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50,745 bytes removed, 12:39, 27 December 2008
Undo revision 594958 by [[Special:Contributions/CarlThomas|CarlThomas]] ([[User talk:CarlThomas|Talk]])
{{pp-semi|small=yes|expiry=December 29, 2008}}{{For|[[Image:Bride and groom signing the music record labelbook.jpg|Marriage Records}}{{redirectthumb|Married|the radio comedy programme|Married (radio series)}}{{redirect6|Matrimony|the sacrament or liturgical rite in Christianity|Christian views of marriage|the card game|Matrimony (solitaire)}}{{Close Relationships}}{{Family law}}{{POV|date=September 2008}}350px]]'''Marriage''' is a socialthe divinely ordained union between one man and one woman, ordained by [[religion|religiousGod]]. (Genesis 2:24) It has been practiced as such by just about every culture across geographical locations and time. <ref> "Because there is a natural complementarity between men and women - sexual, emotional, temperamental, spiritual - marriage allows for a wholeness and a completeness that cannot be won in any other way. ([[spirituality|spiritualBill Bennett]], or [[law|legal]] union of individuals.<!-- This is ''controversialThe Broken Hearth''. Do not change this without first reaching consensus on the talk page. --, Page 197) </ref> This union may also Marriage is intended to be called '''matrimony'''a life-long commitment, while the ceremony that marks its beginning is usually called and typically requently this involves a public commitment (a [[wedding]] ) where vows are exchanged to each other and the married status created is sometimes called '''wedlock'''before God.
Marriage is an [[institution]] in which [[interpersonal relationship]]s (usually [[intimacy|intimateDinesh D'Souza]] wrote::Marriage requires a) two people who are b) of legal age and [[human sexual behavior|sexual]]c) not closely related to each other who are acknowledged by the [[state]]d) one male and one female. Note that this definition excludes people who want to marry children, by religious authorityor guys who want to marry their sisters, or bothMuslims who want to take four wives, or that strange guy who wants to marry his dog. It is often viewed as a <ref> [[contract]]http://townhall. Civil marriage is the legal concept of marriage as a governmental institution, in accordance with [[marriage lawcom/columnists/DineshDSouza/2008/05/19/gay_rights_vs_democracy Gay Rights vs. Democracy]]s of the jurisdiction. If recognized by the state, by the religion(s) to which the parties belong or by society in general, the act of marriage changes the personal and social status of the individuals who enter into it.</ref>
People marry for many reasons, but usually one The unity between a man and a woman in marriage is a picture or more analogy of the following: legalrelationship that God desires to have with his creation. The first marriage occurred nearly 6, social, and economic stability; 000 years ago in the formation of a family unit; [[reproduction|procreationGarden of Eden]] and , in the education and nurturing area of children; legitimizing sexual relations; public declaration of [[love]]; or to obtain citizenshipthe world that we now know as the Ancient Near East.<ref>{{cite book|The first=James Ecouple was Adam and Eve.|last=Krier|coauthors=Gregory S. Alexander, Michael H. Schill, Jesse Dukeminier|title=Property|publisher=Aspen Publishers|year=2006|isbn=0735557926}}
Excerpt - page 335[[Bill Bennett]] wrote: '... at the wedding; hence :Based as it is on the importance principle of including in the marriage ceremony the words[[complementarity]], marriage is also about a great deal more than love. That "With great deal" encompasses, above all my worldly goods I thee endow, [[procreation]]."The timeless function of marriage is childbearing and child-rearing, and the best arrangement ever developed to that end is the marital union between one man and one woman ...'</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=What is Marriage For? ''The Public Purposes of Marriage Law|accessdate=2007-01-08|last=Gallagher|first=Maggie|year=2002|publisher=Louisiana law review|format=PDF}}Broken Hearth'', Page 197)</ref>
Marriage may take [[types of marriages|many forms]]==Biblical marriage advice==1 Corinthians 7: for example1-16:{{cquote|Now concerning the things about which you wrote, it is good for a union between one man not to touch a woman. But because of immoralities, each man is to have his own wife, and one each woman as [[is to have her own husband]] . The husband must fulfill his duty to his wife, and [[likewise also the wife]] is a [[monogamy|monogamous]] [[heterosexuality|heterosexual]] marriage; [[polygamy]]{{ndash}} in which a person takes more than one [[spouse]]{{ndash}} is common in some [[society|societies]]to her husband.<ref name=Murdoch>{{cite book|first=George Peter|last=Murdock|authorlink=George Peter Murdock|title=Social Structure|publisher=The MacMillan Company|location=New York|year=1949|isbn=0-02-922290-7}} See wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does; and likewise also: [[Kaingang]]the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does.</ref> RecentlyStop depriving one another, some jurisdictions<ref>Arceexcept by agreement for a time, Rose. ''Massachusetts court upholds sameso that you may devote yourselves to prayer, and come together again so that Satan will not tempt you because of your lack of self-sex marriage''control. Feb. 6But this I say by way of concession, 2004. [ CNN]not of command. Retrieved Feb. 17Yet I wish that all men were even as I myself am However, 2007each man has his own gift from God, one in this manner, and another in that.</ref> But I say to the unmarried and [[religious denomination|denomination]]s<ref name="pewforum">{{cite web|title=Religious Groups' Official Positions on Same-Sex Marriage|url=http://pewforumto widows that it is good for them if they remain even as||accessdate=2008-10But if they do not have self-16}}</ref><ref name="NYT UCC SSM">{{cite news|title=United Church of Christ Backs Same-Sex Marriage|url=http://wwwcontrol, let them marry; for it is better to marry than to burn with passion.nytimesBut to the married I give instructions, not I, but the Lord, that the wife should not leave her husband (but if she does leave, she must remain unmarried, or else be reconciled to her husband), and that the husband should not divorce his to the rest I say, not the Lord, that if any brother has a wife who is an unbeliever, and she consents to live with him, he must not divorce her.html|author=Shaila Dewan|date=July 5And a woman who has an unbelieving husband, 2005|publisher=[[The New York Times]]|accessdate=2008-10-16}}</ref><ref name="UUA BGLT">{{cite web|title=Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations BLGT Community guide|url=http://wwwand he consents to live with her, she must not send her husband away.uuaFor the unbelieving husband is sanctified through his wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified through her believing husband; for otherwise your children are unclean, but now they are|accessdate=2008-10-16}}</ref> have begun to recognize [[same-sex marriage]]Yet if the unbelieving one leaves, uniting people of let him leave; the [[homosexuality|same sex]]brother or the sister is not under bondage in such cases, but God has called us to peace.For how do you know, O wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, O husband, whether you will save your wife?}}
A marriage is often formalized during a [[wedding|marriage ceremony]],<ref>{{cite book|first=Schick|last=Eleanor|titleModern marriage licenses=Navajo Wedding Day: A Dine Marriage Ceremony|publisher=Cavendish ChildrenIn present-day America, 's Books|year=1999|isbn=0761450319}}</ref> which may be performed either by getting married' typically involves a religious officiant, marriage license issued by a the [[secularity|secularstate]] [[government]] State authorised officiator, or a subdivision thereof (in weddings that have no church or state affiliatione.g., a county) by a trusted friend of the wedding participants. The act of marriage usually creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved andHowever, marriage licenses are nowhere mentioned in many societiesScripture; in fact, their extended familiesthey are a relatively recent innovation and originally applied only to marriages that were otherwise forbidden.<ref>Information on marriage licenses from Mercy Seat Christian Church []</ref>
Article 16 ==Attacks on the institution of marriage==Any society which lessened the [[Universal Declaration sanctity of Human Rights]] declares that "Men marriage has perished. Ancient Rome's decline and women of full age, without any limitation fall was due in no small part to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriagegrowing tolerance of extramarital sex, during marriage and at its dissolution. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses." The particularly [[Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islamhomosexual acts]] gives men and women the "right to marriage" regardless of their race, colour or nationality, but not religion.
