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/* The types of the covenant of sacrifice fulfilled by the antitype of Christ */ revised "would be spared readings which sounded" to "would be spared intonations of the readings which sounded"
'''Typology''' ("''study of types''") refers to the Christian concept of [[Old Testament]] scenes and characters ("type") as foreshadowing those in the [[New Testament]] ("antitype") and was a commonly used device within the broader artform of Christian iconography. It was typically illustrated through the juxtaposition of imagery from the former with that of the latter (type and antitype), for example the depiction of [[King David|David's]] fight with [[Goliath]] mirrored by [[Jesus Christ|Christ's]] resistance to [[Satan]].
Typology was a popular and enduring form of religious illustration and was ubiquitous across Western art throughout the [[Middle Ages]]. It is an important part of Bible [[hermeneutics]].
==Levitical sacrifices as types of Jesus==
===Allusions [[Allusion]]s and paronomasia of meaning===
The narrative accounts of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus in the [[The Gospels]], and in particular the [[Epistle to the Hebrews]], feature numerous direct and indirect quotes and allusions to prophetic types seen in the Old Testament sacrifices commanded in the books of [[Leviticus]] and [[Numbers]]. Typology includes the [[paronomasia]] of the meaning of the particular Hebrew words for the various sacrificial offerings: bulls, bullocks, lambs, goats, doves, pigeons, fine flour, bread, wine, oil, incense, and even the act of laying hands on the sacrifice.
===The ''eternal'' covenant of Levitical sacrifice===
The [[Torah]] of Moses declares that the Law of the Lord is an "'''''everlasting covenant'''''", which was first established in [[Genesis]] with [[Noah]] and the bow of the Lord in the clouds<ref>Genesis 9:16</ref>, with [[Abraham]] and the mark of [[circumcision]] in flesh<ref>Genesis 17:7</ref>, and with Moses and the descendants of [[Jacob|Israel/Jacob]] with an everlasting priesthood<ref>Exodus 40:15; Numbers 25:13</ref> having everlasting ordinances and statutes of obedience and an everlasting statute of [[atonement]] for sins<ref>Leviticus 16:34</ref>, and with [[King David|David]]<ref>2 Samuel 23:5</ref> and his house (his descendants) and his throne, a covenant that the L<small>ORD</small> commanded for "a thousand generations, an everlasting covenant"<ref>1 Chronicles 16:14-17. Taking the traditional meaning of a biblical generation as twenty-five years, God established the covenant with Israel for twenty-five thousand years. The number of years since the Exodus (E) subtracted from 25,000 years of the covenant with Israel at Sinai (T) equals the number of years remaining of the covenant (R) — '''T - E = R'''.</ref>.
[[Jeremiah (prophet)|Jeremiah]] declared the word of the Lord that he would "make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah"<ref>Jeremiah 31:31-34</ref>, but nowhere does the prophet say that the covenant they broke was cancelled or "disannulled"<ref>Hebrews 7:18-19 KJV "For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof. For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope ''did''; by the which we draw nigh unto God."</ref>, only that a new covenant would be made. Even St. Paul stated that the Law of Moses was "''established''" by faith in Christ, not done away. "Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law."<ref>Romans 3:31 KJV</ref> Jesus himself declared, "Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach ''them'', the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven."<ref>Matthew 5:17-19</ref>
It is important to emphasize that the covenant God made with Israel at Sinai was binding only on the people of Israel. The Gentiles were not included.
