The Loyal Nine

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The Loyal Nine, sometimes referred to as Loyall Nine, were nine patriot colonists who first got together in response to the Stamp Act. The Loyal Nine became the Sons of Liberty.[1]

The Loyal Nine

They were:[2][3][4]
John Avery, a distiller and club secretary;
John Smith and Stephen Cleverly, both braziers;
Thomas Crafts, a printer;
Benjamin Edes, who along with John Gill produced the important Boston Gazette;
Thomas Chase, a distiller;
Joseph Field, a ship's captain;
George Trott, a jeweler;
Henry Bass, a merchant related to Samuel Adams

Resignation of Andrew Oliver

Following the enactment of the Stamp Act, there were several riots and disturbances.[5] Through all of this, one colonial shoemaker named Ebenezer Mackintosh was able to force Andrew Oliver to publicly issue a promise to resign. This was not sufficient for the Loyal Nine.

Oliver's promise was not deemed decisive enough, so the Loyal Nine agreed to meet at "Liberty Hall" where they planned to secure a public resignation under oath. Oliver's resignation was duly carried out on December 17. "We do everything," added the merchant a little anxiously, "to keep this and the first affair private; and are not a little pleased to hear that Mackintosh has the credit of the whole affair. We endeavor to keep up the Spirit which I think is as great as ever." The Sons of Liberty, composed of Boston workingmen, performed the actual work of violence. It is perhaps not without significance that their regular meeting-place was the counting-room of a distillery; and John Adams records that, when he was invited to attend one night, he found there two distillers, a ship captain, the printer of the popular organ and four mechanics.[5]


  1. The Formation of the Sons of Liberty. Massachusetts Historical Society.
  2. (2000) Thomas Hutchinson and the Origins of the American Revolution. NYU Press, 69. 
  3. (2015) History Bytes: 37 People, Places, and Events that Shaped American History. Lulu, 26. 
  4. (2001) A True Republican: The Life of Paul Revere. Univ of Massachusetts Press, 43. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Schlesinger (1918). The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 1763-1776, Volume 78. Columbia University, 71.