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Black problem

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Republican Attorney General Herbert Brownell originally proposed the Civil Rights Act of 1957. Democrat Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson had Judiciary chairman [[segregation]]ist Sen. [[James Eastland]] drastically water-down the House version, removing stringent voting protection clauses.<ref>https://history.house.gov/Historical-Highlights/1951-2000/The-Civil-Rights-Act-of-1957/</ref><ref>Caro, Robert, ''Master of the Senate: The Years of Lyndon Johnson'', Chapter 39</ref> Eastland was a close friend of 2020 Democratic early frontrunner [[Joe Biden]].<ref>https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/21/us/politics/joe-biden-james-eastland.html</ref><ref>https://washingtonmonthly.com/2019/06/21/on-joe-biden-and-james-eastland/</ref><ref>https://trulytimes.com/dick-morris-biden-and-eastland.html</ref>
The bill passed 285-126 in the House with Republicans providing the majority of votes 167–19 and Democrats 118–107.<ref>HR 6127. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957. PASSED. YEA SUPPORTS PRESIDENT'S POSITION. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/85-1957/h42</ref> It then passed 72-18 in the Senate, with Republicans again supplying the majority of votes, 43–0 and Democrats voting 29–18. Sen. [[John F. Kennedy ]] of Massachusetts, who later ran for president, voted against it.<ref>HR. 6127. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957. PASSED. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/85-1957/s75</ref> It was the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Republicans passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875. Johnson told Sen. Richard Russell, {{quotebox|"These Negroes, they're getting pretty uppity these days and that's a problem for us since they've got something now they never had before, the political pull to back up their uppityness. Now we've got to do something about this, we've got to give them a little something, just enough to quiet them down, not enough to make a difference. For if we don't move at all, then their allies will line up against us and there'll be no way of stopping them, we'll lose the filibuster and there'll be no way of putting a brake on all sorts of wild legislation. It'll be Reconstruction all over again."<ref>Said to Senator Richard Russell, Jr. (D-GA) regarding the Civil Rights Act of 1957. As quoted in [http://books.google.com/books?id=HS9aAAAAYAAJ ''Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream''] (1977), by Doris Kearns Goodwin, New York: New American Library, p. 155.</ref>}}
The [[Democrat]]s reversal on civil rights culminated with Johnson signing the [[bi-partisan]] [[Civil Rights Act of 1964]], which he called "the N*gg*r Bill."<ref>http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/lyndon-johnson-civil-rights-racism</ref> In lobbying fellow Democrats, Johnson said, {{quotebox|"I'll have them n*gg*rs voting Democratic for two hundred years."<ref>Said to two governors regarding the Civil Rights Act of 1964, according to then-''Air Force One'' steward Robert MacMillan as quoted in [http://books.google.com/books?id=lJz-yIZNE2sC ''Inside the White House''] (1996), by Ronald Kessler, New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 33.</ref>}} Democrats tried to block passage by filibustering for 75 hours, including a 14-hour and 13-minute speech by the Exalted Cyclops, Sen. [[Robert Byrd]],<ref>Sen. Theodore Bilbo, whom Byrd swore his Klan oath to, said in 1949 on ''Meet the Press'', "Once a Ku Klux, always a Ku Klux."</ref> who later became Senate Democrat Leader in the Reagan era. The law was intended to block Republican gains in the South followed by buying off Blacks with [[Great Society]] [[welfare]] and [[affirmative action]] programs. According to LBJ biographer Robert Caro, Johnson told his chauffeur: {{Quotebox|"Let me tell you one thing, n*gg*r. As long as you are black, and you’re gonna be black till the day you die, no one’s gonna call you by your g*dd*mn name. So no matter what you are called, n*gg*r, you just let it roll off your back like water, and you’ll make it. Just pretend you’re a g*dd*mn piece of furniture."<ref>https://slate.com/culture/2002/05/lbj-s-alleged-compassion.html</ref>}}
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