatening stage of the disease, AIDS, within two years.*Without medicine, the lifespan of a person with AIDS is about one year.
In the early stages, HIV can cause fevers, rashes, joint pains, and other non-specific symptoms. These usually occur within weeks after exposure. If untreated, HIV infection usually leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) within eight to ten years. The symptoms of AIDS can be anything, but common presentations include weight loss, night sweats, unusual skin lesions, and diarrhea.  '''[[====Herpes Simplex Virus]] (HSV 1 and 2)'''====[[HSV ]] can appear on either the lips or the genitalia. It usually presents as a painful, bumpy rash, sometimes with fever.There are approximately 14,100,000 new cases of HSV-2 each year in the U.S.<ref name="piyl"></ref>=====Symptoms====='''Human Papilloma Virus *<u>Stage 1</u>: Tingling, burning, itching, or numbness at the site of infection.*<u>Stage 2</u>: Painful blisters appear at that location, break open, and run; in the first experience of a herpes outbreak, a person will usually have a fever and flulike symptoms.*<u>Stage 3</u>: Blisters crust over and finally heal.*<u>Recurrent outbreaks</u>: Herpes stays in the body, and outbreaks repeat when a person is physically or emotionally stressed.=====Treatment=====*There is no cure for herpes, and an infected person is infectious even when no sores are visible.*Long-term treatment with antiviral drugs relieves symptoms, speeds healing, reduces frequency of outbreaks, and reduces the likelihood of transmission when a person does not have visible sores.*Excellent hygiene is critical to avoid transmitting virus to the eyes (HPVE.g., when putting contact lenses in)'''.*Treatment is critical to reduce the likelihood of the virus attacking the brain, which is usually fatal.
====Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)====
HPV often presents as anogenital warts, or as an abnormality on a pap smear. These lesions can be precancerous.
=====Symptoms=====
*Most people have no symptoms of the type of HPV that cause genital, anal, or mouth/throat cancer.
*Another type of HPV causes itchy or uncomfortable warts on the genitals and anus.
=====Treatment=====
*Once acquired, the virus often stays in the body with no long-term effects, but 10% of infections lead to serious disease, including cancer.
*Vaccinations against HPV may protect females and males from the types most commonly linked to cancer.
*Women should have annual pelvic exams and PAP tests of the cervix to detect HPV and start treatment early.
*Genital warts are removed through minor surgery.<ref name="piyl"></ref>
'''====Hepatitis B and C Viruses (HBV, HCV)'''====
These are often asymptomatic, but over time can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. If any symptoms are present, the illness can look like any hepatitis, that is, jaundice, change in urine or stool color, abdominal swelling, and fatigue.
===Bacteria===
'''[[====Neisseria gonorrhoeae(gonorrhea)====[[Gonorrhea]] , another very common STD, may also have this risk. A majority of US teenagers who admit to having sex are infected with an STD.<ref>4 out of 10 teenagers are sexually active; over half of this 40% (gonorrhea25% of all teenagers) have an STD.[http://host.madison.com/ct/news/local/health_med_fit/article_96d0ee57-e3dc-59d7-a5ec-e5cbc5b71ffc.html]</ref> There are 820, "000 new cases each year in the clapU.S.<ref name=")'''piyl"></ref>
In malesThe incidence of gonorrhea in the United States peaked during the [[Carter administration]], this presents as a foul penile dischargebut began dropping during the [[Reagan administration|Reagan years]]. Women may have a vaginal dischargeHowever, or the chlamydia rate overtook gonorrhea during the [[Bill Clinton|Clinton years]].<ref>http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/tables/table1.htm</ref>=====Symptoms=====*Many people have no symptoms at all.*Abnormal discharge and burning during urination.=====Treatment=====*Get routine annual STI testing.*Fairly easily cured through early treatment with combination drug therapy.*Failure to treat in women can lead to PID and increased risk of fertility.