==History=={{seealso|History of civil marriage in In the U.S.|Timeline of sameJudeo-sex marriage}}{{Expand|date=July 2008}}The way in which a marriage Christian tradition, there is conducted has changed over time, as has the institution itself. Although the institution of marriage pre-dates reliable no room for [[recorded historysexual intercourse]], many cultures have legends other than between man and wife. Anything which tolerates or religious beliefs concerning the permits [[origins of marriagepromiscuity]]weakens society.<ref>{{cite book|title=The History of Human Marriage|last=Westermarck|first=Edward Alexander|publisher=[[Macmillan Publishers|Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London]]|year=1903|isbn=1402185480 (reprint)fact}}</ref>
===European marriages===[[Image:Brauysegen im Bett.gif|thumb|right|A woodcut Since the middle of a medieval [[wedding]] ceremony the 20th century, activists have sought to destroy the societal pressures that dissuade people from engaging in extramarital sex. Removing the stigma from premarital sex, creating no-fault divorce laws, exalting adultery as "stimulating", and especially de-stigmatizing [[Germanyhomosexuality]]all weaken the institution of marriage.]]
For most of European history, marriage was more or less a business agreement between two families who arranged the marriages of their children. Romantic love, and even simple affection, were not considered essential.<ref name=psychologyTodayHistory>[ psychology today on the history of marriage]</ref> In fact at some times, too much affection in a marriage was considered a sin{{Fact|date=December 2008}}. Stress about the necessity of marriage has historically been a nearly universal source of stress.<ref name=magnusHirschfeldSexology>[ Magnus Hirschfeld Archive of Sexology]</ref> In Ancient Greece, no specific civil ceremony was required for the creation of a marriage - only mutual agreement and the fact that the couple must regard each other as husband and wife accordingly.<ref>[ history for kids Greek Marriage]</ref> Men usually married when they were in their 20s or 30s<ref>[ Ancient Greek Marriage]</ref> and expected their wives to be in their early teens. It has been suggested that these ages made sense for the Greek because men were generally done with military service by age 30, and marrying a young girl ensured her virginity.<ref name=richEastGreekMarriage>[ Greek Marriage]</ref> Married Greek women had few rights in ancient Greek society and were expected to take care of the house and children.<ref>[ Greek Marriage from]</ref> Time was an important factor in Greek marriage. For example there were superstitions that being married during a [[full moon]] was good luck and, according to [[Robert Flacelière]], Greeks married in the winter.<ref name=richEastGreekMarriage/> Like with the Greeks, [[Roman marriage]] and divorce required no specific government or religious approval.<ref name="magnusHirschfeldSexology" /> Both marriage and divorce could happen by simple mutual agreement.<ref name="magnusHirschfeldSexology" /> There were several types of marriages in Roman society. The traditional ("conventional") form called A recent ''conventio in manumNewsweek'' required a ceremony with witnesses and was also dissolved with a ceremony.<ref name="magnusHirschfeldSexology" /> In this type of marriage, a woman lost her family rights of inheritance of her old family and gained them with her new one. She now was subject to the authority of her husband.<ref name=romanEmpireMarriage>[ roman marriage]</ref> There was the free marriage known as ''sine manu''. In this arrangement, the wife remained a member of her original family; she stayed under the authority of her father, kept her family rights of inheritance with her old family and didn't gain any with the new family. <ref name="romanEmpireMarriage" /> The first recorded use of the word "marriage" for the union of same-sex couples also occurs during the Roman Empire. The term, however, was rarely associated with same-sex relationships, even though the relationships themselves were common.<ref>Suetonius ''Life of Nero'' 28-29; Martial ''Epigrams'' 1.24, 12.42; etc.</ref> In the year 342, the Christian emperors [[Constantius II|Constantius]] and [[Constans]] declared same-sex marriage to be illegal.{{Fact|date=December 2008}} From the [[early Christian]] era (30 to 325 CE), marriage was thought of as primarily a private matter, with no religious or other ceremony being required. Until 1545, Christian marriages in [[Europe]] were by mutual consent, declaration of intention to marry and upon the subsequent physical union of the parties. <ref name=upennExcerptFromBook>[ Excerpt from Marriage, Sex, and Civic Culture in Late Medieval London] "''the sacramental bond of marriage could be made only through the freely given consent of both parties''"</ref><ref name=marriageDotAbout>[]</ref> The couple would promise verbally to each other article complains that they would be married to each other; the presence of a priest or witnesses was not required.<ref>[ Marriage Records]</ref> This promise was known as the "verbum." If freely given and made in the present tense (e.g., "I marry you"), it was unquestionably binding;<ref name="upennExcerptFromBook" /> if made in the future tense ("I will marry you"), it would constitute a [[betrothalBiblical figures]]. One of the functions of churches from the [[Middle Ages]] was to register marriages, which was not obligatory. There was no state involvement in marriage and personal status, with these issues being adjudicated in [[ecclesiastical courts]]. Whereas the rape of male citizens was outlawed in the 100s CE, gay marriage was outlawed in the mid-300s by two of Constantine the Great's sons, [[Constantius II]] and [[Constans]]. While Constans was later denounced for having male lovers, emperors continued the condemnation of homosexuality. For example, a law decreed in 390 required any man "taking a women's role" in sex was to be burned to death.<ref>[ History News on Romans and the Gay-Marriage Debate]</ref> In the 12th century, aristocrats believed love was incompatible with marriage and sought romance in adultery.<ref name="psychologyTodayHistory" /> [[Troubadors]] invented [[courtly love]] which involved secret but [[chaste]] trysts between a lover and a beloved.  The average age of marriage in the late 1200s into the 1500s was around 25 years of age.<ref>Schofield, Phillipp R. 2003. Peasant and community in Medieval England, 1200-1500. Medieval culture and society. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan. p 98.</ref> Beginning in the 1500s it was unlawful for a woman younger than 20 years of age to marry.<ref>{{cite book|last=Spitz|first=Lewis|title=(The Rise of modern Europe) The protestant Reformation 1517-1559.