Christian doctrine in the New Testament teaches that ''in the Person of the Incarnate Word of God'', Jesus Christ, Lord and Savior and only-begotten Son of God the Father<ref>John 1:1-4, 14.</ref>, and ''in his blood sacrifice'', all the sacrifices of the Levitical covenant, everlastingly established by an everlasting covenant for a thousand generations, everlastingly ''continue'' to be fulfilled in one unbroken eternal sacrifice without ceasing, forever, in the body of his one unique blood sacrifice of himself as High Priest and Head of the human race on the cross in full reparation for all the outrages committed against the dignity of God and for the redemption of the sins of the whole world<ref>Hebrews 10:1-14</ref>. According to St. Paul, all who are united to him in baptism share in his eternal sacrifice to God<ref>Romans 6:3-11.</ref> in being offered up to God as living sacrifices<ref>Romans 12:1; 15:16</ref>. And in the communion of his body and the communion of his blood<ref>1 Corinthians 10:15-18</ref> all those who believe in him and eat his flesh and drink his blood according to his promise have eternal life<ref>John 6:27-69</ref>, and according to St. Peter they partake of the divine nature<ref>1 Peter 1:3-4</ref>, in a fulfillment of the ''type'' of the eating from the altar of sacrifice under the Levitical covenant of Moses in the [[Tabernacle]] and the [[Temple of Jerusalem]]. The prayer of those who have been redeemed from the wrath to come on the ungodly<ref>Matthew 3:7; 1 Thessalonians 1:10</ref> by "pleading the blood of Jesus" contains the reality of offering up humble acknowledgement of the full satisfaction of the sacrifice of Christ in atonement for their souls, in the continuously ongoing and unbroken eternal fulfillment of an everlasting statute of [[atonement]] for sins<ref>Leviticus 16:34</ref>.
==The types of the covenant of sacrifice fulfilled by the antitype of Christ==
The [[Hebrew]] alphabet has no vowels. Every letter is a consonant. Many Hebrew words can be sounded in various ways by the speaker, allowing for latitude in interpretive readings by the speaker. This often presents opportunity to alter the meaning of the reading by changing the sound. Occasionally this can be done as a form of ''[[paronomasia]]'' as a form of humor, but more seriously to open up depths of meaning in the inspired text that traditional readings do not reveal. The ancient [[Hebrew]] text of the Torah which is read in the [[synagogue]] originally had no markings indicating how the words should be pronounced. The Hebrew scriptures normally read aloud with melodic intonation by cantors in the synagogue, who realized their obviously evident potential for clearly manifesting prophetic witness to the arrival of the [[Messiah]] in the person of Jesus of Nazareth, saw in the text opportunities to either support the claims of the Jewish Christians, that the Law and the Prophets and the Psalms testified to Jesus as the Anointed of God, the Prophet foretold by Moses, or to negate and even oppose them by the way the scriptures of Israel were read with intonated inflections that would not suggest such an interpretation. The leading scholars of Israel, distressed by the use of the [[Septuagint]] by the Nazarene sect as an aid in converting the people to belief in Jesus of Nazareth, after the destruction of the temple and the city of Jerusalem, determined to reject it in favor of only those scriptures written in Hebrew or Aramaic, which were written in Palestine before the time of [[Ezra]], and which they believed supported the Torah of Moses. Then after the development of the [[Talmud]], scholars known as [[Masoretes]] set themselves the task of standardizing the intonation of the Hebrew text of the ''Torah'' in particular, and more generally the whole of the more clearly defined Jewish canon of the ''[[Tanakh]]'', so that the people in the synagogue would be spared intonations of the readings which sounded too clearly like prophecies of Jesus. For this reason various ''diacritical marks'' were added to the text of the scriptures indicating the approved traditional method of intonation and pronunciation in accordance with the traditional readings of Judaism. Also various corrections to the text were made, to remove or revise and correct all readings they considered to be corruptions of the text. The result is known today as the [[Masoretic Text]]. When the Torah, and in particular the book of Leviticus with its regulations of sacrificial offerings to God, is read with the consonantal text only, without the Masoretic diacritical marks, those established and accredited scholars who believe in Jesus, and who truly know the ancient Hebrew language, are easily able to see even more clearly portrayed the vividly evident ''typology'' of Christ Jesus in the scriptures of Israel. The [[connotation]]s of the words [[Denotation|denoting]] each of the sacrifices of Israel as ''types'' of the expected Messiah of Israel are rich with meanings pointing to the Sacrificial High Priestly Lordship of Jesus as the true ''antitype'' of their fulfillment.
