Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
This Amendment was passed by Congress and proposed to the states in 1866, but was not ratified by the states until 1868, and whether the ratification was proper continues to be questioned. New Jersey, Oregon and Ohio rescinded their ratification of this Amendment, and North Carolina, Louisiana and South Carolina all rejected the Amendment initially before ratifying it later. The U.S. Supreme Court has used this Amendment to invent new rights, such as abortion and a separation of church and state, which were never intended by those who drafted or ratified it.