|publisher=Harper Torchbooks|year=1987|pages=9|isbn=0061320692}}</ref><ref name="marriageDotAbout" /> As part of the [[Counter-Reformation]], in 1545 the [[Council of Trent]] decreed that a [[Roman Catholic]] marriage would be recognized only if the marriage ceremony was officiated by a priest with two witnesses. The Council also authorized a [[Catechism]], issued in 1566, which defined marriage as, "The conjugal union of man and woman, contracted between two qualified persons, which obliges them to live together throughout life."<ref>{{cite book|last=Witte Jr.|first=John|title=From Sacrament to Contract: Marriage, Religion, and Law in the Western Tradition|publisher=Westminster John Knox Press|year=1997|pages=39–40|isbn=0664255434}}</ref> Since England broke with Rome in 1534, this change did not extend to the regions affected by the [[Protestant Reformation]], where marriage by consent continued to be the norm. As part of the Reformation, the role of recording marriages and setting the rules for marriage passed to the state. By the 1600s many of the [[Protestantism|Protestant]] European countries had a state involvement in marriage. ====State recognition====In the [[early modern period]], [[John Calvin]] and his [[Protestant]] colleagues reformulated Christian marriage by enacting the Marriage Ordinance of Geneva, which imposed "The dual requirements of state registration and church consecration to constitute marriage"<ref>{{cite book|last=Witte Jr.|first=John|title=From Sacrament to Contract: Marriage, Religion, and Law in the Western Tradition|publisher=Westminster John Knox Press|year=1997|pages=91|isbn=0664255434}}</ref> for recognition. In [[England]] and [[Wales]], Lord Hardwicke's [[Marriage Act 1753]] required a formal ceremony of marriage, thereby curtailing the practice of [[Fleet Marriage]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=The Scottish Case That Led to Hardwicke's Marriage Act|last=Leneman|first=Leah|year=1999|publisher=Law and History Review}}</ref> These were clandestine or irregular marriages performed at Fleet Prison, and at hundreds of other places. From the 1690s until the Marriage Act of 1753 as many as 300,000 clandestine marriages were performed at Fleet Prison alone.<ref>{{cite book|title=For Better, for Worse: British Marriages, 1600 to the Present|last=Gillis|first=John R.|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=019503614X|year=1985|url=|pages=92}}</ref> The Act required a marriage ceremony to be officiated by an Anglican priest in the [[Anglican Church]] with two witnesses and registration. The Act did not apply to Jewish marriages or those of Quakers, whose marriages continued to be governed by their own customs. In England and Wales, since 1837, civil marriages have been recognised as a legal alternative to church marriages under the [[Marriage Act 1836]]. In [[Germany]], civil marriages were recognised in 1875. This law permitted a declaration of the marriage before an official clerk of the civil administration, when both spouses affirm their will to marry, to constitute a legally recognised valid and effective marriage, and allowed an optional private clerical marriage ceremony. ===Chinese marriage==={{main|Chinese marriage}} The mythological origin of Chinese marriage is a story about [[Nüwa]] and [[Fu Xi]] who invented proper marriage procedures after becoming married.  In ancient Chinese society, people of the same surname were not supposed to marry and doing so was seen as incest. However, because marriage to one's maternal relatives was not thought of as incest, families sometimes intermarried from one generation to another. Over time, Chinese people became more geographically mobile. Couples were married in what is called an extra-clan marriage, better known as [[antithetic marriage]]. This occurred around 5000 BC. According to modern Chinese scholars of a Marxist persuasion, matriarchy prevailed in society at that time, therefore husbands needed to move to, and live with, their wives’ families. Yet individuals remained members of their biological families. When a couple died, the husband and the wife were buried separately in the respective clans’ graveyard. In a maternal marriage, a male would become a son-in-law who lived in the wife’s home. This happened in the transformation of antithetic marriage into monogamy, which signifies the decline of matriarchy and the growing dominance of patriarchy in the ancient China. ==Selection of a partner=={{main|Arranged marriage|Forced marriage}}[[Image:Lodewijk XIV-Marriage.jpg|thumb|left|200px|An arranged marriage between [[Louis XIV]] of France and [[Maria Theresa of Spain]]]] The selection of a marriage partner may involve either the couple going through a selection process of [[courtship]] or the marriage may be [[arranged marriage|arranged]] by the couple's parents or an outside party, a [[matchmaker]]. A pragmatic (or 'arranged') marriage is made easier by formal procedures of family or group politics. A responsible authority sets up or encourages the marriage; they may, indeed, engage a professional [[matchmaking|matchmaker]] to find a suitable spouse for an unmarried person. The authority figure could be parents, family, a religious official, or a group consensus. In some cases, the authority figure may choose a match for purposes other than marital harmony. Some of the most popular uses of arranged marriage are for [[dowry]] or [[immigration]]. In rural Indian villages, [[child marriage]] is also practiced, with parents at times arranging the wedding, sometimes even before the child is born. This practice is now illegal under the Child Marriage Restraint Act. In some societies ranging from [[Central Asia]] to the [[Caucasus]] to [[Africa]], the custom of [[bride kidnapping]] still exists, in which a woman is captured by a man and his friends. Sometimes this covers an [[elopement]], but sometimes it depends on [[sexual violence]]. In previous times, ''[[raptio]]'' was a larger-scale version of this, with groups of women captured by groups of men, sometimes in war; the most famous example is [[The Rape of the Sabine Women]], which provided the first citizens good historical examples of Rome with their wives. Other marriage partners are more or less imposed on an individual. For example, [[widow inheritance]] provides a widow with another man from her late husband's brothers. ==Marriage ceremony=={{main|Wedding}}[[Image:Shinto married couple.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Couple married in a Shinto ceremony in Takayama, Gifu prefecture.]] A marriage is usually formalised at a [[wedding]] or marriage ceremony.<ref>{{cite book|first=Schick|last=Eleanor|title=Navajo Wedding Day: A Dine Marriage Ceremony|publisher=Cavendish Children's Books|year=1999|isbn=0761450319}}</ref> The ceremony may be officiated either by a religious official, by a government official or by a state approved celebrant. In many European and some Latin American countries, any religious ceremony must be held separately from the required civil ceremony. Some countries{{ndash}} such as [[Belgium]], [[Bulgaria]], the [[Netherlands]] and [[Turkey]]<ref>{{PDFlink|[ Turkish Civil and Penal Code Reforms from a Gender Perspective: The Success of two Nationwide Campaigns]|6.21&nbsp;[[Mebibyte|MiB]]<!