===bulls and bullocks===
'''Genesis 2:7; 13:16; Leviticus 14:40-41; 17:13; Psalm 22:1, 15; 103:14; Ezekiel 24:7; Numbers 4:3-14'''
"thou dost lay me in the dust of death"–"My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"–"For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp. Wherefore Jesus also, that he might [[Holy|sanctify ]] the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate." Psalm 22:15; Psalm 22:1 / Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34; Hebrews 13:11-12a. The Hebrew word '''עפר''' can mean both dust, and the covering over of blood that was shed. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 6083 '''עפר'''] –dry earth, dust, covering over
'''Exodus 27:20; 29:1-2, 40; 35:14; Deuteronomy 24:20-21; Isaiah 49:6'''
Oil was light, a source of light. "I am the light of the world"–"Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane"–"and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground" John 9:5; Matthew 26:36a; Mark 14:32; Luke 22:44b. The Hebrew words '''שמן, כתית, זית''' words mean oil, beaten, olive, light. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 8081 '''שמן'''] –liquid (as from the olive, often perfumed), richness, anointing, fruitful, oil, olive
*[ 3795 '''כתית'''] –beaten (oil)
===incense, beaten small===
'''Exodus 30:1-10; Leviticus 8:18-21; 16:11-28; Numbers 4:16'''
"And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh"–"Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged ''him''. And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put ''it'' on his head, and they put on him a purple robe, And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands. Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him. Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And ''Pilate'' saith unto them, Behold the man! When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, Crucify ''him'', crucify ''him''. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify ''him'': for I find no fault in him. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God."–"And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savour." Matthew 2:11; John 19:1-7; Ephesians 5:2. The Hebrew words '''קטרת''' and '''דקק''' mean incense and crushed to powder. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
'''Leviticus 4:3-12, 15-21; 8:14, 18, 22; 16:21-22; Numbers 19; Deuteronomy 21:1-9'''
"And they that had laid hold on Jesus led ''him'' away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled."–"When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but ''that'' rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed ''his'' hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye ''to it''." Matthew 26:57; 27:24. The Hebrew word '''יד''' means hand and power; the word '''סמך''' means to lay (hands on). See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 3027 '''יד'''] –hand, the ''open'' one, power, means, direction,
*[ 3028 '''יד'''] –hand, power
*[ 5564 '''סמך'''] –to lean, lay, rest, support, lay (hands on the sacrifice), take hold of
Compare Matthew 21:46 KJV; 26:50; Mark 14:46; Luke 20:19; John 7:30; ''see'' 1 Kings 18:44-46 and Mark 1:12 together; 1 Chronicles 28:19 KJV.
===Passover, remembering, in remembrance, ''anamnesis'' and ''mneme''===
'''Exodus 13:3; 20:8; 28:29; Leviticus 2:16; 17:4; Deuteronomy 5:15'''
"This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me"–"And when he had given thanks, he brake ''it'', and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also ''he took'' the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do you, as oft as ye drink ''it'', in remembrance of me"–"But in those ''sacrifices there is'' a remembrance again ''made'' of sins every year." Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 11:24-25; Hebrews 10:3. The Hebrew words '''זכר, זכרון''' mean mark, male, burn, commemoration, memorial, Zeker, most noteworthy male remembered, manchild, memorial, record. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 2142 '''זכר'''] –mark (this), to remember, mention, to be male, burn (incense), bring to remembrance
*[ 2143 '''זכר'''] –a memento, recollection, commemoration, memorial, memory, remembrance, '''scent'''<ref>Compare 2 Corinthians 2:14-16; Ephesians 5:2 - KJV "savour", aroma. [[Medicine]] has established that strong memories, even vividly intense "flashbacks", can be induced by aromas, pleasant or unpleasant. Conversely, a picture of a past event can years later induce in the viewer who was present at the time the vivid sensation of aromas smelled on that occasion just as vividly as if they are truly present there again.</ref>
