/* The types of the covenant of sacrifice fulfilled by the antitype of Christ */ revised "would be spared readings which sounded" to "would be spared intonations of the readings which sounded"
'''Typology''' refers to the Christian concept of [[Old Testament]] scenes and characters ("type") as foreshadowing those in the [[New Testament]] ("antitype") and was a commonly used device within the broader artform of Christian iconography. It was typically illustrated through the juxtaposition of imagery from the former with that of the latter (type and antitype), for example the depiction of [[King David|David's]] fight with [[Goliath]] mirrored by [[Jesus Christ|Christ's]] resistance to [[Satan]].
Typology was a popular and enduring form of religious illustration and was ubiquitous across Western art throughout the [[Middle Ages]]. It is an important part of Bible [[hermeneutics]].
==Levitical sacrifices as types of Jesus==
Allusions and paronomasia of meaning===
The narrative accounts of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus in the [[The Gospels]], and in particular the [[Epistle to the Hebrews]], feature numerous direct and indirect quotes and allusions to prophetic types seen in the Old Testament sacrifices commanded in the books of [[Leviticus]] and [[Numbers]]. Typology includes the [[paronomasia]] of the meaning of the particular Hebrew words for the various sacrificial offerings: bulls, bullocks, lambs, goats, doves, pigeons, fine flour, bread, wine, oil, incense, and even the act of laying hands on the sacrifice.
===The everlasting covenant of sacrifice perpetually continued in the Eucharist===
Christians who believe that the [[Eucharist]] manifests the [[Real presence]] of the Lord Jesus Christ<ref>[[Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christians]] believe in the reality of the Real Presence of Christ as a [[Orthodox Mysteries|Mystery]], and do not subscribe to the more [[Theology|theologically]] explicit [[Catholic Church|Catholic]] doctrine of [[Transubstantiation]]. Both of them believe in the Real Presence of Christ, also the [[Church of England|Anglicans]], [[Lutheranism|Lutherans]], [[Presbyterian]]s and others.</ref>, see in the Levitical sacrifices a foreshadowing of the banquet of real communion with the living [[substance]] of the body and blood of the Lord, as St. Paul so eloquently expressed in his [[I Corinthians|First Epistle to the Corinthians]]<ref>1 Corinthians 10:14-22; 11:17-34</ref>, and as explicitly pointed out by the writer to the Hebrews to those who doubt<ref>Hebrews 9; 10:19-31; 12:18-29; 13:10-15</ref>. The New Testament presents Jesus as the one true "apostle and High Priest of our [[Christianity|confession]]"<ref>Hebrews 3:1</ref>. He is seen as the one, unique, perpetually enduring flesh and blood sacrifice for sin "slain from the foundation of the world"<ref>Matthew 25:34; Ephesians 1:4; Hebrews 4:3; 1 Peter 1:20; Revelation 13:8</ref>, "for without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins"<ref>Hebrews 9:22</ref>. The giving of a portion of the sacrifices from the altar of sacrifice to the worshipers to be eaten as a partaking of the ''sin offerings'' and ''peace offerings'' and ''votive offerings'' in the covenant of God is regarded by these Christians as a divinely revealed ''type'' fulfilled in the divinely revealed ''antitype'' of partaking of the bread of life in the communion of the Lord's Supper, the [[substance]] of the flesh and blood of Christ himself as promised by him in the sixth chapter of the Gospel of John<ref>John 6:26-69</ref> as part of the New covenant of the Lord<ref>Jeremiah 31:31-34</ref>. The sacrifice instituted by Christ Jesus—"this is my body, this is my blood"—at his [[Last Supper]] in the ''Cenacle''<ref>The "Upper Room". A cenacle is a small supper room, usually in an upper story of a dwelling or inn. When capitalized, Cenacle, the word refers to the upper chamber in which Christ ate the Last Supper with his disciples (Mark 14:13-15; Luke 22:10-12)—from French ''cénacle'', from Latin ''cenaculum'', from ''cena'' dinner.</ref>, and permanently executed in a bloody manner in the [[universe]] of [[Spacetime|time and space]] "once and for all" on the Cross<ref>Hebrews 10:12-14; Jude 3; 1 Corinthians 11:23-29; Matthew 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:14-30 "''that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel''".</ref>, is seen by them as perpetuated in the timeless [[Eternal|eternity]] of the everlasting "''now''" of God [[Omnipresence|present]] through all ages in all places<ref>"and lo, I am with you alway" Matthew 28:20 KJV. See [http://biblehub.com/matthew/28-20.htm multiple versions of Matthew 28:20] and [http://biblehub.com/commentaries/matthew/28-20.htm multiple commentaries on the meaning of Matthew 28:20].