'''`s-Hertogenbosch''' (old Dutch for "the Duke's Wood"; or ''Bois-le-Duc'' in French, ''Herzogenbusch'' in [[German]]) is the capital of the southern Dutch province of [[North Brabant]]. It is also known by the unofficial name "'''Den Bosch'''". `s-Hertogenbosch gained its city rights in 1185, it was an important center in the [[Middle Ages]] and as late as the sixteenth century was the second-largest city in the present [[Netherlands]]. It suffered during the [[History of the Netherlands#Dutch Revolt 1568-1648|Dutch Wars of Independence]], and later in the 19th century from blinkered municipal authorities who forbade industrial or educational development in the city. This has, however, led to the preservation of an antique townscape which has made `s-Hertogenbosch a tourist center. The most notable tourist attractions are the St. John's Cathedral and the "Bossche bol" (a large chocolate pastry filled with whipped cream).