'''====Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia)====[[Chlamydia]], the most common STD, can cause infertility in both men and women, making it impossible ever to have children. Over 2,860,000 new cases are reported each year in the U.S.<ref name="piyl">Grison, Sarah, and Michael S. Gazzaniga. ''Psychology in Your Life''. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2017.</ref>=====Symptoms=====*Up to 90% of people have no symptoms.*Mild symptoms include a thin, clear discharge from the sex organs and some irritation during urination.=====Treatment=====*Get routine annual STI testing.*Easily cured through early treatment by antibiotics*Failure to treat in women can lead to PID and increased risk of fertility.
This presents similarly to gonorrhea, but is often asymptomatic, and is commonly carried without the patient knowing they are ill. This makes it especially dangerous as these carriers tend to continue the behaviour that got them infected in the first place, spreading the disease to their other sexual partners. Chlamydia is the most common STD in the developed world and can cause a number of severe complications, including infertility in both sexes. There are three different sub-types of the [[bacteria]] [[Chlamydia Trachomatis|Chlamydia trachomatis]] that cause [[Lymphogranuloma Venereum|lymphogranuloma venereum]].<ref>http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000634.htm</ref> Lymphogranuloma venereum is one of the maladies associated with [[gay bowel syndrome]].<ref>http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000634.htm</ref>
'''====Treponema pallidum (syphillis)'''====This organism causes [[syphilis]], a multisystem disease.There are 55,400 new cases of syphillis each year.<ref name="piyl"></ref>=====Symptoms=====*<u>Primary stage</u> (two-four weeks after infection): Painless ulcer on genitals, lips, tongue, or anus disappears in about two weeks*<u>Secondary stage</u> (four weeks to months later): Itchy, painless rash on body*<u>Latent stage</u> (several weeks to years later): Usually no symptoms, but bacteria are attacking organs*<u>Late stage</u> (years later): Larger ulcers on skin and bones, plus serious organ damage=====Treatment=====*Many people are unaware of the primage stage ulcer or ignore it, so they do not sek t
===Protozoa===
'''====Trichamonas vaginalis ("trich")'''==== In femalesThere are approximately 1, this usually presents as 090,000 new cases each year in the U.S.<ref name="piyl"></ref>=====Symptoms=====*Most people show no symptoms.*Women may show a frothy, foul -smelling whitish-green vaginal discharge, but males are usually asymptomatic. Even though males are asymptomatic, =====Treatment=====*Easily cured through early treatment with drug therapy*Both women and their partners of infected females must be treated*Failure to treat can lead to infertility.
===Arthropods===
'''====Pubic lice ("crabs")'''====
This presents as itching in the groin, and often small parasites are easily visible.
'''====Scabies'''====
This often presents as itching, with rash being more prominent between the fingers and toes.
The only completely effective means of preventing the transmission of STDs is abstinence from sex until marriage and fidelity thereafter.
Of the other [[Methods methods of contraception]], only condoms offer any protection against STDs (including HIV), but are be completely ineffective against STDs such as pubic lice which are transmitted by simple body contact and do not require sex to occur. When improperly used, or if damaged, they are completely ineffective both as contraception and as STD protection. Even with perfect use (which is rare) around 2% of condoms will be damaged during sex.
Vaccines are not widely available for STDs. An [[HPV vaccine]] has recently been released for protection against certain, but not all, strains of HPV, though the long term efficacy of this controversial vaccine is disputed.
== Atheism and sexually transmitted diseases ==
{{See also|Evolutionary belief and sexual immorality}}
[[Atheist Population|Atheistic populations]] commonly have significant problems with sexually transmitted diseases (see: [[Atheism and sexually transmitted diseases]]).
 
{{See also|Evolutionary belief and sexual immorality}}
==References==
<references/>
 
[[Category:Sexually Transmitted Disease]]
[[Category:Diseases]][[Category:Medicine]]
[[Category:Social Problems]]
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