Reverted edits by [[Special:Contributions/Rlogan|Rlogan]] ([[User talk:Rlogan|Talk]]) to last version by [[User:DanielPulido|DanielPulido]]
==Soviet national liberation movement==
[[Edgar Snow]] introduced Mao and [[Zhou Enlai]] to American readers in 1937 in his book, ''Red Star Over China'', shortly after the [[Chinese Red Army]]
was forced out of its base in Jiangxi province by [[Chiang Kai-shek] ] [pinyin spelling=Jiang Jieshi] in 1934 and their year long retreat to [[ Yunnan]] known as the [[Long March]] . The CCP set off with 100,000 people. Over the next year, they would trek 6000 miles over mountains, swamps and deserts. According to John Fairbank's ''China A New History' page 305'somewhere between 4000 and 8000 of the marchers actually reached Yunnan province. However, Mao alleged that the Long March served as a "seeding machine" to spread Communist ideas around China. Snow wrote, "The political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the [[Communist International]], which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of [[Soviet Russia]], under the leadership of [[Stalin]]."<ref>Red Star Over China by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.</ref> However, in early 1935, after a series of disastrous defeats under the leadership of the so-called "28 Bolsheviks" - Chinese communists trained in Moscow - Mao gained the leadership of the CCP. From then on, for better or for worse, he pursued a policy that was more independent of Moscow. (Fairbank 307, 310). That being said, the Comintern's influence over the CCP is clearly shown in 1936. During the conflict between the CCP and Chiang Kaishek's Guomindang, the Japanese had begun taking over Chinese territory. In 1931 they annexed Manchuria. Between 1931 and 1936 they took over the rest of China's northernmost provinces and were at the gates of Beijing. In 1936, Zhang Xueliang, the former leader of Manchuria, who was frustrated at what he saw as Chiang Kaishek's inaction in the face of the Japanese threat, kidnapped Chiang Kaishek at Xian and turned him over to the Communists. At the instigation of the Comintern, instead of executing their arch-enemy, the Communists won a propaganda victory by making an alliance with him (Fairbank 310). From 1937-1944 the CCP and the Guomindang (GMD) fought together against the Japanese in the "Second United Front". At the end of the war, the USA tried hard to get the CCP and GMD to work together to form a coalition government (Fairbank 330), but the civil war quickly broke out again.