-- application/pdf, 6518326 bytes -->}} (p. 18)</ref>{{ndash}} require that a civil ceremony take place before any religious one. In some countries{{ndash}} notably the [[United States]], [[Canada]], the [[United Kingdom]], the [[Republic of Ireland]], [[Norway]] and [[Spain]]{{ndash}} both ceremonies can be held together; the officiant at the religious and civil ceremony also serving as agent of the state to perform the civil ceremony. To avoid any implication that the state is "recognizing" a religious marriage (which is prohibited in some countries){{ndash}} the "civil" ceremony is said to be taking place at the same time as the religious ceremony. Often this involves simply signing a register during the religious ceremony. If the civil element of the religious ceremony is omitted, the marriage is not recognised by government under the law. While some countries, such as [[Australia]], permit marriages to be held in private and at any location, others, including [[England and Wales]], require that the civil ceremony be conducted in a place open to the public and specially sanctioned by law. In England, the place of marriage need no longer be a church or registry office, but could also be a hotel, historic building or other venue that has obtained the necessary licence. An exception can be made in the case of marriage by special emergency license, which is normally granted only when one of the parties is terminally ill. Rules about where and when persons can marry vary from place to place. Some regulations require that one of the parties reside in the locality of the registry office. Within the parameters set by the law of the jurisdiction in which a marriage or wedding takes place, each religious authority has rules for the manner in which weddings are to be conducted by their officials and members. ==Cohabitation=={{seealso|cohabitation}}Marriage is an institution which can join together people's lives in a variety of [[emotion]]al and [[economics|economic]] ways. In many Western cultures, marriage usually leads to the formation of a new household comprising the married couple, with the married couple living together in the same home, often sharing the same bed, but in some other cultures this is not the tradition.<ref>{{cite book|last=Rosenblatt|first=Paul C.|title=Two in a Bed: The Social System of Couple Bed Sharing|year=2006|publisher=State University of New York Press|url=|isbn=0-7914-6829-1}}</ref> Among the [[Minangkabau]] of [[West Sumatra]], residency after marriage is [[matrilocality|matrilocal]], with the husband moving into the household of his wife's mother.<ref>{{cite book|last=Sanday|first=Peggy Reeves|title=Women at the center: life in a modern matriarchy|publisher=Cornell University Press|year=2002|isbn=0-8014-8906-7}}</ref> Residency after marriage can also be [[patrilocal]] or [[avunculocal residence|avunculocal]]. Also, in southwestern China, [[walking marriage]]s, in which the husband and wife do not live together, have been a traditional part of the [[Mosuo]] culture.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Lu|first=Yuan|coauthors=Sam Mitchell|title=Land Of The Walking Marriage - Mosuo people of China|journal=[[Natural History (magazine)|Natural History]]|month=November|year=2000|publisher=[[American Museum of Natural History]]}}</ref> Walking marriages have also been increasingly common in modern [[Beijing]]. Guo Jianmei, director of the center for women's studies at Beijing University, told a [[Newsday]] correspondent, "Walking marriages reflect sweeping changes in Chinese society."<ref>{{cite news|last=Gargan|first=Edward A.|title=China's New Brides Put Freedom First / All perks, no work in 'walking marriages'|pages=A.04|publisher=[[Newsday]]|date=2001-03-19}}</ref> A similar arrangement in [[Saudi Arabia]], called [[Nikah Misyar|misyar marriage]], also involves the husband and wife living separately but meeting regularly.<ref>{{cite news|last=Karam|first=Souhail|title=Misyar offers marriage-lite in strict Saudi society|publisher=[[Reuters]]|date=[[July 21]], [[2006]]|url=}}</ref> Conversely, marriage is not a prerequisite for [[cohabitation]]. In some cases couples living together do not wish to be recognised as married, such as when pension or alimony rights are adversely affected, or because of taxation consideration, or because of immigration issues, and for many other reasons. In some cases cohabitation may constitute a common-law marriage, and in some countries the laws recognise cohabitation in preference to the formality of marriage for taxation and social security benefits. This is the case, for example, in [[Australia]].<ref>[ Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 - Sect 995.1(1)]: ""spouse" of a person includes a person who, although not legally married to the person, lives with the person on a genuine domestic basis as the person's husband or wife."</ref> ==Sex and procreation==Marriage typically requires [[Consummate|consummation]] by [[sexual intercourse]], and non-[[consummation]] (grounds that is, failure or refusal to engage in sex) may be grounds for an [[annulmentAbraham]].<ref>For example, begot [[John RuskinIshmael]]’s failed marriage to [[Effie Gray]].</ref> There are some married couples who remain childless either [[childfree|by choice]] or due to [[infertility]] or other factors preventing [[Conception (biology)|conception]] or bearing of children. In some cultures, marriage imposes an ''obligation'' on women to bear children. In northern [[Ghana]], for example, payment of [[bridewealth]] signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, maidservant and women using birth control face substantial threats of physical abuse and reprisals.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Bawah|first=AA.|coauthors=Akweongo P, Simmons R, Phillips JF.|title=Women's fears and men's anxieties: the impact of family planning on gender relations in northern Ghana.|journal=Studies in Family Planning|volume=30|issue=1|pages=54–66|publisher=Population Council|year=1999|url=|id=ISSN: 0039-3665|format=PDF|doi=10.1111/j.1728-4465.1999.00054.x}}</ref> On the other hand, marriage is not a prerequisite for having children, and having children outside of marriage is today not as uncommon as it used to be. In the United States, the National Center for Health Statistics reported that in 1992, 30.1 percent of births were to unmarried women.<ref>{{cite book|last=Jones|first=Richard E.|coauthors=Kristin H. Lopez|title=Human Reproductive Biology, Third Edition|publisher=[[Academic PressJacob]]|year=2006|isbn=0120884658}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Ventura|first=SJ.