*[ 2144 '''זכר'''] –Zeker, an Israelite name
*[ 2145 '''זכר'''] –remembered, most noteworthy male, him, man (child, -kind)
*[ 2146 '''זכרון'''] –memento, memorable (thing, day, writing), memorial, record
The Greek words '''άναμιμνήσκω, άνάμνησις, μιμνήσκω, μνεία, μνήμα, μνημείον, μνήμη''' mean remembrance, commemoration, recollection, recital, memorial, memory, make (vividly) present, reliving (again)
*[ 363 '''άναμιμνήσκω'''] –remind, recollect, mind (bring to mind, call to mind, put in mind of), remember, remembrance
*[ 364 '''άνάμνησις'''] –recollection, remembrance (again), bring to the present, make (vividly) present, reliving (again)<ref>"bring to the present, make vividly present, reliving (again)" is a meaning included in most authoritative Greek-English lexicons of the 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st centuries but not included by James Strong in the appendix to his 19th century [[Strong's|Concordance]], ''A Concise Dictionary of the Words in the Greek/New Testament with their Renderings in the King James Version'' and its later updates. <br>See [ '''Lexica (Lexicons) for Students of the Greek NT''' (]. Also, the [[Typology#Anamnesis|External links "Anamnesis"]] of this article, below.</ref>
*[ 3403 '''μιμνήσκω'''] –remind, to recall to mind, be mindful, remember
*[ 3417 '''μνεία'''] –recollection, recital, mention, remembrance
*[ 3418 '''μνήμα'''] –memorial, monument (burial-place), grave, sepulcher, tomb
*[ 3419 '''μνημείον'''] –a remembrance, cenotaph (place of interment), grave, sepulcher, tomb
*[ 3420 '''μνήμη'''] –memory, remembrance, recall
Compare interlinear texts of
*[ Luke 22:19] and [ commentaries];
*[ 1 Corinthians 11:24] and [ commentaries];
*[ Hebrews 10:3] and [ commentaries]
==See also==
[[Bible#The melodies of the Old Testament|Bible: The melodies of the Old Testament]]
[[Epistles of Ignatius#Witness to belief in transubstantiation in the early church|Epistles of Ignatius: Witness to belief in transubstantiation in the early church]]
[ Type and Antitype, by Wayne Blank (]
[ A Study of Biblical Types, by Wayne Jackson (]
[ Types in Scripture (]
[ The 5 Levitical Offerings (]
[ The Five Offerings Of Leviticus 1–7, Chart And Outline, Raymond K. Campbell (]
[ Leviticus and the True Sacrifice, by Peter Kwasniewski (]
[ Rabbi Lawrence A. Hoffman, Ph.D. Life and a Little Liturgy. '''911: Remembering How We Remembered''' (] —''anamnesis'' and ''zakar'' making the past present.
[ The Lord's Supper and The Concept of ''Anamnesis'', Ray Carlton Jones, Jr., Canton Lutheran Church, Canto, South Dakota - Word & World 6/4 (1986) (] pdf
[ All This in Remembrance: The History & Revelation of Anamnesis in Platonic, Jewish & Christian Thought, by Folke T. Olafsson - Touchstone Magazine (]
[ Anamnesis (Christianity) - Wikipedia]
[ Transubstantiation and the Real Presence, by Matt Slick - Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (] —"''the Roman Catholic view is a violation of Levitical law...It is a violation of the incarnation...the Lord's Supper is not a sacrifice of Christ''". Matt Slick cites Leviticus 17:4 as a prohibition against eating blood ''in any form'' which was still in effect before the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus.
[ Anamnesis - Q+A (] pdf ''Lutheran article'' —"''Rev. Dr. Frank C. Senn has written,'' “This Greek word is practically untranslatable in English. 'Memorial', 'commemoration', 'remembrance' all suggest a recollection of the past, whereas ''ananamnesis'' means making present an object or person from the past. Sometimes the term 're-actualization' has been used to indicate the force of ''anamnesis''.” "
[ The Institution of the Mass - Catholic Answers (] —"[The Church] ''does not teach that the Mass is a re-crucifixion of Christ.''"
[ Anamnesis (] —''making the past present''. Citing the expertise of C.F. Evans, Darwell Stone, Stephen Beale, D.R. Jones, Buchanan Grey, Dom Gregory, Westcott, Ignatius, Justin, Irenaeus, James Barr, Mercea Eliade, D.R. Davies, J.D. Crichton, George Guiver CR, Dom Ode Casel, Käsemann, John Jewel, Hooker, Colin Buchanan, and ''The Anglo-Roman Catholic International Commission'' (ARCIC).
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