</ref> with the offering also of [[incense]] in [[worship]] by the nations<ref>Malachi 1:11. "Nations" = Hebrew ''goiim'' "gentiles". See Strong's number [https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1471.htm 1471 <big>'''גוי'''</big> ''gôwy, goy,'' plural -im, ''goyim, goiim'']</ref>, so that all believers in him may "believe without seeing" and still be able to "see the Son"<ref>John 6:40 "everyone who sees the Son" is parallel to John 14:8-11 "He who has seen me has seen the Father".</ref>, "behold the Lamb of God", and "partake of the divine nature", by eating his flesh and drinking his blood in an unbloody manner as divine food given to them by Jesus himself under the appearance of bread and wine<ref>John 20:28-29; John 6:40; John 1:29; 2 Peter 1:3-4; John 6:53-57.</ref> <br> —"The Jews therefore strove among themselves, saying, How can this man give us ''his'' flesh to eat? Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you. Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him. As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me. This is the bread which came down from heaven: not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever." <br> —"We have an altar, whereof they have no right to eat which serve the [[tabernacle]]"<ref>John 6:52-58; Hebrews 13:10 (KJV). It is regarded as theologically significant that the word <small>EATETH</small> in the [[King James Bible]] version of John 6:52-58 is not a reading from the ordinary word '''φάγω''' ''phagō'' "eat" in Greek, but is instead a reading from the unusual word '''τρώγω''' ''trogo'' "chew, gnaw, crauch, devour" in the Gospel text. While the various forms of the Greek words for eating '''έσθίω''' ''esthio'' and '''φάγω''' ''phagō'' throughout the New Testament both admit a literal and figuratively metaphorical meaning, '''τρώγων''' ''trogon'' does not, being a literal, boldly intense, physical concrete term only, and not a figure of speech—in the New Testament it appears only here in the Greek text of John 6:53-58 as an emphatic statement by Jesus, and is found without exception in all of the extant [[Bible manuscript evidence|Greek manuscripts of this passage. See [[Strong's|Strong's Concordance]] <small>EATETH</small>, [http://biblehub.com/greek/5176.htm number ''5176'' '''τρώγω''' ''trōgō''] (five occurrences). </ref>.
Christians who believe that Jesus was speaking only [[metaphor]]ically in a vividly [[symbol]]ic figure of speech see the Old Testament bloody animal sacrifices offered with bread and wine in atonement for [[sin]] as a ''type'' of the ''antitype'' of their final fulfillment in the reality of his unique, "once and for all" bloody sacrifice of himself on the altar of his crucifixion on the Cross. The [[Eucharist]]ic banquet of communion with him in the celebration of the Lord's Supper is firmly held by them to be a purely spiritual and symbolic memorial<ref>1 Corinthians 11:24-26; John 4:23-24.</ref> of his Last Supper with the Twelve Apostles and a representation of his sacrifice as an [[ordinance]] of the Christian Church<ref>1 Corinthians 11:2 "ordinances" KJV; Hebrews 9:1; Romans 6:17</ref>, and a witness of the New Covenant in his blood which completes, fulfills and does away with the ritual sacrifices of the Old Covenant of Moses and Israel. The sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving and good works in worship of God are still acceptable to Him<ref>Hebrews 13:15-16</ref>. But there remains no longer any sacrifice for sin<ref>Hebrews 10:10-18</ref>. If there was of necessity any need for a repetition of his sacrifice for sins, he would have had to suffer repeatedly since the foundation of the world<ref>Hebrews 9:24-28</ref>—"but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment: So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many"—"Now where remission of these ''is, there is'' no more offering for sin"<ref>Hebrews 9:26b-28a; 10:18 KJV</ref>. For this reason they see no need for [[priest]]s offering ritual [[sacrifice]]s on an altar, which of themselves cannot take away sins<ref>Hebrews 10:11</ref>, and for this reason they see the doctrine of the sacrifice of Jesus repeatedly on an altar as the sin of falling away from Christ<ref>Hebrews 6:4-6. The Greek word for "fall away" in Hebrews 6:6 is [http://biblehub.com/greek/3895 '''παραπίπτω''' ''parapiptō'' (Strong's number ''3895'')], "to ''fall aside, [[Apostasy|apostatize]]''". See [[Great Apostasy]]</ref>.