|title=Births to unmarried mothers: United States, 1980–92.|publisher=National Center for Health Statistics|year=1995|url=|isbn=0-8406-0507-2|format=PDF}}</ref> In 2006, that number had risen to 38.5 percent.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Teenage Birth Rate Rises for First Time Since ’91"|publisher=New York Times|date=2007-12-06}}</ref> Until recently, children born outside of marriage were termed [[illegitimate]] and suffered legal disadvantages and [[stigma (sociological theory)|social stigma]]. In recent years the legal relevance of illegitimacy has declined and social acceptance increased, especially in western countries. Many of the world's major religions look with disfavor on [[sexual intercourse|sexual relations]] outside of marriage.<ref>{{cite web|author=Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance|date=2006-12-31|url=|title=Human sexuality and gender topics: Subjects of major concern to many faith groups||accessdate=2007-02-04}}</ref> Sexual relations by a married person with someone other than his/her spouse is normally called [[adultery]], and is also frequently disapproved by the major world religions (some calling it a [[sin]]), and has often been - in some jurisdictions continues to be - a crime and grounds for divorce. (See [[adultery]].) ==Marriage law=={{main|marriage law}}===Rights and obligations===[[Image:V03p128a01 Ketubah.jpg|thumb|right|150px|A [[Ketubah]] in Aramaic, a Jewish marriage-contract outlining the duties of each partner.]]{{seealso|Rights and responsibilities of marriages in the United States}}A marriage, by definition, bestows rights and obligations on the married parties, and sometimes on [[kinship|relatives]] as well, being the sole mechanism for the creation of [[affinity (law)|affinal ties]] (in-laws). These may include:*giving a husband/wife or his/her family control over a spouse’s sexual services, labor, and property.*giving a husband/wife responsibility for a spouse’s debts.*giving a husband/wife visitation rights when his/her spouse is incarcerated or hospitalized.*giving a husband/wife control over his/her spouse’s affairs when the spouse is incapacitated.*establishing the second [[legal guardian]] of a parent’s child.*establishing a [[joint property|joint fund of property]] for the benefit of children.*establishing a relationship between the families of the spouses.These rights and obligations vary considerably between societies, and between groups within society.<ref>{{cite book|last=Leach|first=Edmund|editor=Paul Bonannan and John Middleton|title=Marriage, Family, and Residence|publisher=The Natural History Press|year=1968|isbn=1121644708}}</ref> ===Marriage restrictions==={{main|Marriage law#Marriage restrictions}}Marriage is an institution that is historically filled with restrictions. From age, to gender, to social status, restrictions are placed on marriage by society for reasons of passing on healthy genes, to keep property concentrated, or (in some historical cases) because of prejudice and fear. Some [[legal]], [[society|social]], or [[religion|religious]] restrictions apply in some countries on the genders of the couple. In response to changing social and political attitudes, some jurisdictions and [[religious denomination]]s now recognize marriages between people of the same sex. In some jurisdictions these are sometimes called [[civil union]]s or [[domestic partnership]]s, while some others explicitly prohibit same-sex marriages. Societies have often placed restrictions on marriage to relatives, though the degree of prohibited relationship varies widely. In most societies, marriage between brothers and sisters has been forbidden. All mainstream religions prohibit some marriages on the basis of the [[consanguinity]] (lineal descent) and [[affinity (law)|affinity]] (kinship by marriage) of the prospective marriage partners, though the standards vary. Historically, there have been countless restrictions placed on marriage by different societies. Restrictions against polygamy and marrying within a particular group or race have been common. Many societies, even some with a cultural tradition of polygamy, recognize [[monogamy]] as the only valid form of marriage. Many societies have also adopted other restrictions on whom one can marry, such as prohibitions of marrying persons with the same surname, or persons with the same sacred animal. Societies have also at times required marriage from within a certain group. Anthropologists refer to these restrictions as [[endogamy]]. An example of such restrictions would be a requirement to marry someone from the same tribe. ===State recognition==={{main|Marriage law#State recognition}}In many jurisdictions, a civil marriage may take place as part of the religious marriage ceremony, although they are theoretically distinct. Some jurisdictions allow civil marriages in circumstances which are notably not allowed by particular religions, such as [[same-sex marriagetwo wives]]s or [[civil union]]s. Marriage relationships may also be created by the operation of the law alone, as in [[common-law marriage]], sometimes called "marriage by habit and repute."  The status in the eyes of one authority may not be the same as for another, e.g., a marriage may be recognised civilly, but not by a church, and vice versa.{{Fact|date=November 2008}} ==Marriage and religion=={{See also|Christian views of marriage|Islamic marital jurisprudence|Buddhist view of marriage|Marriage in Hinduism|Jewish views of marriage}}[[Image:St Mary's Church, Kyoto.jpg|thumb|Christian wedding in [[Kyoto]], [[Japan]].]][[Image:Israëls-A Jewish Wedding-1903.jpg|thumb|left|A Jewish wedding, painting by [[Jozef Israëls]], 1903.]] All mainstream religions have strong views relating to marriage. Most religions perform a wedding ceremony to solemnize the beginning of a marriage. Some regard marriage as simply a contract, while others regard it as a sacred institution. [[Liturgy|Liturgical]] Christian communions - notably [[Anglicanism]], [[Catholicism]], and [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Orthodoxy]] - consider marriage (sometimes termed ''holy matrimony'') to be an expression of [[divine grace]], termed a ''[[sacrament]]'' or ''[[Sacred Mysteries|mystery]]''. In [[Western Rite|Western ritual]], the ministers of the sacrament are the husband and wife themselves, sons with a [[bishop]], [[priest]], or [[deacon]] merely witnessing the union on behalf of the church, and adding a blessing. In [[Eastern Rite|Eastern ritual churches]], the bishop or priest functions as the actual minister of the Sacred Mystery (Eastern Orthodox deacons may not perform marriages). Western Christians commonly refer to marriage a [[vocation]], while Eastern Christians consider it an [[ordination]] and a [[martyr]]dom, though the theological emphases indicated by the various names are not excluded by the teachings of either tradition. Marriage is commonly celebrated in the context of a [[Eucharist]]ic service (a [[nuptial Mass]] or [[Divine Liturgy]]). The sacrament of marriage is indicative of the relationship between [[Christ]] and the Church ({{bibleverse||Ephesians|5:29-32|KJV}}), yet most Reformed Christians would deny the elevation of marriage to the status of a sacrament, nevertheless it is considered a covenant between spouses before God. (cf. [[Ephesians]] 5:31-33) In [[Judaism]], marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved.<ref>({{bibleverse|Deuteronomy||24:1|JP}})</ref> Though procreation is not the sole purpose, a Jewish marriage is also expected to fulfill the commandment to have children.<ref>({{bibleverse|Genesis||1:28|JP}})</ref> The main focus centers around the relationship between the husband and wife. [[Kabbalah|Kabbalistically]], marriage is understood to mean that the husband and wife are merging together into a single soul. This is why a man is considered "incomplete" if he is not married, as his soul is only one part of a larger whole that remains to be unified.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Why Marry?|accessdate=2007-12-19|publisher=[[]]}}</ref> See [[Jewish views of marriage]]. [[Image:Muslim wedding in India.jpg|200px|thumb|A Muslim couple being wed alongside the [[Tungabhadra River]] at [[Hampi]], [[India]].]][[Image:Hindu marriage ceremony offering.jpg|thumb|left|Hindu marriage ceremony from a [[Rajput]] wedding.]] [[Islam]] also commends marriage, with the age of marriage being whenever the individuals feel ready, financially and emotionally, for marriage. According to [[Shia Islam]] [[Islamic marital jurisprudence|marriage]] doesn't require any witness or official statement or presence in a definite place.<ref>[ Witnesses for Marriage]</ref> To create a religious contract between them, it is sufficient that a man and a woman indicate an intention to marry each other and recite the requisite words.<ref>[ The method of pronouncing the marriage formula]</ref><ref>[ Marriage formula]</ref> A couple can live with each other as a family without an official contract. Of course there are some criteria which should be observed; for example, the woman should be single.<ref>[ Conditions of pronouncing Nikah]</ref><ref>[ Women with whom matrimony is Haraam]</ref> In the [[Bahá'í Faith]] marriage is encouraged and viewed as a mutually strengthening bond, but is not obligatory. A [[Bahá'í marriage]] requires the couple to choose each other, and then the consent of all living parents.<ref name="oneworld">{{cite encyclopedia |last=Smith |first=Peter |encyclopedia=A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith |title=Marriage |year=2000 |publisher=Oneworld Publications |location=Oxford |id=ISBN 1-85168-184-1 |pages=p. 232-233}}</ref> [[Hinduism]] sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both religious and social obligations. Old Hindu literature in [[Sanskrit]] gives many different types of marriages and their categorization ranging from "Gandharva Vivaha" (instant marriage by mutual consent of participants only, without any need for even a single third person as witness) to normal (present day) marriages, to "Rakshasa Vivaha" (marriage performed by abduction of one participant by the other participant, usually, but not always, with the help of other persons). For the most part, religious traditions in the world reserve marriage to heterosexual unions, but there are exceptions including [[Unitarian Universalist]], [[Metropolitan Community Church]], and [[Quaker]], [[United Church of Canada]] and [[Reform Judaismconcubine|Reform Jewishservants]] congregations.<ref>"World Religions and Same Sex Marriage", Marriage Law Project, [[Columbus School of Law]] at The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, July 2002 revision {{PDFlink|[]|84.1&nbsp;[[Kibibyte|KiB]]<!-- application/pdf, 86202 bytes -->}}</ref><ref name=united>[ Affirming Congregations and Ministries of the United Church of Canada]</ref> ==Financial considerations==The financial aspects of marriage vary between cultures and have changed over time.  In some cultures, dowries and bride prices continue to be required today. In both cases, the financial arrangements are usually made between the groom (or his family) and the bride's family; with the bride in many cases not being involved in the arrangement, and often not having a choice in whether to participate in the marriage. In [[Early Modern Britain]], the social status of the couple was supposed to be equal. After the marriage, all the property (called "fortune") and expected inheritances of the [[wife]] belonged to the husband. ===Dowry==={{main|dowry}}A [[dowry]] was not an unconditional gift, but was usually a part of a wider marriage settlement. For example, if the groom had other children, they could not inherit the dowry, which had to go to the bride's children. In the event of her childlessness, the dowry had to be returned to her family, but sometimes not until the groom's death or remarriage. Often the bride was entitled to inherit at least as much as her dowry from her husband's estate.{{Fact|date=October 2007}} In some cultures, dowries continue to be required today, while some countries impose restrictions on the payment of dowry. ===Bride price and dower===In other cultures, the groom or his family were expected to pay a [[bride price]] to the bride's family for the right to marry the daughter, or [[dower]], which was payable to the bride. This required the groom to work for the bride's family for a set period of time. In the Jewish tradition, the rabbis in ancient times insisted on the marriage couple entering into a marriage contact, called a ''[[ketubah]]''. Besides other things, the ''ketubah'' provided for an amount to be paid by the husband in the event of a [[get (divorce document)|divorce]] or his estate in the event of his death. This amount was a replacement of the biblical [[dower]] or [[bride price]], which was payable at the time of the marriage by the groom to the bride or her parents.{{Fact|date=October 2007}}<ref>See article also {{bibleverse||Exodus|22:15-16|HE}}.