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John Marshall

29 bytes added, January 13
... as a merchant (not a farmer) ...
'''John Marshall''' (1755-1835) was the [[United States Supreme Court]]'s most influential [[Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court|Chief Justice]]. [[Homeschooled]] for his education, Marshall became a leading [[Federalist Party|Federalist]] and was appointed by President [[John Adams]] as [[Secretary of State]] and then Chief Justice.
He is a [[liberal]] icon who received preferential treatment by biographers and law school professors for more than a century, until historian Paul Finkelman uncovered that '''''John Marshall actually owned hundreds of slaves as a merchant (not a farmer) and even bought and sold them throughout his life'''''.<ref name="Finkelman">https://www.post-gazette.com/ae/books/2018/03/04/Book-review-Supreme-Injustice-Slavery-in-the-Nation-s-Highest-Court/stories/201803040009</ref> John Marshall repeatedly held in favor of slave owners and even overturned a precedent in favor of slaves in international waters, and on Marshall's death he granted freedom to his slaves only if they migrated to Africa, which none or almost none of his slaves wanted to do, so they remained enslaved.<ref name="Finkelman"/> In contrast, Marshall let the murderer [[Aaron Burr]] walk free by presiding over his trial for [[treason]] and giving the [[jury]] restrictive instructions.
Marshall founded the [[Virginia]] chapter of the American Colonization Society, a racist organization that sought to send free blacks, sometimes through coercion, to [[Africa]] where many died. Marshall helped slave-owners by his opposition to allowing free blacks to remain, as was their right, in the [[United States]], because that undermined [[slavery]]. Marshall's Will did not allow any of his slaves to be emancipated on his death unless they migrated to Africa.
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