===The ''eternal'' covenant of Levitical sacrifice===
The [[Torah]] of Moses declares that the Law of the Lord is an "'''''everlasting covenant'''''", which was first established in [[Genesis]] with [[Noah]] and the bow of the Lord in the clouds<ref>Genesis 9:16</ref>, with [[Abraham]] and the mark of [[circumcision]] in flesh<ref>Genesis 17:7</ref>, and with Moses and the descendants of [[Jacob|Israel/Jacob]] with an everlasting priesthood<ref>Exodus 40:15; Numbers 25:13</ref> having everlasting ordinances and statutes of obedience and an everlasting statute of [[atonement]] for sins<ref>Leviticus 16:34</ref>, and with [[David]]<ref>2 Samuel 23:5</ref> and his house (his descendants) and his throne, a covenant that the L<small>ORD</small> commanded for "a thousand generations, an everlasting covenant"<ref>1 Chronicles 16:14-17. Taking the traditional meaning of a biblical generation as twenty-five years, God established the covenant with Israel for twenty-five thousand years.</ref>.
[[Jeremiah (prophet)|Jeremiah]] declared the word of the Lord that he would "make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah"<ref>Jeremiah 31:31-34</ref>, but nowhere does the prophet say that the covenant they broke was cancelled or "disannulled"<ref>Hebrews 7:18-19 KJV "For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof. For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope ''did''; by the which we draw nigh unto God."</ref>, only that a new covenant would be made. Even St. Paul stated that the Law of Moses was "''established''" by faith in Christ, not done away. "Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law."<ref>Romans 3:31 KJV</ref> Jesus himself declared, "Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach ''them'', the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven."<ref>Matthew 5:17-19</ref>
It is important to emphasize that the covenant God made with Israel at Sinai was binding only on the people of Israel. The Gentiles were not included.
Christian doctrine in the New Testament teaches that ''in the Person of the Incarnate Word of God'', Jesus Christ, Lord and Savior and only-begotten Son of God the Father<ref>John 1:1-4, 14.</ref>, and ''in his blood sacrifice'', all the sacrifices of the Levitical covenant, everlastingly established by an everlasting covenant for a thousand generations, everlastingly ''continue'' to be fulfilled in one unbroken eternal sacrifice without ceasing, forever, in the body of his one unique blood sacrifice of himself as High Priest and Head of the human race on the cross in full reparation for all the outrages committed against the dignity of God and for the redemption of the sins of the whole world<ref>Hebrews 10:1-14</ref>. According to St. Paul, all who are united to him in baptism share in his eternal sacrifice to God<ref>Romans 6:3-11.</ref> in being offered up to God as living sacrifices<ref>Romans 12:1; 15:16</ref>. And in the communion of his body and the communion of his blood<ref>1 Corinthians 10:15-18</ref> all those who believe in him and eat his flesh and drink his blood according to his promise have eternal life<ref>John 6:27-69</ref>, and according to St. Peter they partake of the divine nature<ref>1 Peter 1:3-4</ref>, in a fulfillment of the eating from the altar of sacrifice under the Levitical covenant of Moses in the [[Tabernacle]] and the [[Temple of Jerusalem]]. The prayer of those who have been redeemed from the wrath to come on the ungodly<ref>Matthew 3:7; 1 Thessalonians 1:10</ref> by "pleading the blood of Jesus" contains the reality of offering up humble acknowledgement of the full satisfaction of the sacrifice of Christ in atonement for their souls, in the continuously ongoing and unbroken eternal fulfillment of an everlasting statute of [[atonement]] for sins<ref>Leviticus 16:34</ref>.