</ref> This innovation was put in place because the biblical bride price created a major social problem: many young prospective husbands could not raise the bride price at the time when they would normally be expected to marry. So, to enable these young men to marry, the rabbis, in effect, delayed the time that the amount would be payable, when they would be more likely to have the sum. It may also be noted that both the dower and the ''ketubah'' amounts served the same purpose: the protection for the wife should her support cease, either by death or divorce. The only difference between the two systems was the timing of the payment. It is the predecessor to the wife's present-day entitlement to criticizes [[alimony|maintenanceJesus]] in the event of the breakup of marriage, and family maintenance in the event of the husband not providing adequately for the wife in his [[will]]St. Another function performed by the ''ketubah'' amount was to provide a disincentive for the husband contemplating divorcing his wife: he would need to have the amount to be able to pay to the wife. [[Morning giftPaul]]s, which might also be arranged by the bride's father rather than the bride, are given to the bride herself; the name derives from the Germanic tribal custom of giving them the morning after the wedding night. She might have control of this morning gift during the lifetime of her husband, but is entitled to it when widowed. If the amount of her inheritance is settled by law rather than agreement, it may be called [[dower]]. Depending on legal systems and the exact arrangement, she may not be entitled to dispose of it after her death, and may lose the property if she remarries. Morning gifts were preserved for many centuries in [[morganatic marriage]], a union where the wife's inferior social status was held to prohibit her children from inheriting a noble's titles or estates. In this case, the morning gift would support the wife and children. Another legal provision for widowhood was [[jointure]], in which property, often land, would be held in joint tenancy, so that it would automatically go to the widow on her husband's death.Islamic tradition has similar practices. A '[[mahr]]', either immediate or deferred, is the woman's portion of the groom's wealth (divorce) or estate (death). These amounts are usually set based on the groom's own and family wealth and incomes, but in some parts these are set very high so as to provide a disincentive for the groom exercising the divorce, or the husband's family 'inheriting' a large portion of the estate, especially if there are no male offspring from the marriage. In some countries, including Iran, the [[mahr]] or alimony can amount to more than a man can ever hope to earn, sometimes up to US$ 1000,000 (4000 official Iranian gold coins). If the husband cannot pay the [[mahr]], either in case of a divorce or on demand, according to the current laws in Iran, he will have to pay it by installments. Failure to pay the [[mahr]] might even lead to imprisonmentremaining single.<ref>[ A translation of some parts of the Civil Code of Iran]<id/ref> ===Modern customs===In many countries today, each marriage partner has the choice of keeping his or her property separate or combining properties. In the latter case, called [[community property]], when the marriage ends by [[divorce]] each owns half. In many legal jurisdictions, laws related to property and [[inheritance]] provide by default for property to pass upon the death of one party in a marriage firstly to the spouse and secondly to the children. [[Will (law)|Will]]s and [[trust law|trust]]s can make alternative provisions for property succession. In some legal systems, the partners in a marriage are "jointly liable" for the debts of the marriage. This has a basis in a traditional legal notion called the "Doctrine of Necessities" whereby a husband was responsible to provide necessary things for his wife. Where this is the case, one partner may be sued to collect a debt for which they did not expressly contract. Critics of this practice note that debt collection agencies can abuse this by claiming an unreasonably wide range of debts to be expenses of the marriage. The cost of defence and the burden of proof is then placed on the non-contracting party to prove that the expense is not a debt of the family. The respective maintenance obligations, both during and eventually after a marriage, are regulated in most [[jurisdiction]]s; [[alimony]] is one such method. Some have attempted to analyse the institution of marriage using economic theory; for example, [[anarcho-capitalist]] economist [[David D. Friedman|David Friedman]] has written a lengthy and controversial study of marriage as a market transaction (the market for husbands and wives).<ref> [http:172653/page/ The Economics of Love and Marriage]</ref> ===Taxation===In some countries, spouses are allowed to average their incomes; this is advantageous to a married couple with disparate incomes. To compensate for this somewhat, many countries provide a ''higher'' [[tax bracket]] for the averaged income of a married couple. While income averaging might still benefit a married couple with a stay-at-home spouse, such averaging would cause a married couple with roughly equal personal incomes to pay more total tax than they would as two single persons. This is commonly called the [[marriage penalty]]. Moreover, when the rates applied by the tax code are not based on averaging the incomes, but rather on the ''sum'' of individuals' incomes, higher rates will definitely apply to each individual in a two-earner households in progressive tax systems. This is most often the case with high-income taxpayers and is another situation where some consider there to be a marriage penalty. Conversely, when progressive tax is levied on the individual with no consideration for the partnership, dual-income couples fare much better than single-income couples with similar household incomes. The effect can be increased when the welfare system treats the same income as a shared income thereby denying welfare access to the non-earning spouse. Such systems apply in Australia and Canada, for example. ===Other considerations===Sometimes people marry for purely pragmatic reasons, sometimes called a [[marriage of convenience]] or sham marriage. For example, according to one publisher of information about "green card" marriages, "Every year over 450,000 United States citizens marry foreign-born individuals and petition for them to obtain a permanent residency (Green Card) in the United States."<ref>[ United States Immigration - Green Card Through Marriage]</ref> While this is likely an over-estimate, in 2003 alone 184,741 immigrants were admitted to the U.S. as spouses of U.S. citizens.<ref>{{PDFlink|[ Immigration to the United States: Fiscal years 1820-2003]|2.03&nbsp;[[Mebibyte|MiB]]<!