==The types of the covenant of sacrifice fulfilled by the antitype of Christ==
The [[Hebrew]] alphabet has no vowels. Every letter is a consonant. Many Hebrew words can be sounded in various ways by the speaker, allowing for latitude in interpretive readings by the speaker. This often presents opportunity to alter the meaning of the reading by changing the sound. Occasionally this can be done as a form of ''[[paronomasia]]'' as a form of humor, but more seriously to open up depths of meaning in the inspired text that traditional readings do not reveal. The ancient [[Hebrew]] text of the Torah which is read in the [[synagogue]] originally had no markings indicating how the words should be pronounced. The Hebrew scriptures normally read aloud with melodic intonation by cantors in the synagogue, who realized their obviously evident potential for clearly manifesting prophetic witness to the arrival of the [[Messiah]] in the person of Jesus of Nazareth, saw in the text opportunities to either support the claims of the Jewish Christians, that the Law and the Prophets and the Psalms testified to Jesus as the Anointed of God, the Prophet foretold by Moses, or to negate and even oppose them by the way the scriptures of Israel were read with intonated inflections that would not suggest such an interpretation. The leading scholars of Israel, distressed by the use of the [[Septuagint]] by the Nazarene sect as an aid in converting the people to belief in Jesus of Nazareth, after the destruction of the temple and the city of Jerusalem, determined to reject it in favor of only those scriptures written in Hebrew or Aramaic, which were written in Palestine before the time of [[Ezra]], and which they believed supported the Torah of Moses. Then after the development of the [[Talmud]], scholars known as [[Masoretes]] set themselves the task of standardizing the intonation of the Hebrew text of the ''Torah'' in particular, and more generally the whole of the more clearly defined Jewish canon of the ''[[Tanakh]]'', so that the people in the synagogue would be spared readings which sounded too clearly like prophecies of Jesus. For this reason various ''diacritical marks'' were added to the text of the scriptures indicating the approved traditional method of intonation and pronunciation in accordance with the traditional readings of Judaism. Also various corrections to the text were made, to remove or revise and correct all readings they considered to be corruptions of the text. The result is known today as the [[Masoretic Text]]. When the Torah, and in particular the book of Leviticus with its regulations of sacrificial offerings to God, is read with the consonantal text only, without the Masoretic diacritical marks, those established and accredited scholars who believe in Jesus, and who truly know the ancient Hebrew language, are easily able to see even more clearly portrayed the vividly evident ''typology'' of Christ Jesus in the scriptures of Israel. The [[connotation]]s of the words [[Denotation|denoting]] each of the sacrifices of Israel as ''types'' of the expected Messiah of Israel are rich with meanings pointing to the Sacrificial High Priestly Lordship of Jesus as the true ''antitype'' of their fulfillment.
===bulls and bullocks===
*[https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6501.htm 6501 '''פרא'''] –wild ass, free man
'''Genesis 2:7; 13:16; Leviticus 14:40-41; Psalm 22:1, 15; 103:14'''
"thou dost lay me in the dust of death"–"My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"–"For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp. Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate." The Hebrew word '''עפר''' can mean both dust, and
bull. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon*[https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6083.htm 6083 '''עפר'''] –dry earth, dust, bull
===lamb, ewe lamb, sacrifice===
Compare Luke 2:33-35; 19:25-26.
===goat, sin offering===
'''Leviticus 3:12-15; 4:24-25; 16:8-27; Numbers 18:17'''
"Himself took our infirmities, and bare ''our'' sicknesses"–"What think ye? They answered and said, He is guilty of death. Then did they spit in his face and buffeted him; and others smote ''him'' with the palms of their hands" Matthew 8:17; 26:66-67. The Hebrew words '''שעיר, עז''' can mean buck, he-goat, he-goat for sin offering, food, sacrificial victim. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/8163.htm 8163 '''שעיר'''] –buck, he-goat, he-goat for sin offering
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/5795.htm 5795 '''עז'''] –food, sacrificial victim
Compare Matthew 27:3-10, 26.
"Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.... But he spake of the temple of his body."–"Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom"–"For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth." John 2:19-21; Matthew 27:50-51a; 12:40. The Hebrew words '''יונה, יין, תור''' can mean dove, pigeon, offerings, mourning, Jonah, banquet, grape, wine, seek out, search, turn, opportunity, adornment, estate, turtledove, a people, a bullock. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
.3123.htm 3123 '''יונה'''] –dove, pigeon, offerings, mourning*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew .3124.htm 3124 '''יונה'''] –prophet Jonah*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew .3196.htm 3196 '''יין'''] –banquet, grape, wine*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew .8446.htm 8446 '''תור'''] –seek out, search*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew .8447.htm 8447 '''תור'''] –turn, opportunity, adornment*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew .8448.htm 8448 '''תור'''] –turn, estate*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew .8449.htm 8449 '''תור'''] –turtledove, a people*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew .8450.htm 8450 '''תור'''] –a bullock
Compare Luke 19:10; Deuteronomy 32:14; Genesis 49:11; Isaiah 63:1-5; 1 Timothy 2:9-10; Romans 13:17; 1 Peter 3:3-4; Ephesians 6:10-17
*[https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5560.htm 5560 '''סלת'''] –fine flour, luxurious food, in king's household, flour (as chipped off) stricken off, ground up, broken.
Compare Isaiah 53:3-6.
===oil, olive oil, beaten, crushed===
'''Exodus 27:20; 29:1-2, 40; 35:14; Deuteronomy 24:20-21'''
"I am the light of the world"–"Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane"–"and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground" John 9:5; Matthew 26:36a; Mark 14:32; Luke 22:44b. The Hebrew '''שמן, כתית, זית'''
words mean oil, beaten, olive, light. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/8081.htm 8081 '''שמן'''] –liquid (as from the olive, often perfumed), richness, anointing, fruitful, oil, olive
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/3795.htm 3795 '''כתית'''] –beaten (oil)
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/2132.htm 2132 '''זית'''] –an olive (as yielding illuminating oil), the tree, the branch, or the fruit, the olive berry
The Greek word '''Γεθσημανή''' means olive press. See Strong's Greek lexicon
*[http://biblehub.com/greek/.htm '''Γεθσημανή'''] –Gethsemane, oil press, olive
press, a garden near the site of Jesus' agony—a combination of '''גת''' and '''שמן'''.
See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/1660.htm 1660 '''גת'''] –press, treading out (wine)-fat, olive press, wine press, for squeezing out liquid
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/8081.htm 8081 '''שמן'''] –liquid, as oil from the olive
===incense, beaten small===
'''Exodus 30:1-10; Leviticus 16:11-28; Numbers 4:16'''
"And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh"–"Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged ''him''. And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put ''it'' on his head, and they put on him a purple robe, And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands. Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him. Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And ''Pilate'' saith unto them, Behold the man! When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, Crucify ''him'', crucify ''him''. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify ''him'': for I find no fault in him. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God."–"And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savour." Matthew 2:11; John 19:1-7; Ephesians 5:2. The Hebrew words '''קטרת''' and '''דקק''' mean incense and crushed to powder. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
'''Leviticus 4:3-12, 15-21; 8:14, 18, 22; 16:21-22; Numbers 19; Deuteronomy 21:1-9'''
"And they that had laid hold on Jesus led ''him'' away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled."–"When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but ''that'' rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed ''his'' hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye ''to it''." Matthew 26:57. The Hebrew word '''יד''' means hand and power. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/3027.htm 3027 '''יד'''] –hand, the ''open'' one, power, means, direction,
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/3028.htm 3028 '''יד'''] –hand, power
Compare Matthew 21:46 KJV; 26:50; Mark 14:46; Luke 20:19; John 7:30; ''see'' 1 Kings 18:44-46 and Mark 1:12 together; 1 Chronicles 28:19 KJV.
[[Bible#The melodies of the Old Testament|Bible: The melodies of the Old Testament]]
[http://www.keyway.ca/htm2000/20000912.htm Type and Antitype, by Wayne Blank (keyway.ca)]