--application/pdf, 2129780 bytes-->}}</ref> ==Termination==In most societies, the [[death]] of one of the partners terminates the marriage, and in monogamous societies this allows the other partner to remarry, though sometimes after a waiting or mourning period. Many societies also provide for the termination of marriage through [[divorce]]. Marriages can also be [[annulment|annulled]] in some societies, where an authority declares that a marriage never happened. In either event the people concerned are free to remarry (or marry). After divorce, one spouse may have to pay [[alimony]]. Several cultures have practiced temporary and conditional marriages. Examples include the [[Celt]]ic practice of [[handfasting]] and fixed-term marriages in the Muslim community. Pre-Islamic Arabs practiced a form of temporary marriage that carries on today in the practice of [[Nikah Mut'ah]], a fixed-term marriage contract. [[Muslim controversies related to Nikah Mut'ah]] have resulted in the practice being confined mostly to [[Shi'a Islam|Shi'ite]] communities. == Post-Marital Residence == Early theories explaining the determinants of postmarital residence (e.g., [[Lewis Henry Morgan]], [[Edward Tylor]], or [[George Peter Murdock]]) connected it with the sexual division of labor. However, to date, [[cross-cultural]] tests of this [[hypothesis]] using worldwide samples have failed to find any significant relationship between these two variables. However, [[Korotayev]]'s tests show that the female contribution to subsistence does correlate significantly with matrilocal residence in general; however, this correlation is masked by a general polygyny factor. Although an increase in the female contribution to subsistence tends to lead to matrilocal residence, it also tends simultaneously to lead to general non-sororal [[polygyny]] which effectively destroys [[matrilocality]]. If this polygyny factor is controlled (e. g., through a multiple [[regression]] model), division of labor turns out to be a significant predictor of postmarital residence. Thus, Murdock's hypotheses regarding the relationships between the sexual division of labor and postmarital residence were basically correct, though, as has been shown by Korotayev, the actual relationships between those two groups of variables are more complicated than he expected (see, e.g., [[Korotayev]] A. [ Form of marriage, sexual division of labor, and postmarital residence in cross-cultural perspective: A reconsideration. Journal of anthropological research ISSN 0091-7710. 2003, Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 69-89], [[Korotayev]] A. [ Division of Labor by Gender and Postmarital Residence in Cross-Cultural Perspective: A Reconsideration. Cross-Cultural Research. 2003, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp.335-372] DOI: 10.1177/1069397103253685). In modern societies we observe a trend toward the [[neolocal]] residence (see, e.g., Marriage, Family, and Kinship: Comparative Studies of Social Organization, by [[Melvin Ember]] and [[Carol R. Ember]]. New Haven: [[HRAF]] Press, 1983). ==Contemporary views on marriage=====Criticisms==={{main|Criticism of marriage}}Many people have proposed arguments against marriage for various reasons. These include political and religious criticisms, pragmatic reference to the [[divorce rate]], as well as [[celibacy]] for religious or philosophical reasons. ===Controversial views===Some views about marriage are controversial. Advocates of same-sex rights criticize the exclusion of homosexual relationships from legal and social recognition and the rights and obligations it provides. At the same time advocates of the [[traditional marriage movement]] oppose any attempt to define marriage to include anything other than the union of one man and one woman, claiming that to do so would "deprive the term of its fundamental and defining meaning."<ref>{{cite press release|title=Same-Sex Marriage|publisher=Rabbinical Council of America|date=2004-03-30|url=}}</ref> ==See also=={{wikiquote}}*[[Age at first marriage]]*[[Age disparity in sexual relationships]]*[[Feminism]]*[[List of people with longest marriages]]*[[Marriage privatization]]*[[Men's Rights]]*[[Misandry]]*[[Radical Feminism]]*[[Sexual conflict]]*[[Types of marriages]] ===Related concepts===<!--If you provide a short description of some of these, do it for all. Otherwise, eliminate the descriptions altogether.--><!--I see no reason why this list should not include links that are otherwse buried in the text.-->*[[Adultery]] - Sexual intercourse between a married person and a partner other than the lawful spouse.*[[Alimony]] - obligation of support.*[[Annulment]] - legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void.*[[Aufruf]] - A ceremony in which Jews pelt the couple to be married with candy on the [[Shabbat]] before the wedding.*[[Betrothal]] - formal state of engagement to be married.*[[Brideservice]]*[[Child marriage]]*[[Chinese marriage]]*[[Christian views of marriage]] - views of Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and others*[[Civil marriage]] - marriages which are constituted by a government official and not a religious congregation.*[[Divorce]] - ending of a marriage.*[[Engagement]]*[[Family therapy]]/[[Relationship counseling]]*[[Free love]] - a social movement opposed to marriage*[[Head and Master laws]]*[[Husband]]/[[Wife]]*[[Human sexuality]]*[[Human sexual behavior]]*[[Hypergamy]]*[[Inheritance]]*[[Islamic marital jurisprudence]]*[[Living apart together]]*[[Mail-order bride]]*[[Marriage (conflict)]]*[[Marriage gap]]*[[Marriage in the United States]]*[[Marriage law]]*[[Marriageable age]]*[[Monogamy]]/[[Polygamy]]*[[Nikah urfi]]*[[Legal separation|Separation]] - a step in the ending of a marriage.*[[Social unit]]*[[Wedding]]*[[Wedding ring]]
==External linksSee also=={{Wiktionary|marriage}}{{Commonscat}}*[ A review] of John Boswell's ''Same-Sex Unions in Pre-Modern Europe''*[ African Marriage Rituals]*{{cite book|title=For Better, for Worse: British Marriages, 1600 to the Present|last=Gillis|first=John R.|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=019503614X|year=1985|url=}}*[ 'Forever and a Day' or 'Just One Night'?] On Adaptive Functions Form of Long-Term and Short-Term Romantic Relationships*{{cite web|url=|title=Legal Regulation of Marital Relations: An Historical and Comparative Approach{{ndash}} Gautier 19 (1): 47{{ndash}} International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family|accessdate=2007-06-13|format=|work=}}*[ "Marriage – its various forms and the role Solemnization of the State"] on [[BBC Radio 4]]’s [[In Our Time (BBC Radio 4)|''In Our Time''Matrimony]] featuring Janet Soskice, Frederik Pedersen and Christina Hardyment*{{cite web|url=|title=Radical principles and the legal institution an example of marriage: domestic relations law and social democracy in Sweden {{ndash}} Bradley 4 (2): 154{{ndash}} International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family|accessdate=2007-06-13|format=|work=}}*[ Recordings] & [ Photos] from a [[College Historical Society]] debate on the role of traditional marriage in modern life, featuring Senator [[David Norris]] and Senator [[Ronan Mullen]].service*[ Remarriage]*[http://Civil The National Marriage Project] at [[Rutgers University]] <br>{{Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights}} <!--Categories-->[[Category:Family]][[Category:Marriage| ]][[Category:Mating]][[Category:Demography]][[Category:Old French loanwords]]
<!==External Links==*[ What Liberals Say --Other languages-->Category: Marriage], [[Accuracy In Media]]
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